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  1. 1. Mosquitoes<br />The Little Fly<br />
  2. 2. Notes<br />All contents have references listed at the end of this presentation.<br />All images are linked to their original webpage.<br />Some slides have notes for more explanation. Please check at the “Notes” tab below this window.<br />
  3. 3. Mosquitoes<br />A common insect in the family Culicidae(midge or gnat).<br />150 million years ago: the oldest known type of mosquito.<br />90 million years ago: The oldest known mosquito with similar features as the modern mosquitoes.<br />An adult mosquito is about 1 inch long.<br />
  4. 4. Types of Mosquitoes<br />There are more than 3,500 species of mosquito worldwide.<br />Of human importance are:<br />Aedes<br />Anopheles<br />Culex<br />Aedes<br /> <br />Anopheles<br /> <br />Culex<br /> <br />
  5. 5. Mosquito Parts<br />
  6. 6. Breeding Areas<br />Mosquitoes will practically breed anywhere where there is a collection of water that stands longer than five to seven days. Some prefer lighted areas and some shady areas. Some prefer fresh water and some stagnant water.<br />Common man-made breeding areas:<br />Wells and Cisterns<br />Rain barrels, cans, buckets<br />Roof gutters<br />Drains, Septic tanks, cesspools<br />Road holes, road gutters<br />Discarded old tires<br />Common natural breeding areas:<br />Ponds<br />Pools<br />Slow-moving streams<br />Swamps and bogs<br />Ditches<br />Tree holes<br />Rock holes<br />
  7. 7. Life Cycle<br />
  8. 8. Target cues<br />Mosquitoes use visual, chemical, and heat cues to target their blood hosts, here are some specific cues:<br />Dark-colored clothing<br />Movement <br />Alcohol<br />Genetics – 85%<br />Chemicals: carbon dioxide, lactic acid, octenol, steroids, uric acid and cholesterol on skin.<br />Pregnancy<br />Body temperature<br />
  9. 9. Food and Blood<br />A study in 1977 reported that an amino acid, isoleucine, is important for egg production.<br />There is a positive correlation between the level of isoleucine in blood and the number of eggs produced.<br />Female mosquitoes use blood for their gonotrophic cycle, i.e. feeding, convert blood to egg meal, and lay eggs<br />An average blood meal is about 2 microliters.<br />
  10. 10. References<br />Characteristics of Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes.<br />“How mosquitoes work,” by Dr. Craig Freundenrich<br />“Why do mosquitoes bite some people more than others?” by Meredith Knight<br />“Mosquito’s life cycle.”<br />
  11. 11. “Are You a Mosquito Magnet?” by Elizabeth Heubeck.<br />Mosquito movies by Rutgers’ Center for Vector Biology.<br />“Differential utilization of blood meal Amino Acids in mosquitoes.” by Zhou and Miesfield, September 2009.<br />“Why do mosquitoes need our blood?” Beyond Biology.<br />
  12. 12. “1-octen-3-ol,” Wikipedia.<br />“Chemical properties of attractants,” Catching tsetse.<br />