List of unsolved
problems in
Philosophy
By: Raquel D. Bernabe –Ed.D-IEM
Professor: Dr. Gabriel Sicam
Objectives
Discuss the ff:
• List of Un resolve Problems in Philosophy
A. Aesthetics
B. Epistemology
C. Ethics
D. Philosop...
“What is the
meaning of life?
Where did we come
from?
What is reality?
Aesthetics
• Essentialism
• In art, essentialism is the idea that
each medium has its own particular
strengths and weaknes...
Epistemology
• Epistemological problems are
concerned with the nature, scope
and limitations of knowledge.
Epistemology ma...
Molyneux problem
• The Molyneux problem dates back to the
following question posed by William
Molyneux to John Locke in th...
Infinite regression

• Overlooking for a moment the
complications posed by Gettier
problems,
philosophy
has
essentially co...
Münchhausen Trilemma

• purports that it is impossible to
prove any certain truth even in
fields such as logic and
mathema...
Qualia
• The question hinges on whether color is a
product of the mind or an inherent property
of objects. While most phil...
Ethics
• Moral luck
• The problem of moral luck is that some
people are born into, live within, and
experience circumstanc...
Moore's disbelief
• Although this problem has received
relatively little attention, it intrigued
philosopher Ludwig Wittge...
Mathematical objects
• What
are numbers, sets, groups, points, etc.? Are
they real objects or are they simply
relationship...
Sorites paradox
• Otherwise known as the "paradox of the
heap", the question regards how one defines a
"thing." Is a bale ...
Counterfactuals
• A counterfactual is a statement that follows
this form: "If Joseph Swan had not invented
the modern inca...
Material implication

• People have a pretty clear idea
what if-then means. However,
in formal logic, if-then is defined
b...
Mind-body problem

• the problem of determining the
relationship between the human
body and the human mind.
Philosophical ...
Cognition and AI
• This problem actually defines a field,
however its pursuits are specific and easily
stated. Firstly, wh...
Thank’s for Listening!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

List of unsolved problems in philosophy by: Raquel dela Cruz, EdD-IEM

629 views

Published on

Philosophys Education

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
629
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

List of unsolved problems in philosophy by: Raquel dela Cruz, EdD-IEM

  1. 1. List of unsolved problems in Philosophy By: Raquel D. Bernabe –Ed.D-IEM Professor: Dr. Gabriel Sicam
  2. 2. Objectives Discuss the ff: • List of Un resolve Problems in Philosophy A. Aesthetics B. Epistemology C. Ethics D. Philosophy of Language E. Philosophy of Mind
  3. 3. “What is the meaning of life?
  4. 4. Where did we come from?
  5. 5. What is reality?
  6. 6. Aesthetics • Essentialism • In art, essentialism is the idea that each medium has its own particular strengths and weaknesses, contingent on its mode of communication. How expandable is your database storage?
  7. 7. Epistemology • Epistemological problems are concerned with the nature, scope and limitations of knowledge. Epistemology may also be described as the study of knowledge.
  8. 8. Molyneux problem • The Molyneux problem dates back to the following question posed by William Molyneux to John Locke in the 17th century: if a man born blind, and able to distinguish by touch between a cubeand a globe, were made to see, could he now tell by sight which was the cube and which the globe, before he touched them?
  9. 9. Infinite regression • Overlooking for a moment the complications posed by Gettier problems, philosophy has essentially continued to operate on the principle that knowledge is justified true belief.
  10. 10. Münchhausen Trilemma • purports that it is impossible to prove any certain truth even in fields such as logic and mathematics. According to this argument, the proof of any theory rests either on circular reasoning, infinite regress, or unproven axioms.
  11. 11. Qualia • The question hinges on whether color is a product of the mind or an inherent property of objects. While most philosophers will agree that color assignment corresponds to light frequency, it is not at all clear whether the particular psychological phenomena of color are imposed on these visual signals by the mind, or whether such qualia are somehow naturally associated with theirnoumena.
  12. 12. Ethics • Moral luck • The problem of moral luck is that some people are born into, live within, and experience circumstances that seem to change their moral culpability when all other factors remain the same.
  13. 13. Moore's disbelief • Although this problem has received relatively little attention, it intrigued philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein when G. E. Moore presented it to the Moral Science Club at Cambridge.[citation needed] The statement "Albany is the capital of New York, but I don't believe it" is not necessarily false, but it seems to be unassertable.
  14. 14. Mathematical objects • What are numbers, sets, groups, points, etc.? Are they real objects or are they simply relationships that necessarily exist in all structures? Although many disparate views exist regarding what a mathematical object is, the discussion may be roughly partitioned into two opposing schools of thought: platonism, which asserts that mathematical objects are real, and formalism, which asserts that mathematical objects are merely formal constructions.
  15. 15. Sorites paradox • Otherwise known as the "paradox of the heap", the question regards how one defines a "thing." Is a bale of hay still a bale of hay if you remove one straw? If so, is it still a bale of hay if you remove another straw? If you continue this way, you will eventually deplete the entire bale of hay, and the question is: at what point is it no longer a bale of hay? While this may initially seem like a superficial problem, it penetrates to fundamental issues regarding how we define objects. This is similar to Theseus' paradox and the Continuum fallacy.
  16. 16. Counterfactuals • A counterfactual is a statement that follows this form: "If Joseph Swan had not invented the modern incandescent light bulb, then someone else would have invented it anyway." People use counterfactuals every day; however, its analysis is not so clear. Swan, after all, did invent the modern incandescent light bulb, so how can the statement be true, if it is impossible to examine its correspondence to reality?
  17. 17. Material implication • People have a pretty clear idea what if-then means. However, in formal logic, if-then is defined by material implication, which is not consistent with the common understanding of conditionals.
  18. 18. Mind-body problem • the problem of determining the relationship between the human body and the human mind. Philosophical positions on this question are generally predicated on either a reduction of one to the other, or a belief in the discrete coexistence of both.
  19. 19. Cognition and AI • This problem actually defines a field, however its pursuits are specific and easily stated. Firstly, what are the criteria for intelligence? What are the necessary components for definingconsciousness? Secondly, how can an outside observer test for these criteria? The "Turing Test" is often cited as a prototypical test of consciousness, although it is almost universally regarded as insufficient.
  20. 20. Thank’s for Listening!

×