Combat Against Casino Frauds


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  • Reference: Casino Security and Gaming Surveillance Handbook
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  • Combat Against Casino Frauds

    1. 1. Combat Against Casino Frauds
    2. 2. AgendaIntroductionPopular Casino GamesDemonstration of BlackjackTypes of FraudTypes of CollusionNews and ArticlesTechnologies used in Casinos Information to KnowledgeSharing Information / KnowledgeConclusion
    3. 3. Casino over the years… "Casino" in Italian means a small country villa or summerhouse
    4. 4. What is gambling? BlackjackGambling Poker Roulette
    5. 5. Popular Destinations Monte Carlo Casino
    6. 6. Popular Destinations Lisboa – Macau
    7. 7. Popular Destinations Bellagio – Las Vegas
    8. 8. Casino Security Financial Security Surveillance Casino SecurityRules of Conduct and Transmission SecurityBehavior for players
    9. 9. Popular Casino Games
    10. 10. BaccaratBaccarat is a traditional casino game thatoriginated in Italy. You bet your hand will win
    11. 11. BaccaratIf the banker’s hand wins He retains the shoe If your hand wins The shoe passes to you from the banker
    12. 12. Roulette Players may choose to place bets on either a number, a range of numbers, the colour red or black, or whether the number is odd or even. Each bet has a different pay-out based on the odds of winning losing with that particular game. To determine the winning number and colour, an attendant spins a wheel one way, then spins a ball the opposite way around a circular track running around the edge of the wheel.
    13. 13. Roulette The ball eventually will lose speed and fall on to the wheel and into one of the numbers on the wheel. Before the wheel is spun you place a bet on a number, range of numbers, colour, or whether the number will be odd or even. Some of these bets are less likely to hit, so if you hit for example a single number, you will get a big payoff. On the other hand if you place a bet on whether the number will be red or black, then you have a 50/50 shot at getting that correct, so the payoff is only 1:1.
    14. 14. Blackjack Blackjack is one of the most popular and exciting casino games around. 1 2 3When playing Then you and "Blackjack" occursblackjack you the dealer get when the first twofirst place your one card dealt cards dealt are an Acebet. face down combined with a card and one card valued at 10 (Ten, face up. Jack, Queen or King)
    15. 15. Demonstration of Casino Game Blackjack
    16. 16. Rules of Blackjack• Objective of the game is to obtain a higher combined value of the cards than the dealer, without exceeding 21• Blackjack equals total value of 21• Card is equal to the face value except for: • Jack, Queen, King – Value of 10 • Ace – Value of 1 or 11• No splitting (for pairs), doubling down, etc.• Each player initially gets 2 cards, face up• Dealer keeps first card down until all players have decided to hit or stand • Hit (draw a card(s) until you are satisfied or bust) • Stand (stop drawing a card)• Dealer must hit on 16 or under and stand on 17
    17. 17. Types of Frauds Card counting Roulette fraud Past-posting Hand mucking / card swapping Card marking Slot machine scams Counterfeit casino chips Methods to avoid detection
    18. 18. Types of FraudCard Counting  Card game strategy used to determine when a player has a probable advantage.  Gains an advantage over the house  Tracks the ratio of high cards to low cards in blackjack and its derivatives such as Spanish 21 (e.g. smaller cards favour the dealer and the advantage shifts to the player as they are removed from the game and vice versa)
    19. 19. Card Counting ClipFrom the movie 21• Video removed due to size constraint
    20. 20. Card Counting ClipFrom the movie 21• Video removed due to size constraint
    21. 21. Roulette FraudKnowledge of • Bias spotting • Collusion with casino staff (e.g.roulette wheel dealer) with inside knowledge faults • Collusion with casino staff to Use of rigged tamper with the wheelroulette wheels • Calculation, using stopwatches, lasers hidden in mobile phones, ofSector targeting the speed of the roulette ball and its decay
    22. 22. Past Posting Considered cheating because information may have become available, including the outcome of the event, that was not available to those making earlier bets Used in different casino games (e.g. baccarat) besides roulette
    23. 23. Past Posting Disguises inclusion and removal of bets throughMakes or removes May involve optical illusionsa bet after the time distracting the (using the smallerwhen no more bets dealer denomination chips are allowed to cover up the larger one) and sleight-of-hand
    24. 24. Slot Machine ScamsManipulate random number generatorsTamper with the random generator codeManipulate coin-payout function• Slip device into coin slots• Confuse sensor inside the slots and payout systems through miniature light devices• Insert coin-in-a-string
    25. 25. Hand Mucking Remove card • Card palming from the table and re-use it • Slick sleeve subsequently • Mechanical(through sleight- device of-hand) • Exchange card in a coveringCard swapping method to achieve a better card
    26. 26. Card Marking Use inks and pigments for markingAlter playing Use variations of shade technologies suchcards such that the as luminous and video-luminous markingsuit, rank or bothare only apparentto the personmarking the cards(or another May involve collusion with casino staff tocollaborator) get the cards into play Involve steering the cards into desired positions after they have been identified
    27. 27. Counterfeit Casino Chips Exists due to interchangeability for money in the casinoCounterfeit Casino Chips Includes altering the value of the chips through changing its appearance
    28. 28. Other Types of Fraud Spying on the dealer (e.g. use tiny spy camera to view the dealer’s hole card) Non-table frauds Cage / cashier fraud Loyalty point fraud Non-table Frauds Complimentary Duplication of slot (comp) fraud machine key
    29. 29. Methods to Avoid Detection Disguise (from casino databases that have images of barred persons) (refer to the movie “21”) Use different kinds of tools to hide the real identity (e.g. forged identity cards) tory/A1Story20110921-300748.html Use of other people to encash casino chips (refer to the movie “21”)
    30. 30. Types of Collusion Between players Between players and casino staff Among players, casino staff and third parties
    31. 31. Between Players (1) Swap cards with other players Obtain advantage for another player (e.g. hit a card in Blackjack, then claim that the card is not wanted when realizing that it is advantageous to the next player) Help fellow players to distract the dealer (e.g. enable past-posting)
    32. 32. Between Players (2) Use signals to inform other players (e.g. coded words or agreed actions that suggest remaining cards on the table are in favour of the players) Cooperate in schemes which require different actions to be performed almost simultaneously (e.g. time the movement of the roulette ball and forward the data to another player who calculates the sector which the ball is likely to land)
    33. 33. Between Players and Staff Pay extra winnings Rig a roulette wheel and inform the player of the sector the roulette ball is likely to landCollusion Allow decks shuffled and prearranged by players Notify players of any faults (from use or manufacture, not rigged) in roulette wheel Allow players to see the dealer’s cards
    34. 34. Between Players and Staff Allow marked decks Allow players to past postCollusion Allow slot machines to be tampered (e.g. random number generator or coin payout slot) Allow chips to be taken out of the casino Deliberately fail to adequately review video surveillance
    35. 35. Between Players and Staff and Third Parties • Manufacture marked decks or mark normal decks (Third party)Marked • Allow marked decks to be used in play (Staff)decks • Play casino games using marked decks (Players) • Rig roulette wheel (Third party)Rigged • Allow rigged roulette wheel toroulette be used in play (Staff) • Play roulette using rigged wheel wheel (Players)
    36. 36. Between Players and Staff and Third Parties • Manufacture counterfeit casino chips (Third party) • Allow counterfeit chips to be used in play orCounterfeit exchanged for cash (Staff) • Play casino games using casino counterfeit chips or exchange them for cash chips (Players)
    37. 37. A Clip on CollusionFrom the movie Ocean’s 11• Video removed due to size constraint
    38. 38. News Articles (1)Rig roulette wheel & collusion (Singapore) Croupier and Patron Jailed for Rigging Roulette Game Story/STIStory_647948.htmlCounterfeit casino chips (Singapore) First Charge for using Fake Casino Chips in MBS Story/STIStory_619283.html
    39. 39. News Articles (2)Card Swapping (United Kingdom) Circling the Card Sharks: The Dark World of Casino Fraud the-card-sharks-the-dark-world-of-casino-fraud- 1710736.htmlStealing (Singapore) Croupier Jailed for Taking $110k in Chips Story/STIStory_625705.html
    40. 40. News Articles (3)Collusion & video surveillance (Singapore) Former MBS Staff Charged with Cheating Casino of Nearly S$150,000 lnews/view/1148896/1/.html
    41. 41. Rapid Fire Round!
    42. 42. Technologies Used to Prevent Fraud Surveillance Biometric and Face Scanning Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Chips Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness (NORA) Statistical Reports Others
    43. 43. Surveillance
    44. 44. Manual Surveillance
    45. 45. Manual Surveillance  Video Surveillance
    46. 46. Video Surveillance
    47. 47. Going Digital Digital surveillance cameras and recorders make storage, retrieval, and analysis of footage a much simpler process Clarity when zooming is making operators jobs much simpler. Surveillance monitors no longer have to sit in front of a multitude of screens.
    48. 48. Going Digital One specific example of this digital surveillance technology is being used at Viejas Casino in San Diego, CA. Viejas is using Sanyo DSR-M800 camera system. It saves Viejas 70-80 per cent of search time per case. Digital surveillance cameras are able to provide a clear look into exactly what was going on at casinos
    49. 49. Biometrics and Face Scanning
    50. 50. Biometrics and Face Scanning A surveillance mechanism that can link a face with a name – and a personal record This technology scans people’s faces and create three-dimensional images out of multiple two-dimensional scans
    51. 51. Biometrics and Face Scanning How to monitor visitors in public areas without significantly limiting access? One of the huge benefits this technology gives casinos is the ability to identify people without having to stop them as they walk through the doors
    52. 52. RFID Chips
    53. 53. RFID Chips – Tracking Every Bet The gaming industry is currently one of the biggest users of RFID Casino in Las Vegas are taking preventative measures to stop cheaters by installing RFID tags on every chip in circulation.
    54. 54. RFID – How is it used? Casinos record the information that the RFID chips collect They make profiles of gamblers They give promotional offers based on the profile
    55. 55. A Short Clip on RFID Chips• Video removed due to size constraint
    56. 56. Face Recognition Teams Up With RFID Face RFID Recognition
    57. 57. Non-obvious relationship awareness(NORA) Sequence Neutrality Relationship Aware Knowledge – based name evaluations
    58. 58. Rapid Fire Round!• Video removed due to size constraint
    59. 59. Statistical Reports • Detailed reports (e.g. game type, location, opening and closing amount)Reports (table • Summary reports (e.g. shift win / loss for each table or games) game type, daily win / loss for each table or game type) • Detailed reports (e.g. game type, location, opening and closing amount) Reports (slot • Summary reports (e.g. Net win by slot machine, bill drop variance report, daily override report, jackpot / fill machines) void report) • Apply statistical tests to roulettes before it is usedReports on tests • Continue statistical tests in real-time or through conducted on samplingroulette wheels
    60. 60. Others Reconcile actual cash / Conduct cash counts chips to documentation Controls Review exception reports (e.g. Segregate incompatiblevoid, variance, override duties reports)
    61. 61. Information to Knowledge• Comparison (e.g. how does information about this situation compare to other situations we have known?)• Consequences (e.g. what implications does the information have for decisions and actions?)• Connections (e.g. how does this bit of knowledge relate to others?)• Conversation (e.g. what do other people think about this information?)(Working Knowledge, Davenport & Prusak)
    62. 62. Video SurveillanceEnable barred persons Facilitate further to be detected (e.g. evaluation by expertscompare video capture of potential fraudulent of player to known activities barred persons) Provide evidence of casino fraud
    63. 63. Biometric and Facial Scanning Identify Identify Align service players and players with with fraud match them unusual prevention byto records of winning not having to banned streaks for stop players players or further for criminals investigation identification
    64. 64. RFID ChipsEnable casino staff to determine if chips are being taken out of casino(e.g. for counterfeiting) Alert gaming officials when value of the chips does not correspond to the monetary amount in play Determine if players are being fraudulently paid Verify if casino chips are authenticAllow chips to be deactivated if stolen
    65. 65. Non-Obvious Relationship AwarenessIdentify players with close matching nameswho are the same person (e.g. probabilistic ordeterministic techniques) for employeesIdentify players with known aliasesEnable determination of relationship betweenapparently unrelated players and staff
    66. 66. Statistical Reports • Enable comparison of actual win / loss to mathematical or statistical outcome • Facilitate investigation of unusual and long-term losses by reviewing andStatistical connecting to documentation and video recordings • Determine biasness of roulette wheel Reports and counter roulette scams and flaws
    67. 67. Sharing of Information / Knowledge Conduct training courses and conferences / seminars Provide consultancy services Externalize knowledge through books
    68. 68. Sharing of Information / Knowledge Establish Communities of Practice Obtain and disseminate information (e.g. new fraud techniques , photographs of MIT students from yearbooks) to casinos
    69. 69. Concept Map On How Knowledge Is Used ForRegulating And Supervising Casino Frauds
    70. 70. NORA Card prevented swapping by Players, St Players Players aff and Card and Staff Others counting Video includes prevented Consultancysurveillance by Card Collusion marking Dissemination enhanced by Past posting includes Casino results in Fraud Training through Knowledge Slot supported by machine CoPs scams Statistical prevented tests by Roulette False Books Disguises scams identity prevented Counterfeit prevented by RFID casino by chips Biometric scanning
    71. 71. Anti-Gambling Ministry of Community Development and Sports (MCYS) Anti-Gambling Advertisement