Fact Sheet No. 2<br />CHINA <br />Date: November 25, 1904 – October 17, 2005 <br />Author:Li Yaotang <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Vengeance 《复仇》，1931 <br />Brightness 《光明》，1932 <br />The Electric Chair 《电椅》, 1933 <br />Wiping Cloth 《抹布》，1933 <br />The General 《将军》，1934 <br />Gods, Ghosts and Men 《神·鬼·人》，1935 <br />Sinking 《沉落》，1936 <br />Destruction 《灭亡》, 1929 <br />The Dead Sun 《死去的太阳》, 1931 <br />The "
Trilogy 《爱情的三部曲》 (1931-5) <br />Fog 《雾》, 1931 <br />Rain 《雨》，1933 <br />Lightning 《电》，1935 <br />New Life 《新生》，1933 <br />Miners 《砂丁》，1933 <br />Germination 《萌芽》，1933 <br />A Dream of the Sea 《海的梦》，1932 <br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: (May 19, 1903 – Oct 26, 1977), <br />Author:Chiang Lee <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />The Silent Traveller’s Hong Kong Zhuzhi Poems (1972) A Chinese Childhood (New York: John Day, 1953) China Revisted: After forty-two Years (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977) Chin-Pao and the Giant Pandas, (London: Country Life, 1939) The Men of the Burma Road (London: Methuen, 1942) Dabbitse, (London: Transatlantic Arts, 1944) for children Yebbin: a Guest from the Wild (London: Methuen, 1947) ISBN 0-908240-87-2 The Story of Ming, (London: Puffin, c. 1945) Lo Cheng The Boy Who Wouldn′t Keep Still, (London: Puffin, c. 1945) <br />Trivia: "
The Silent Traveller"
<br /> <br />Date: (October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) <br />Author: Lin Yutang <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />(1935) My Country and My People, Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc., (A John Day Book) (1936) A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China, Kelly and Walsh (1937) The Importance of Living, Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc., (A John Day Book) (1938) The Wisdom of Confucius, Random House, The Modern Library (1939) Moment in Peking, A John Day Book Company (1940) With Love & Irony, A John Day Book Company (1940) Leaf in the Storm, A John Day Book Company (1942) The Wisdom of China and India, Random House (1943) Between Tears & Laughter, A John Day Book Company (1944) The Vigil of a Nation, A John Day Book Company (1947) The Gay Genius: The Life and Times of Su Tungpo, A John Day Book Company (1948) Chinatown Family, A John Day Book Company (1948) The Wisdom of Laotse, Random House (1950) On the Wisdom of America, A John Day Book Company (1951) Widow, Nun and Courtesan: Three Novelettes From the Chinese Translated and Adapted by Lin Yutang, A John Day Book Company <br /> <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />JAPAN <br />Date:1644 – November 28, 1694) <br />Author: Matsuo Bashō <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Kai Ōi (The Seashell Game) (1672) <br />Minashiguri (A Shriveled Chestnut) (1683) <br />Nozarashi Kikō (Record of a Weather-Exposed Skeleton) (1684) <br />Fuyu no Hi (Winter Days) (1684) <br />Haru no Hi (Spring Days) (1686) <br />Kashima Kikō (A Visit to Kashima Shrine) (1687) <br />Oi no Kobumi, or Utatsu Kikō (Record of a Travel-Worn Satchel) (1688) <br />Sarashina Kikō (A Visit to Sarashina Village) (1688) <br />Arano (Wasteland) (1689) <br />Hisago (The Gourd) (1689) <br />Sarumino (The Monkey's Raincoat) (1689) <br />Saga Nikki (Saga Diary) (1691) <br />Bashō no Utsusu Kotoba (On Transplanting the Banana Tree) (1691) <br />Heikan no Setsu (On Seclusion) (1692) <br />Sumidawara (A Sack of Charcoal) (1694) <br />Betsuzashiki (The Detached Room) (1694) <br />Oku no Hosomichi (Narrow Road to the Interior) (1694) <br />Zoku Sarumino (The Monkey's Raincoat, Continued) (1698) <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />Date:March 1, 1892 - July 24, 1927 <br />Author: Ryūnosuke Akutagawa <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Old Age; Rashomon (1914) <br />The Nose; Yam Gruel; The Handkerchief; Tobacco and the Devil (1916) <br />Magic; Dragon:The Old Potter's Tale (1919) <br />A Ball; Autumn; Christ in Nanking;Tu-Tze Chun;God of Aguni (1920) <br /> <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />Date:1653 – 6 January 1725) <br />Author: Chikamatsu Monzaemon (Sugimori Nobumori) <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />The Soga Successors or "
The Soga Heir"
(Yotsugi Soga) (1683) <br />Kagekiyo Victorious (Shusse kagekiyo 出世景清) (1685) <br />The Love Suicides at Sonezaki (Sonezaki no shinjū 曾根崎心中) (1703) <br />The Night Song of Yosaku from Tamba (Tamba Yosaku machiyo no komurobushi 丹波与作待夜のこむろぶし) <br />The Courier for Hell (Meido no hikyaku 冥途の飛脚) (1711) <br />The Battles of Coxinga (Kokusen'ya kassen 国性爺合戦) (1715) <br />The Uprooted Pine (Nebiki no Kadomatsu) (1718) <br />The Love Suicides at Amijima (Shinjūten no Amijima 心中天網島) (1720) <br />The Woman-Killer and the Hell of Oil (Onnagoroshi abura no jigoku 女殺油地獄) (1721) <br />Trivia: "
<br /> <br />Date: September 26, 1861 – November 25, 1908 <br />Author: Inagaki Manjirō <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />· Tohosaku (Policy for the East) (1891). <br />· Shiberia tetsudoron (On the Siberian railways) (1891). <br />· Kizokuron (On the nobility) (1891, 1893, 1894) <br />· Kyoiku no Omoto (Great Fount of Education) (1894) <br />· Nanyo Chosei dan (Expedition to the South seas) (1893) <br />· Gaiko to Gaisei (Diplomacy and Foreign Campaigns) (1896) <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />Date: 20 January 1931- 30 August 1984 <br />Author: Sawako Ariyoshi <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Kinokawa (the book) "
The River Ki"
(1964) - deals with aristocratic women. <br />Hishoku "
Not Because of Color"
(1964) - deals with racism <br />The Doctor's Wife (1966) - best known work <br />Jiuta (1967) <br />Jiuta "
1956 <br />Shiroi ōgi "
The White Folding Fan"
1957 <br />Kiyu no shi "
The Death of Kiyu"
1962 <br />Izumo no Okuni (the book) "
(1969) -fictionalized account of the life of the inventor of kabuki. <br />Kōkotsu no hito "
The Twilight Years"
(1972) -deals with ageism <br />Fukugō osen "
The Complex Contamination"
(1975) -deals with pollution <br />Kazu no miyasama otome "
Her Highness Princess Kazu"
1978 <br />Chūgoku repōto "
1978 <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />MONGOLIA <br />Date: 1917-1970 <br />Author: Chadraabalyn Lodoidamba <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Tungalag Tamir (Тунгалаг Тамир, The Crystal Water Tamir) (1962) <br />Manai surguuliinkhan (манай сургуулийнхан, Our School Children) (1952) <br />Altaid (Алтайд, In the Altais) <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />Date: December 26, 1944 - present <br />Author: Galsan Tschinag <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />2004 All the Paths Around Your Yurt (online poetry translation from Alle Pfade um deine Jurte, 1995) <br />2004 You Will Always Be Untamable (online poetry translation from Nimmer werde ich dich zähmen können, 1996) <br />2004 Cloud Dogs (online poetry translation from Wolkenhunde, 1998) <br />2004 Oracle Stones as Red as the Sun: Songs of the Shaman (online poetry translation from Sonnenrote Orakelsteine, 1999) <br />2004 The Stone Man at Ak-Hem (online poetry translation from Der Steinmensch zu Ak-Hem, 2002) <br />2006 The Blue Sky: A Novel (translation in print from Der blaue Himmel, 1994) <br />2007 Beyond the Silence (online poetry translation from Jenseits des Schweigens, 2006) <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />Date: 1837-1892<br />Author: Vanchinbalyn Injinash <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Хөх судар (The Blue Chronicle) <br />Улаанаа Уйлах танхим <br />Нэгэн Давхар Асар (One Storey Pavilion) <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br /> <br /> TAIWAN <br />Date: 28 May 1894-31 January 1943 <br />Author: Lai He <br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />"
Tr. Rosemary Haddon. B.C. Asian Review 1 (1987). Rpt. in Rosemary Haddon, tr./ed , Oxcart: Nativist Stories from Taiwan, 1934-1977. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1996, 59-72. <br />"
A Diary in Jail."
Tr. Tr. Llyod and Shu-ning Sciban. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 155-64. <br />"
A Dissatisfying New Year."
Tr. John Balcom. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 41-48. <br />"
Tr. Yingtsih Hwang. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 49-54. <br />"
Tr. John Balcolm. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 25-40. <br />Poems in: Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 165-76. <br />"
Tr. Llyod and Shu-ning Sciban. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 149-54. <br />"
Returning from a Spring Banquet."
Yingtsih Hwang. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 55-58. <br />"
Tr. Jane Parish Yang. In Joseph Lau, ed. The Unbroken Chain: An Anthology of Fiction from Taiwan. Bloomington: Indian UP, 1983, 3-11. Also Tr. by Howard Goldblatt. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 15-24. <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br /> <br />Date: 1963-present <br />Author: Belinda Chang<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br /> (July 1997) (in Chinese). 更衣室的女人 (The Changing-Room Women). Taipei:. <br /> (February 2000) (in Chinese). 大水之夜 (The Night of the Flood). Taipei: <br />(January 2003) (in Chinese). 疫 (Plague). Taipei:. <br /> (August 2005) (in Chinese). 擦肩而過 (Two Ships in the Night). Taipei: <br /> (January 2008) (in Chinese). 當張愛玲的鄰居 (Being Eileen Chang's Neighbour). Taipei: <br />Trivia: -- <br /> <br />Date: March 18, 1918 - December 1, 2001<br />Author: Lin Haiyin<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />"
Buried With the Dead."
(Winter, 1980): <br />"
Winter, 1972):.<br />"
(Autumn, 1979<br />"
Gold Carp's Pleated Skirt."
1975, <br />Green Seaweed and Salted Eggs. 1963.<br />"
Let Us Go and See the Sea."
(Spring, 1973): <br />"
Lunar New Year's Feast."
1926. <br />Memories of Peking: South Side Stories. 1992<br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: February 19, 1947- present<br />Author: Lin Hwai-min<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />"
The Boy in the Red Shirt."
(Summer, 1976<br />"
1976, <br />"
(Winter, 1984): <br />"
(Summer, 1975<br />"
1975<br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: 1939-present<br />Author: Wang Wenxing<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Backed Against the Sea. 1993.<br />"
The Day of the Sea-Goddess."
(Spring, 1986): <br />"
(Autumn, 1973): <br />"
Line of Fate."
1975, <br />"
The Man in Black."
1975, <br />"
Such a Symphony of Written Characters One Must Not Allow to Disperse."
1992, <br />"
The Toy Revolver."
(Spring 1982): <br />"
The Two Women."
(Summer 1978): <br />Trivia: -- <br />NORTH KOREA<br />Date: 1915-2000<br />Author: Hwang Sun-wŏn<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />“Stars” (1940)<br />“Old Man Hwang” (1942<br />“The Old Potter” (1944)<br />“Cloudburst” (1952<br />“Cranes” (1953<br />“Rain Shower”(1959).<br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: 1903-?)<br />Author: Cheong Chi-yong<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />1994 Distant Valleys: Poems of Chŏng Chi-Yong. translated by Daniel A. Kister. <br />1990 "
Eight Poems of Chong Chi-yong"
[with translations by Daniel A. Kister], Korea Journal 30 (2): 39~51. includes "
<br />1990 "
The Early Poetry of Chong Chi-yong"
[with translations by Daniel A. Kister], Korea Journal 30 (2):28~38. <br />1988 Cheong Chi-yong cheonjip [The Collected Works of Chŏng Chi-yong]. Seoul. <br />Trivia: -- <br />SOUTH KOREA<br />Date: 1947-present<br />Author: Kim Jong-Chul<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />The Last Words of Seoul (1975) <br />The Island of Wise Crows Island (1984) <br />The Day Has Already Come (1990) <br />Meditation on Nails (1992) <br />Poetics of Nails (1998) <br />The Sea and the Four Seasons (1975) <br />In the Sunshine of Grace (1976) <br />My Wife Went Out to Somewhere (1979) <br />Looking at a Picture of Birds (1980) <br />Practice of Meeting in Dewdrops (1981) <br />The Heavens Are Made (1982) <br />The Sound of Pine Tree Needles (1983) <br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: May 18, 1915 – December 24, 2000<br />Author: Seo Jeong-Ju<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Early Lyrics 1998. <br />Poems of a Wanderer 1995. <br />The Early Lyrics of So Chong Ju by Midang, 1993. <br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: October 28, 1926 – May 5, 2008)<br />Author: Park Kyung-Ni<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />1955 Calculation (계산, Gyesan) <br />1956 Black and Black and White and White (흑흑백백, Heukheuk baekbaek) <br />1957 Period of Distrust (불신시대, Bulsin Sidae) <br />1957 Missions <br />1958 Love Song (연가, Yeonga ) <br />1958 Byeokji (벽지) <br />1958 Time of Darkness (암흑시대, Amheuk Sidae) <br />1959 Pyoryudo (표류도) <br />1962 The Daughters of Pharmacist Kim (김약국의 딸들, Kimyakgukui Ttaldeul) <br />1963 Pasi (파시) <br />1965 The Market and War field (시장과 전장, Sijang gwa Jeonjang) <br />1965 Green Zone (Nokjidae, 녹지대) <br />1969-1994 Land (토지) <br />Trivia: -- <br />Date: January 17, 1946-present<br />Author: Yun Hu-Myong<br />Literary Contributions and Date: <br />Expert Archer, poetry, (1977) <br />Don Juan's Love, novel, (1983) <br />Resurrecting Birds, novel, (1985) <br />There Is No Ape, novel, (1989) <br />To Stars, novel, (1990) <br />You, My Bad Darling, essays, (1990) <br />Trivia: --<br />Fact Sheet No. 3<br /><ul><li>Abstract áb stràkt adjective not concrete: not relating to concrete objects but expressing something that can only be appreciated intellectually dictionary reference.com</li></ul>Aesthetics es·thet·ics noun idea of beauty: an idea of what is beautiful or artistic ( takes a singular or plural verb ) dictionary reference.com<br />Anachronism ə nákrə nìzzəm noun chronological mistake: something from a different period of time, e.g. a modern idea or invention wrongly placed in a historical setting in fiction or drama dictionary reference.com<br />Anthology an thólləjee noun collection of different writers' works: a book that consists of essays, stories, or poems by different writers dictionary reference.com<br />Antithesis an·tith·e·sis noun direct opposite: the complete or exact opposite of something dictionary reference.com<br />Aphorism aph·o·rism noun succinct comment: a succinct statement expressing an opinion or a general truth dictionary reference.com<br />Apology ə pólləjee noun statement expressing remorse: a written or spoken statement expressing remorse for something dictionary reference.com<br />Archaism ar·cha·ism noun old form: a word, expression, practice, or method from an earlier time that is no longer used dictionary reference.com<br />Avant-garde a·vant-garde noun artists with new ideas and methods: writers, artists, filmmakers, or musicians whose work is innovative, experimental, or unconventional, considered as a group dictionary reference.com<br />Bathos ˈbā-ˌthäs noun a: the sudden appearance of the commonplace in otherwise elevated matter or style b: anticlimax http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/<br />Belles-lettres el-letrə noun literature that is an end in itself and not merely informative http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/<br />Bestiary ˈbes-chē-ˌer-ē noun a medieval allegorical or moralizing work on the appearance and habits of real or imaginary animals http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/<br />Bombast ˈbäm-ˌbast noun pretentious inflated speech or writing http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary<br />Broadsheet -ˌshēt noun a newspaper with pages of a size larger than those of a tabloid http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary<br />Burlesque (ˌ)bər-ˈlesk noun a literary or dramatic work that seeks to ridicule by means of grotesque exaggeration or comic imitation http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/<br />Canon ˈka-nən noun a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council, a provision of canon law http://www.merriam<br />webster.com/dictionary/<br />Caricature ˈker-i-kə-ˌchu̇r noun exaggeration by means of often ludicrous distortion of parts or characteristics http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary<br />Catachresis ˌka-tə-ˈkrē-səs noun use of a forced and especially paradoxical figure of speech (as blind mouths) http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary<br />Catharsis kə-ˈthär-səs Noun a purification or purgation of the emotions (as pity and fear) primarily through art www.merriamwebsteronline.com <br />Cliché klē-ˈshā, ˈklē-ˌ, kli-ˈ Noun a trite phrase or expression; also: the idea expressed by it www.merriamwebsteronline.com<br />Cloak and Dagger cloak–and–dagger Adjective dealing in or suggestive of melodramatic intrigue and action usually involving secret agents and espionage www.merriamwebsteronline.com, www. wikipedia.org<br />Concordance kən-ˈkȯr-dən(t)s, kän- Noun an alphabetical index of the principal words in a book or the works of an author with their immediate contexts. www.merriamwebsteronline.com<br />Convention kən-ˈven(t)-shən Noun an agreement between states for regulation of matters affecting all of them www.merriamwebsteronline.com <br />Decadence ˈde-kə-dən(t)s also di-ˈkā- Noun the process of becoming decadent: the quality or state of being decadent www.merriamwebsteronline.com<br />Didactic dī-ˈdak-tik, də- Adjective intended to convey instruction and information as well as pleasure and entertainment www.merriamwebsteronline.com<br />Double Entendre də-bəl-än-ˈtänd(-rə) Noun ambiguity of meaning arising from language that lends itself to more than one interpretation merriamwebsteronline.com<br />Dramatis Personae ˌdra-mə-təs-pər-ˈsō-(ˌ)nē, ˌdrä-, -ˌnī Noun Plural people who figure prominently in something (as an event) www.merriamwebsteronline.com<br />Euphemism [yoo-fuh-miz-uhm] noun the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt <br />Euphuism [yoo-fyoo-iz-uhm] noun an affected style in imitation of that of Lyly, fashionable in England about the end of the 16th century, characterized chiefly by long series of antitheses and frequent similes relating to mythological natural history, and alliteration. Compare Euphues. <br /><ul><li>Existentialism [eg-zi-sten-shuh-liz-uhm] noun a philosophical attitude associated esp. with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and Sartre, and opposed to rationalism and empiricism, that stresses the individual's unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or her choices./</li></ul>Harangue [huh-rang] noun a scolding or a long or intense verbal attack; diatribe; a holograph writing, as a deed, will, or letter.<br />Impressionism [im-presh-uh-niz-uhm] noun style of painting developed in the last third of the 19th century, characterized chiefly by short brush strokes of bright colors in immediate juxtaposition to represent the effect of light on objects. <br />Ivory Tower noun a place or situation remote from worldly or practical affairs: the university as an ivory tower <br />Jeremiad [jer-uh-mahy-uhd] noun a prolonged lamentation or mournful complaint<br />Local color noun distinctive, sometimes picturesque characteristics or peculiarities of a place or period as represented in literature or drama, or as observed in reality. <br />Meiosis [mahy-oh-sis] noun Cell Biology. part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid. Compare mitosis. <br />Mime [mahym, meem] noun the art or technique of portraying a character, mood, idea, or narration by gestures and bodily movements; pantomime<br />Naturalism [nach-er-uh-liz-uhm] noun a manner or technique of treating subject matter that presents, through volume of detail, a deterministic view of human life and actions<br />Neo-classicism [nee-oh-klas-uh-siz-uhm] noun the trend or movement prevailing in the architecture of Europe, America, and various European colonies at various periods during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, characterized by the introduction and widespread use of Greek orders and decorative motifs, the subordination of detail to simple, strongly geometric overall compositions, the presence of light colors or shades, frequent shallowness of relief in ornamental treatment of façades, and the absence of textural effects. <br />Nom de plume noun A French pen name<br />Palindrome [pal-in-drohm] noun a word, line, verse, number, sentence, etc., reading the same backward as forward, as Madam, I'm Adam or Poor Dan is in a droop. <br />Philippic [fi-lip-ik] noun any of the orations delivered by Demosthenes, the Athenian orator, in the 4th century b.c., against Philip, king of Macedon. <br />Picaresque [pik-uh-resk] adjective pertaining to, characteristic of, or characterized by a form of prose fiction, originally developed in Spain, in which the adventures of an engagingly roguish hero are described in a series of usually humorous or satiric episodes that often depict, in realistic detail, the everyday life of the common people: picaresque novel; picaresque hero. <br />Platitude [plat-i-tood, -tyood] noun a flat, dull, or trite remark, esp. one uttered as if it were fresh or profound<br />Pleonasm [plee-uh-naz-uhm] noun the use of more words than are necessary to express an idea; redundancy<br />Poetic justice noun an ideal distribution of rewards and punishments such as is common in some poetry and fiction.<br />Polemic [puh-lem-ik, poh-] noun a controversial argument, as one against some opinion, doctrine, etc<br />Realism [ree-uh-liz-uhm] noun interest in or concern for the actual or real, as distinguished from the abstract, speculative, etc<br />/Romance [roh-mans, roh-mans] noun a novel or other prose narrative depicting heroic or marvelous deeds, pageantry, romantic exploits, etc., usually in a historical or imaginary setting<br />Saga [sah-guh] noun a medieval Icelandic or Norse prose narrative of achievements and events in the history of a personage, family, etc<br />Solecism [sol-uh-siz-uhm, soh-luh-] noun a nonstandard or ungrammatical usage, as unflammable and they was<br />Stream of consciousness noun thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time.<br /><ul><li>Surrealism [suh-ree-uh-liz-uhm] noun A style of art and literature developed principally in the 20th century, stressing the subconscious or nonrational significance of imagery arrived at by automatism or the exploitation of chance effects, unexpected juxtapositions, etc.</li></ul>Tirade [tahy-reyd, tahy-reyd] noun a prolonged outburst of bitter, outspoken denunciation: a tirade against smoking<br />Tour de France [toor-duh-frans, -frahns] noun A bicycle touring race, held over a period of 21 days: it covers about 2500 mi. (4000 km) in France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Switzerland<br />Transcendentalism [tran-sen-den-tl-iz-uhm, -suhn-] noun any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical: in the U.S., associated with Emerson<br />Treatise [tree-tis] noun a formal and systematic exposition in writing of the principles of a subject, generally longer and more detailed than an essay<br />Utopia [yoo-toh-pee-uh] noun an imaginary island described in Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516) as enjoying perfection in law, politics, etc.; an ideal place or state<br />Vaudeville [vawd-vil, vohd-, vaw-duh-] noun theatrical entertainment consisting of a number of individual performances, acts, or mixed numbers, as by comedians, singers, dancers, acrobats, and magicians.<br />Historical Timeline<br />Fact Sheet No.4<br />Highlights Of Chinese History YearPeriodDevelopment/Event2852-2205 BCEThree Rulers & Five EmperorsMythical rulers, credited with inventing farming, building, medicine, silk culture.2205-1766 BCEXia DynastyChina's legendary first dynasty. Emperor Yu, is credited with flood control and irrigation systems.1766-1122 BCEShang DynastyThe Shang was one of the oldest tribes of ancient China, concentrated mainly along the lower reaches of the Yellow River in Hebei Province. Later they extended their influence into a great parth of nothern and central China. Ritual bronze vessels and "
calligraphy. Evidence of a relatively sophisticated medical system using acupuncture needles and medical observations inscribed.1122-256 BCEZhou DynastyWestern Zhou later cited as a model period. Capital city near Xian. Confucius born in 551 BCE. Flowering in classical literature, arts, and philosophy; Confuciansim, Taoism. Lao Tze and Chuang Tze lived around this period. The first transporation canals were built. Internal alchemy, meditation, and breathing techniques were developed.770-256 BCEEastern Zhou722-481 BCESpring and Autumn403-221 BCEWarring States221-206 BCEQin DynastyUnification of China. State walls are joined to form the Great Wall. Palace and mausoleum near Xian, standardization of weights, measures, calligraphy.206 BCE-220 CEHan DynastyCapitals at Changan and Luoyang rivals that of Rome. Buddhism enters China from India. Birth of Confucian civil service. Paper invented.206 BCE-9 CEWestern Han25 CE-220 CEEastern Han220-280 CEThree KingdomsWei, Shu-Han, WuHan generals divide empire. This period is romanticized as a time of chivalry and heorism in later literature.265-316 CEWestern JinChina briefly united under one Emperor. Capitals at Luoyang, Changan.317-589 CESouthern and Northern DynastiesSuccession of numerous dynasties, including 24 short-lived ones, on the north and south sides of the Yangtze. Developing period for Buddhism. Cave temples at Dunhuang, Yungang, and Longmen.317-420 CEEastern Jin386-534 CENorthern Wei386-535 CE Bohidarma (TaMo) arrives in China. Shaolin Monastery built and Shaolin boxing develops in the temples<br /> YearPeriodDevelopment/Event589-618 CESui DynastyNorth conquers south and unites China. The Grand Canal is built. The capital is established at Changan.618-907 CETang DynastyScholarship and the Arts flouish. Gunpowder invented. Block (movable type) printing is invented. The silk road trade to Europe thrives.907-960 CEFive Dynasties (North) and Ten Kingdoms (South)A period of war and fragmentation as North and South divides into smaller kingdoms.960-1279 CESong DynastyHigh culture develops. Painting, Poetry, Calligraphy becomes mainstream. Military powers decline. The invention of the compass. The Jin invade the North, the Song moves capital from Kaifeng to Hangzhou.960-1127 CENorthern Song1127-1279 CESouthern Song1279-1368 CEYuan Dynasty (Mongol)Kublai Khan conquers China. A new capital is established at Peking (Beijing) and the Grand Canal is extended to supply the capital. Marco Polo serves Khan in China.1360 CE Zhang Sanfeng (Chang Sanfeng) travels to Wudang Mountains is generally credited with inventing the 13 postures of Taijiquan (T'ai Chi Ch'uan)1368-1644 CEMing DynastyMongols are defeated. Strong Emperors bring about a very prosperous era. Building of the Forbidden City and Imperial Tombs. Arrival of Jesuits. Changan city changes it's name to Xian.1644-1911 CEQing(Ching) Dynasty (Manchu)Han People are subjugated by the Manchus. The neglected Forbidden City is restored and the Summer Palace is rebuilt.November 28, 1694 Death of Matsuo Basho6 January 1725 Death of Chikamatsu Monzaemon (Sugimori Nobumori)1839-1842 CEForeign trade pressures leads to the Opium War.1850-1864 CETaiping Rebellion in the south, Anti-Qing revolt is inspired by mixture of Chinese and Christian ideas.1858-1860 CEAnglo-French invasions at Canton, Tianjin. Foreign troops destroy the Summer Palace near Peking.1894-95 CESino-Japanese War. Japan dominates Korea and Taiwan/ Birth of famous Lin Yutang on October 10, 1895.1900 CE19031904Anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion is suppressed by foreign troops. Qing court flees and Westerners occupy Peking./ Birth of famous Chinese literary writer Chiang Lee (The Silent Traveller) on May 19,1903 and Li Yaotang on Nov.25, 1904 1911-1949 CERepublic of China1911 Revolution. China attempted deomocratic government.1912 CESun Yat-Sen briefly serves as China's first president. Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist party is formed.1916 CEWarlord period begins.1921 CEChinese Communist Party (CCP) is founded)1926-27 CEJoint KMT-CCP expedition against warlords has limited success, but causes a hostile division of the country.1934-35 CELong march of the Communists to the northwest.1937-1945 CESecond Sino-Japanese War. KMT is led by Chian Kai-shek. American military aids during the World War II. Japan surrenders.1946-49 CE197619772005Civil war errupts between the KMT and the Communist Party (CCP).March 26, 1976 Death of Lin YutangOct 26, 1977 Death of Chiang LeeDeath of Li Yaotang on October 17, 2005<br />Historical Timeline of Japan<br />PeriodNameDescription-300 BCJomonThe early Japanese were gatherers, hunters and fishers. 300 BC-300YayoiThe intoduction of rice agriculture evokes the development of a social hierarchy and hundreds of small countries that started to unify into larger countries. 300-538Kofun300 Japan is for the first time more or less united. Large tombs (kofun) were built for the deceased leaders. 538-710Asuka538/552 Introduction of Buddhism. 604 Prince Shotoku's Constitution of seventeen articles is promulgated. 645 The Taika reform is introduced. The Fujiwara era starts. 710-784Nara710 Nara becomes the first permanent capital. 784 The capital moves to Nagaoka. 794-1185Heian794 The capital moves to Heian (Kyoto). 1016 Fujiwara Michinaga becomes regent. 1159 The Taira clan under Taira Kiyomori takes over the power after the Heiji war. 1175 The Buddhist Jodo sect (Pure land sect) is introduced. 1180-85 In the Gempei War, the Minamoto clan puts an end to Taira supremacy. 1192-1333Kamakura1191 The Zen sect is intoduced. 1192 Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed shogun and establishes the Kamakura government. 1221 The Jokyu Disturbance ends a struggle between Kamakura and Kyoto resulting in the supremacy of the Hojo regents in Kamakura. 1232 A legal code, the Joei Shikimoku, is promulgated. 1274 and 1281 The Mongols try to invade Japan twice, but fail mainly because of bad weather conditions. 1333 The Kamakura bakufu falls. 1338-1573Muromachi1334 Kemmu restoration: the emperor restores power over Japan. 1336 Ashikaga Takauji captures Kyoto. 1337 The emperor flees and establishes the Southern court in Yoshino. 1338 Takauji establishes the Muromachi government and a second emperor in Kyoto (Northern court). 1392 Unification of the Southern and Northern courts. 1467-1477 Onin war. 1542 Portuguese introduce firearms and Christianity to Japan. 1568 Nobunaga enters Kyoto. 1573 The Muromachi Bakufu falls. 1573-1603AzuchiMomoyama1575 The Takeda clan is defeated in the battle of Nagashino. 1582 Nobunaga is murdered and succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. 1588 Hideyoshi confiscates the weapons of farmers and religious institutions in the "
. 1590 Japan is reunited after the fall of Odawara (Hojo). 1592-98 Unsuccessful invasion of Korea. 1598 Death of Hideyoshi. 1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats his rivals in the battle of Sekigahara. 1603 - 1867Edo1603 Ieyasu is appointed shogun and establishes the Tokugawa government in Edo (Tokyo). 1614 Ieyasu intensifies persecution of Christianity. 1615 The Toyotomi clan is destroyed after Ieyasu captures Osaka Castle. 1639 Almost complete isolation of Japan from the rest of the world. 1644 Birth of famous Japanese Writer Matsuo Basho 1653 Birth of famous Japanese Writer Chikamatsu Monzaemon (Sugimori Nobumori) known as “The Japanese Shakespeare”1688-1703 Genroku era: popular culture flourishes. 1792 The Russians unsuccessfuly try to establish trade relations with Japan. 1854 Commodore Matthew Perry forces the Japanese government to open a limited number of ports for trade. 1861 Birth of famous Japanese writer Inagaki Manjiro on Sept. 26, 18611868-1912Meiji1868 Meiji restoration. 1872 First railway line between Tokyo and Yokohama. 1889 The Meiji Constitution is promulgated.1892 Birth of famous Japanese Writer Ryunosuke Akutagawa on March 1, 1892 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War. 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War1910 Annexion of Korea. 1908 November 25, 1908-Death of Inagaki Manjiro1912 Death of emperor Meiji. 1912-1926Taisho1914-18 Japan joins allied forces in WW1. 1923 The Great Kanto Earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama. 1926-1989Showa1927 July 24, 1927 Death of Ryunosuke Akutagawa1931 Manchurian Incident. / Birth of famous Sawako Ariyoshi on Jan.20, 19311937 Second Sino-Japanese War starts. 1941 Pacific War starts. 1945 Japan surrenders after two atomic bombs are dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 1946 The new constitution is promulgated. 1952 The Allied Occupation of Japan ends. 1956 Japan becomes member of the UN. 1972 Normalization of relations to China. 1973 Oil crisis. 1984 30 August 1984-Death of Sawako Ariyoshi1989-Heisei1993 The LDP loses its majority in the diet. 1995 The Great Hanshin Earthquake hits Kobe.Sarin Gas attack in the Tokyo subway by AUM sect. <br />Historical Timeline of Taiwan<br />Qing Dynasty rule (1683-May 25, 1895)<br />1683: The remnant forces of the Ming dynasty are defeated by the Qing dynasty, which has assumed full control over mainland China. <br /> HYPERLINK "
19th Century<br />1874: Japan sends an expedition force of 3,600 soldiers to Taiwan to test the situation for colonizing the island. <br />1875: Taiwan is divided into two prefectures, north and south. <br />1887: Taiwan is reorganized administratively as a Taiwan Province with Liu Mingchuan as the first governor. <br />1884: Keelung and Tamsui harbor are blockaded by the French Navy during the Sino-French War. <br />28 May 1894 Birth of famous Taiwanese author Lai He<br />1895: Qing China signs the Treaty of Shimonoseki ceding Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands to Japan after being defeated by the Japanese Navy in the First Sino-Japanese War. <br /> HYPERLINK "
Republic of Formosa"
Republic of Formosa (May 25, 1895-October 21, 1895)<br />1895: Pro-Qing officials declare the Republic of Formosa in an attempt to resist <br />Empire of Japan rule (June 2, 1895-October 25, 1945)<br />1899: The Japanese Imperial government heavily suppresses any opposition to its rule, having systematically eliminated all anti-Japanese factions on the island.[neutrality disputed] <br />1899: Bank of Taiwan established to encourage Japanese investment into Taiwan. <br />1899: Taiwan yen is issued by the Bank of Taiwan with an exchange ratio on par with the Japanese yen. <br /> HYPERLINK "
20th Century<br />1901: Railroad between Keelung and Hsinchu rebuilt. <br />1904: Taiwan bank notes issued. <br />1905: Earthquake in Chiayi. <br />1905: First population census. (First Provisional Taiwan Household Registration Survey) <br />1905: Taiwan becomes financially self-sufficient and is weaned off subsidies from Japan's central government. <br />1907: Beipu Incident led by Cai Ching-lin (蔡清琳). <br />1908: North-South (Western Line) Railway completed. <br /> <br />Dōka: "
(1919-1935)<br />March 18, 1918 Birth of famous Taiwanese author Lin Haiyin.<br />1921: Taiwanese Cultural Association founded. <br />1921: "
Petition to Establish a Taiwan Parliament"
movement begins. <br />1923: Crown Prince Hirohito (Later Emperor) of Japan visits Taiwan. <br />1924: Yilan Line Railroad completed. <br />1926: Hwatung Line Railroad completed. <br />1927: Taiwanese People's Party, Taiwan's first political party, founded. <br />1928: Taihoku Imperial University (now National Taiwan University) founded. <br />1930: Jianan (or Chianan) Canal (嘉南大圳) completed. <br />1930: Wushe Incident; Japan forcefully crushes rebellion by the Atayal aborigine group. <br />1935: Earthquake in Miaoli. <br />1935: Exposition to Commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the Beginning of Administration in Taiwan. <br />Kōminka: "
Subjects of the Emperor"
(1936-1945)<br />1937: Four national parks planned. <br />1937: Sun Moon Lake Hydroelectric Power Plant completed. <br />1939: Industrial production surpasses agricultural production, Birth of famous author Wang Wenxing.<br />1941: Taiwan Revolutionary League formed to coordinate anti-Japan resistance. <br />1941: Segregation of primary schools between Japanese and Taiwanese children ends. <br />1941: Pingtung Line Railroad completed <br />1943: Compulsory primary education begins. Enrollment rates reached 71.3% for Taiwanese children (including 86.4% for aborigine children) and 99.6% for Japanese children in Taiwan making Taiwan's enrollment rate the second highest in Asia after Japan. 31 January 1943 Death of Lai He<br />1945: Popular Legislature Election Law enacted. <br />1945: Japan (then including Taiwan) defeated in World War II by United States military forces, United States directs Japanese forces to surrender to the ROC as per General Order No. 1. Chen Yi appointed as Chief Executive of Taiwan as ROC proclaims Taiwan retrocession. <br /> HYPERLINK "
History of Republic of China"
Republic of China rule (October 25, 1945-1949)<br />1947: 228 Incident; "
begins. <br />1947: US consulate in Taipei proposed "
status of Taiwan is undetermined"
Taiwan Under UN trustee"
program in March; proposal was rejected by the United States State Department. <br />1947: Chen Yi recalled and Taiwan Provincial Government established. <br />1948: National Assembly of the Republic of China passes Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion. <br />1949: April 6 Incident. <br />1949: The New Taiwan dollar is issued, exchanged at 1:40,000 old Taiwan dollars. <br />1949: Kuomintang army defeated in the Chinese Civil War, flees in exile to Taiwan with 2 million refugees. <br /> HYPERLINK "
History of Republic of China"
Republic of China on Taiwan (1949-present)<br />1949: The capital of the Republic of China (ROC) relocated from Nanjing to Taipei. <br />1949-1987: Martial law and the White Terror period. <br />1951-1960<br />1951: Treaty of San Francisco; Japan officially renounced claims to Taiwan (thus superseding Treaty of Shimonoseki), but without designating a recipient. <br />1958: 823 Artillery War. <br />1959: August 7 Flood: serious flooding in central Taiwan. <br />1960: Free China Incident. <br />1961-1970<br />1963 Birth of Taiwanese author Belinda Chang<br />1964: Shihmen Reservoir completed. <br />1964: Peng Ming-min arrested for the draft of A Declaration of Formosan Self-salvation. <br />1966: Chinese Cultural Renaissance <br />1971-1980<br />1971: The seat for "
at the United Nations Security Council is assumed by the People's Republic of China, in place of the ROC. <br />1971: United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 <br />1972: The United States establishes diplomatic ties with the People's Republic of China, and acknowledges without explicitly endorsing the One China Policy in the Shanghai Communique. <br />1975: President Chiang Kai-Shek dies. Yen Chia-kan assumes the presidency until May 20, 1978. <br />1978: Chiang Ching-kuo elected President. <br />1979: The United States passes the Taiwan Relations Act, which affirms US commitment to defend Taiwan militarily and to treat Taiwan as a state for most purposes of U.S. law. <br />1979: Kaohsiung Incident. <br />1979: Western Line Railroad fully electrified; North-Link Line completed. <br />1980: Lin Family Murders on the anniversary of the 228 Incident. <br />1980: Hsinchu Science Park founded. <br />Democratization<br />1987: Martial law lifted. <br />1988: President Chiang Ching-kuo dies; Lee Teng-hui assumes the presidency. <br />1988: Bans on publishing newspapers lifted. <br />1989: Bans on establishing new commercial banks lifted. <br />1989: Cheng Nan-jung Self-immolation. <br />1990: Wild Lily student movement in Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall. <br />1991-2000<br />1991: Legislative Yuan and National Assembly elected in 1947 were forced to resign. <br />1991: Opposition parties legalized. <br />1991: South-Link Line Railroad completed. <br />1992: Fair Trade Law enacted. <br />1992: The first democratic election of the Legislative Yuan. <br />1992: 1992 Consensus <br />1994: National Health Insurance begins. <br />1995: US government reverses policy and allows President Lee Teng-hui to visit the US. The People's Republic of China responds with the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis by launching a series of missiles into the waters off Taiwan. The Taiwan stock market loses one-third of its value. <br />1996: President Bill Clinton dispatches the USS Nimitz supercarrier to patrol the Taiwan Strait. <br />1995: 228 Incident monument erected; President Lee Teng-hui publicly apologizes on behalf of the KMT. <br />1996: The first direct presidential election; Lee Teng-hui elected. <br />1996: Muzha Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System completed. <br />1997: Danshui Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System completed. <br />1997: Private cellular phone companies begin services. <br />1999: Resolution on Taiwan's Future <br />1999: Chi-Chi earthquake. <br />2000: Chen Shui-bian, the opposition candidate from the DPP, elected president by a lead of 2.5% of votes marking the end of the KMT status as the ruling party. Voter turnout was 82.69%; first peaceful transfer of power. <br />2000: Four Noes and One Without <br />2000: Yilan Line railroad electrified. <br /> HYPERLINK "
21st Century<br />2001-present<br />2001: Three mini-links between Kinmen, Matsu and the mainland of Fujian begins. <br />2001: Private fixed-line telephone companies begin services. <br />December 1, 2001 Death of Lin Haiyin<br />2001: Serious flooding caused by Typhoon Nari. <br />2002: Entry into the World Trade Organization. <br />2002: Penetration rate of cellular phones exceeds 100%. <br />2003: SARS outbreaks. <br />2003: North-Link Line railroad electrified. <br />2004: Second north-south freeway completed. <br />2004: 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally. <br />2004: President Chen Shui-bian is re-elected by a margin of 0.22% votes after being shot the day before. <br />2004: Taipei 101 becomes World's Tallest Building. <br />2005: The first direct commercial airplane flights from Beijing to Taipei for the Chinese New Year. <br />2005: The PRC passes an "
authorizing the use of force against Taiwan and the ROC government should it formally declare independence. In response, 1.6 million people marched in Taipei against China's "
. Similar marches occur across the world by Taiwanese nationalists. Protests against the PRC were held worldwide, including, but not limited to: Chicago, New York City, Washington DC, Paris, and Sydney. <br />2005: Pan Blue visit to mainland China <br />2005: President Chen is invited and attends the funeral of Pope John Paul II. He is the first Taiwanese president to visit the Vatican. <br />2005: The National Assembly of the Republic of China convenes for the last time to implement several constitutional reforms, including single-member two-vote districts, and votes to transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot, essentially abolishing itself. <br />2006: Taiwan's first high speed rail line, Taiwan High Speed Rail, begins operation. <br />2006: Rename "
Chiang Kai-shek International Airport"
to Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. <br />2007: Rename Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall to National Taiwan Democracy Memorial Hall. <br />2007: Taiwan applies for membership in the United Nations under the name "
, and is rejected by the General Assembly. <br />2008: March 22 presidential election; with 58.48% of the vote, KMT candidate Ma defeats DPP candidate Hsieh. Many voters boycott the referenda on whether and how to join UN so the level of voter participation required for referenda to be considered valid is not achieved. <br />2008: July - the first direct China-Taiwan flights begin in nearly 6 decades. <br />2008: 1025 demonstration <br />2008: Chen Yunlin visit <br />2008: Wild Strawberry student movement <br />2008: Lien Chen meets Hu Jintao at APEC Peru 2008 <br />Historical Timeline of Mongolia<br />3rd century B.C. - Iron weapons in use; Xiongnu invasion of China repulsed <br />2d-1st centuries B.C. - Nomads expand west; pressure on China continues <br />1st-2d centuries A.D. - Renewed attacks on China <br />A.D. 317 - Xianbei conquer northern China <br />386-533 - Period of Northern Wei Dynasty, established by the Toba in northern China mid-8th century Possible early Mongol links with Tibetan Buddhism <br />916-1125 - Period of Kitan Liao Dynasty, established over eastern Mongolia, Manchuria, and northern China <br />1038-1227 - Tangut Western Xia Dynasty, established in northwestern China <br />1115-1234 - Jurchen establish Jin Dynasty in Manchuria, northern China <br />1139-47 - Jurchen defeat Mongols in Pamirs <br />1196-1206 - Temujin unites Mongols, assumes title of Chinggis Khan <br />1209-15 - Mongols conquer south to Beijing, west to Lake Balkash <br />1220-26 - Southwest Asia conquered; invasion of Europe and China <br />1227 - Chinggis dies <br />1231 - Korea invaded <br />1235 - Capital rebuilt at Karakorum <br />1237-41 - Expedition into Europe that was halted at Vienna with death of Ogedei <br />1240-1480 - Suzerainty over Russia established by Golden Horde Conquest of Song China <br />1260 - Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamluks <br />1261 - Khubilai becomes great khan <br />1274 and 1281 - Unsuccessful attempts at invasion of Japan <br />1279 - Yuan Dynasty established in China <br />1368 - Yuan Dynasty destroyed; Mongols driven back into Mongolia <br />1388 - Chinese troops destroy Karakorum <br />1391 - Timur defeats Golden Horde <br />1400-54 - Civil war ends Mongol unity <br />1409-49 - Renewed Mongol invasions of China <br />1466 - Dayan Khan reunites most of Mongolia <br />1480-1502 - Muscovites end Mongol control of Russia; last of Golden Horde defeated <br />1571 - Mongols end 300-year war with China <br />1586 - Buddhism becomes state religion <br />1641-52 - Russians defeat Buryat Mongols, gain control of Lake Baykal region <br />1672 - Mongols raid Siberia and Russia <br />1691 - Most Khalkha Mongols accept suzerainty of Manchus, absorbed into Chinese empire (Qing Dyansty 1644-1911) <br />1728 - Sino-Russian Treaty of Kyakhta redefines traditional Mongolian borders <br />1732 - Dzungar Mongols defeated; Mongol independence ended <br />1750s - Chinese divide Mongolia into northern, Outer Mongolia (see Glossary), and Southern, Inner Mongolia (see Glossary) <br />1783 - Last reigning descendant of Chinggis in the Crimea deposed by Russians<br />1837- Birth of famous Mongolian author Vanchinbalyn Injinash<br />1892-Death of Vanchinbalyn Injinash<br />20th Century<br />December 1, 1911 Outer Mongolia proclaims independence from China <br />December 28, 1911 Mongolia establishes autonomous theocratic government <br />November 3, 1912 Russia affirms Mongolia's separation from China <br />November 5, 1913 Sino-Russian agreement acknowledges Chinese suzerainty over Mongolia <br />May 25, 1915 Treaty of Kyakhta formalizes Mongolian autonomy <br />1917 Birth of Chadraabalyn Lodoidamba (a famous Mongolian Writer)<br />September 1918 Chinese troops occupy Outer Mongolia <br />March-June 1920 Mongolian People's Party formed, establishes links with Communist International and Soviets <br />October 1920 Russian White Guards invade Mongolia <br />March 1-3, 1921 First National Party Congress of the Mongolian People's Party held in Kyakhta, Soviet Union <br />March 13, 1921 Mongolian People's Provisional Government formed <br />July 1921 Mongolian-Soviet army drives out White Guards <br />July 11, 1921 Mongolian People's Government, a limited monarchy, proclaimed <br />September 14, 1921 Mongolian independence proclaimed <br />November 5, 1921 Soviets recognize Mongolian People's Government <br />February 22, 1923 Revolutionary hero Damdiny Sukhe Batar dies <br />May 31, 1924 Sino-Soviet treaty recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Mongolia <br />August 1924 Mongolian People's Party becomes Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party <br />November 6, 1924 First National Great Hural convenes <br />November 25, 1924 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed; Soviet style state constitution adopted; Niyslel Huree renamed Ulaanbaatar <br />March 1925 Soviet troops ostensibly withdraw <br />September 1927 Inner-party struggle at Sixth Party Congress <br />December 1928 Horloyn Choybalsan emerges as party leader <br />1929-32 Feudal estates confiscated; religious communities suppressed <br />April-May 1932 Soviet troops help quell rebellions; party repudiates extremism <br />November 27, 1934 Mongolian-Soviet "
allows Soviet troops into Mongolia <br />March 12, 1936 Treaty and mutual defense protocol signed with Soviet Union <br />1937-39 High-level government purges <br />1938 Buddhist monasteries closed <br />1939 Choybalsan emerges as undisputed leader <br />July-August 1939 Mongolian-Soviet joint force defeats Japanese at Khalkhyn Gol <br />March-April 1940 Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal becomes party general secretary <br />December 26, 1944 Birth of Galsan Tschinag (a famous Mongolian writer)<br />August 10, 1945 Mongolia declares war on Japan <br />January 5, 1946 China recognizes Mongolia's independence February 27, 1946 Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance and Agreement on Economic and Cultural Cooperation signed with Soviet Union <br />February 19, 1947 Birth of famous Lin Hwai-Min.<br />February 1949 Ninth National Great Hural, first since 1940, convenes January 26, 1952 Choybalsan dies May 1952 Tsedenbal becomes premier <br />December 1952 Economic and cultural cooperation agreement signed with China <br />April 1956 "
of Choybalsan condemned <br />October 1956 New collective efforts start <br />July 6, 1960 New state Constitution adopted <br />October 27, 1961 Mongolia admitted to United Nations <br />January 1962 Choybalsan's "
again condemned <br />June 7, 1962 Mongolia joins Council for Mutual Economic Assistance <br />1966 Serious Mongolian-Chinese differences emerge <br />1970 Death of Chadraabalyn Lodomboida<br />June 1974 Jambyn Batmonh becomes chairman of Council of Ministers; Tsedenbal becomes chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural and continues as party first secretary <br />August 23, 1984 Tsedenbal retires; Batmonh becomes party general secretary <br />December 12, 1984 Batmonh elected chairman of Presidium of People's Great Hural; Dumaagiyn Sodnom becomes premier <br />April 1986 Long-term trade agreement signed with China <br />January 15, 1987 Soviet Union announces intention to withdraw one of five Soviet divisions stationed in Mongolia <br />January 27, 1987 Diplomatic relations established with the United States <br />November 28, 1988 Treaty on a border control system signed with China <br />March 7, 1989 Soviets announced that troop withdrawal plans had been finalized <br />Ref.http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/timelines/a/Mongoliatime.htm<br />Historical Timeline of South Korea<br />Three Kingdoms <br />57 B.C.-668 A.D.<br />From the first century B.C. until the 7th century, Korea was divided into three states. The kingdom of Koguryo, in the north, defeated the Chinese commandery at Lolang in 313, but because of its geographical closeness to Chin a continued to be heavily influenced by Chinese culture. The kingdom of Paekche, in the southwest, also maintained ties with China and, like Koguryo, adopted Buddhism in the 4th century. Buddhist sculptures produced during this time, reflected styles prevalent in China's Northern Wei dynasty. The kingdom of Silla, in the southeast, was slower to absorb Chinese culture and did not embrace Buddhism until the sixth century. In addition to these three centers of political power, several communities in the south central area of the Naktong River basin formed a federation of principalities known as the Kaya states. <br />United Silla<br />68-935<br />In 660, the Silla rulers allied their armies with forces from T'ang China to defeat both Paekche and Koguryo. The resulting Unified Silla Kingdom (668-935) experienced a golden age, and its resplendent capital Kyongju became one of Asia's greatest cities. Gold crowns remain as some of the more opulent objects from that time, as well as stoneware jars and bowls on dramatic pedestals with geometric perforations. <br />Koryo Dynasty<br />918-1392<br />The last Silla king abdicated the throne in the early 10th century and married the daughter of the upstart General Wang Kon, who founded the Koryo dynasty (918-1392). Repeatedly attacked by invaders from the north, the weakened Koryo was unable to repulse the Mongol forces of Kublai Khan who invaded in 1231, and ultimately annexed the peninsula in 1258. Under Mongol domination, Korean subjects were forced to adopt Mongol customs, language and dress. Nevertheless, the Koryo dynasty produced some of the finest cultural and artistic achievements in Korea's history. The capital of Kaesong was one of the world's most impressive cities. Koryo kings ordered the construction of hundreds of Buddhist temples and the creation of countless religious artworks. In 1234, Koreans invented the world's first movable type, and at about the same time carved the entire Buddhist canon from some 80,000 woodblocks. The most famous achievement, however, was to create ceramics with luminescent celadon glazes and delicate inlays. <br /> Choson Dynasty<br />1392-1910<br />The rulers of the Yi, or Choson, dynasty (1392-1910) adopted Confucianism as their governing ideology and withdrew official support for Buddhism. During their reign, Confucianism's conservative ethics and values dominated Korea's social structure and attitudes. Like their Chinese counterparts, Korean scholars practiced the twin arts of calligraphy and painting. Rejecting the opulence of the previous Koryo dynasty, Yi potters made a coarse, informally decorated ware known as Punch'ong. Simple white porcelains, inspired by the Chinese, also became popular during the early centuries of the Yi dynasty, and by the mid-15th century, white porcelains with blue, brown, and red designs began to be produced as well. Unlike Chinese porcelains, however, Korean ceramics are known for their vigorous painting styles and whimsical designs. <br /> Fifth Republic<br />Main article: <br />After the assassination of Park Chung-hee by Kim Jae-kyu in 1979, a vocal civil society emerged that led to strong protests against authoritarian rule. Composed primarily of university students and labor unions, protests reached a climax after Major General Chun Doo-hwan's 1979 Coup d'état of December Twelfth and declaration of martial law. On May 18, 1980, a confrontation broke out in the city of Gwangju between students of Chonnam National University protesting against the closure of their university and armed forces and turned into a citywide riot that lasted nine days until May 27. Immediate estimates of the civilian death toll ranged from a few dozen to 2000, with a later full investigation by the civilian government finding 207 deaths (see: Gwangju Massacre). Public outrage over the killings consolidated nationwide support for democracy, paving the road for the first democratic elections in 1987.<br />Sixth Republic<br />Main article: Sixth Republic of South Korea<br />: May 18, 1915 Birth of Seo Jeong-Ju<br />October 28, 1926 Birth of Park Kyung-Ni<br />January 17, 1946 Birth of Yun Hu-Myong<br />1947 Birth of Kim Jong-Chul<br />December 24, 2000 Death of Seo Jeong-Ju<br />May 5, 2008 Death of Park Kyung-Ni<br />In 1987, Roh Tae-woo, one of Chun's colleagues in the 1979 coup, and a member of Hanahoi, was elected to the president by the popular vote.<br />In 1992, Kim Young-sam was elected president. He was the country's first civilian president in 30 years.<br />In 1997, the nation suffered a severe financial crisis from which it made a solid recovery. South Korea has also maintained its commitment to democratize its political processes, as Kim Dae-jung won the presidency in the same year. This was the first transfer of the government between parties by peaceful means. Kim Dae-jung pursued the "
, a series of efforts to reconcile with North Korea, which culminated in the summit talk with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, for which Kim Dae-jung was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000. However, the efficacy of the Sunshine Policy was brought into question amid allegations of corruption. Roh Moo-hyun was elected to the presidency in 2002.<br />On 12 March 2004, the South Korean National Assembly (Parliament) voted to impeach President Roh Moo-hyun on charges of corruption and political patronage. The Uri Party, which solely supported the President, angrily boycotted the vote. This motion clearly affected the outcome of the parliamentary election held on 15 April 2004, in which the Uri Party won 152 seats from the total of 299 seats in the National Assembly. For the first time in 18 years the ruling party became the majority in the House. This was arguably the first time in more than 40 years that a liberal party had held a majority in the Assembly. However, the Uri Party then lost its majority in by-elections in 200<br />Historical Timeline of North Korea<br />Prehistory<br /> Jeulmun period<br /> Mumun period<br />Gojoseon 2333–108 BC<br /> Jin state<br />Proto-Three Kingdoms: 108–57 BC<br /> Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye<br /> Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin<br />Three Kingdoms: 57 BC – 668 AD<br /> Goguryeo 37 BC – 668 AD<br /> Baekje 18 BC – 660 AD<br /> Silla 57 BC – 935 AD<br /> Gaya 42–562<br />North-South States: 698–935<br /> Unified Silla 668–935<br /> Balhae 698–926<br /> Later Three Kingdoms 892–935<br /> Later Goguryeo, Later Baekje, Silla<br />Goryeo 918–1392<br />Joseon 1392–1897<br />Korean Empire 1897–1910<br />Japanese rule 1910–1945<br /> Provisional Gov't 1919–1948<br /> People's Republic of Korea 1945<br />Division of Korea 1945–1948<br />North, South Korea 1948–present<br /> Korean War 1950–1953<br />The Korean War<br />Main article: Korean War<br />The consolidation of Syngman Rhee's government in the South with American military support and the suppression of the October 1948 insurrection ended hopes that the country could be reunified by way of Stalinist revolution in the South, and from early 1949 Kim sought Soviet and Chinese support for a military campaign to reunify the country by force. The withdrawal of most U.S. forces from South Korea in June 1949 left the southern government defended only by a weak and inexperienced South Korean army. The southern regime also had to deal with a citizenry of uncertain loyalty. The North Korean army, by contrast, had been the beneficiary of the Soviet Union's, outdated Soviet WWII-era equipment, and had a core of hardened veterans who had fought as anti-Japanese guerrillas or with the Chinese Communists.<br />Initially Stalin rejected Kim's requests, but in late 1949 the victory of the Communists in China and development of the Soviet nuclear weapons made him re-consider Kim's proposal. In January 1950, the permission to stage an invasion was finally approved by Stalin. The Soviets provided limited support in the form of advisors who helped the North Koreans as they planned the operation, and Soviet instructors trained some of the Korean units. However, from the very beginning Stalin made it clear that the Soviet Union would avoid a direct confrontation with the U.S. over Korea and would not commit ground forces even in case of some major military crisis. The stage was set for a civil war between two rival regimes on the Korean peninsula.<br />For over a year before North Korean forces attacked the southern government on June 25, 1950, the two sides had been engaged in a series of bloody clashes along the 38th parallel, especially in the Ongjin area on the west coast. On June 25, 1950 the northern forces escalated the battles into a full-fledged offensive and crossed the parallel in large numbers. Due to a combination of surprise, superior military forces, and a poorly armed South Korean army, the Northern forces quickly captured Seoul and Syngman Rhee and his government was forced to flee further south. However, the North Koreans failed to unify the peninsula when foreign powers entered the civil war. North Korean forces were soon defeated and driven northwards by United Nations forces led by the U.S. By October, the U.N. forces had retaken Seoul and captured Pyongyang, and it became Kim's turn to flee. But in November, Chinese forces entered the war and pushed the U.N. forces back, retaking Pyongyang in December and Seoul in January 1951. In March U.N. forces retook Seoul, and the war essentially became a bloody stalemate for the next two years. The front was stabilized in 1953 along what eventually became the current Armistice Line. After long negotiations, the two sides agreed on a border formed by the Korean Demilitarized Zone, and a ceasefire was declared. An official peace treaty, however, was never signed, and the two Koreas have technically been at war since 1950.<br />After the war, Kim took control of North Korean politics, with the support of the armed forces, who respected his wartime record and long resistance to the Japanese. Pak Hon-yong, party vice chairman and Foreign Minister of DPRK, was blamed for the failure of the southern population to support North Korea during the war and was executed after a show-trial in 1955. Most of the South Korean leftists who defected to the North in 1945–1953 were also accused of espionage and other crimes and killed, imprisoned or exiled to remote agricultural and mining villages. Potential rivals from other groups such as Kim Tu-bong were also purged.<br />1915 Birth of Hwang Sun-Won<br />2000 Death of Hwang Sun-Won<br />National Anthem<br />Fact Sheet No.6<br />NATIONAL ANTHEM OF JAPAN<br />“Kimigayo” (May your Reign Last Forever)<br />Kimigayo wa<br />Chiyo ni yachiyo ni<br />Sazare-ishi no<br />Iwao to narite<br />Koke no musu made<br />English translation:<br />May your reignContinue for a thousand, eight thousand generations,Until the pebblesGrow into bouldersLush with moss<br />"
Kimi ga Yo"
(君が代?), often translated as "
May your reign last forever"
is Japan's national anthem, and is also one of the world's shortest national anthems in current use with 11 measures and 32 characters. The lyrics are based on a Waka poem written in the Heian period, sung to a melody written in the later Meiji Era. The current melody was chosen in 1880, replacing an unpopular melody composed eleven years earlier.<br />Although Kimi ga Yo had long been Japan's de facto national anthem, it was only legally recognized as such in 1999 with the passing of a bill on national flag and anthem. After its adoption, there was controversy over the performance of the anthem at public school ceremonies. Along with the Hinomaru flag, Kimi ga Yo is claimed by some to be a symbol of Japanese imperialism and militarism.<br />National Anthem of China<br />Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ (March of the Volunteers)<br />PinyinEnglish translationQǐlai! Bùyuàn zuò núlì de rénmen!Bǎ wǒmen de xuèròu, zhúchéng wǒmen xīn de chángchéng!Zhōnghuá mínzú dàole zuì wēixiǎn de shíhou.Měi ge rén bèipòzhe fāchū zuìhòu de hǒushēng.Qǐlai! Qǐlai! Qǐlai!Wǒmen wànzhòngyīxīn,Màozhe dírén de pàohuǒ, qiánjìn!Màozhe dírén de pàohuǒ, qiánjìn!Qiánjìn! Qiánjìn! Jìn!Arise! All who refuse to be slaves!Let our flesh and blood become our new Great Wall!As the Chinese nation faces its greatest peril,All forcefully expend their last cries.Arise! Arise! Arise!Our million hearts beat as one,Brave the enemy's fire, March on!Brave the enemy's fire, March on!March on! March on! On!<br />March of the Volunteers (traditional Chinese: 義勇軍進行曲; simplified Chinese: 义勇军进行曲; pinyin: Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ) is the national anthem of the People's Republic of China (including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region since July 1, 1997 and the Macau Special Administrative Region since December 20, 1999), written by the noted poet and playwright Tian Han with music composed by Nie Er. This composition is a musical march. The piece was first performed as part of a 1934 Shanghai play and its original lyrics are the official lyrics of the national anthem. In 2004, a provision that the March of the Volunteers be the national anthem was added to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China as Article 136.<br />National Anthem of Taiwan<br />"
San Min Chu-i"
(Three Principles of the People)<br />Hanyu Pinyin<br />Sānmín Zhǔyì, wúdǎng suǒ zōng;Yǐ jiàn Mínguó, yǐ jìn dà tóng.Zī'ěr duō shì, wéi mín qiánfēng;Sù yè fěi xiè, zhǔyì shì cóng.Shǐ qín shǐ yǒng, bì xìn bì zhōng;Yì xīn yì dé, guànchè shǐzhōng.<br />OfficialSan Min Chu-i,Our aim shall be:To found, a free land,World peace, be our stand.Lead on, comrades,Vanguards ye are.Hold fast your aim,By sun and star.Be earnest and brave,Your country to save,One heart, one soul,One mind, one goal.LiteralThree Principles of the People,The fundament of our party.Using this, we establish the Republic;Using this, we advance into a state of total peace.Oh, you, warriors, For the people, be the vanguard.Without resting day or night,Follow the Principles.Swear to be diligent; swear to be courageous.Obliged to be trustworthy; obliged to be loyal.With one heart and one virtue,We carry through until the very end.<br />"
National Anthem of the Republic of China"
, is the current national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC). It discusses how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can and should be achieved and maintained using the Three Principles of the People. Informally, the song is sometimes known as "
San Min Chu-i"
Three Principles of the People"
from its opening line, but this is never used in formal or official occasions.<br />National Anthem of Mongolia<br /> <br />Cyrillic script Дархан манай тусгаар улс Даяар Монголын ариун голомт Далай их дээдсийн гэгээн үйлс Дандаа энхжиж, үүрд мөнхөжнө Хамаг дэлхийн шударга улстай Хамтран нэгдсэн эвээ бэхжүүлж Хатан зориг, бүхий л чадлаараа Хайртай Монгол орноо мандуулъя Өндөр төрийн минь сүлд ивээж Өргөн түмний минь заяа түшиж Үндэс язгуур, хэл соёлоо Үрийн үрдээ өвлөн бадраая Эрэлхэг Монголын золтой ардууд Эрх чөлөө жаргалыг эдлэв Жаргалын түлхүүр, хөгжлийн тулгуур Жавхлант манай орон мандтугай <br />English Translation<br />Our unwavering independent nation <br />All Mongols' sacred ancestry <br />All world's good deeds <br />Always stable, forever continue <br />With all honest nations of the world <br />Strengthen our bonds <br />With all our will and strength <br />Let's develop our beloved Mongolia <br />Our great nation's symbol blesses <br />The people's fate supports <br />Our ancestry, culture and language <br />Let's forever cherish and prosper <br />Bright peoples of brave Mongolia <br />Have freedom and happiness <br />Key to happiness, column for prosperity <br />Our great country prosper <br />The National Anthem of Mongolia was created in 1950. The music is a composition by Bilegiin Damdinsüren (1919 - 1991) and Luvsanyamts Murdorj (1915 - 1996), the lyrics were written by Tsendiin Damdinsüren (1908 - 1988).<br />Over the twentieth century, Mongolia had several national anthems. The first one was used between 1924 and 1950. The second between 1950 and 1962, and a third one between 1961 and 1991. Since 1991, most of the anthem of 1950 is used again, but the second verse (praising Lenin, Stalin, Sükhbaatar, and Choibalsan) has been removed. On July 6th, 2006 the lyrics were revised by the Mongolian Parliament to commemorate Genghis Khan.<br />National Anthem of South Korea<br />Aegukga “The Song of Love for the Country"
<br />Revised RomanizationEnglish translationDonghae mulgwa Baekdusani mareugo daltorokHaneunimi bouhasa urinara manseUntil the day when the East Sea's waters and Mt. Baekdu are dry and worn away,God protect and preserve us. Long live our nation!Namsan wie jeo sonamu cheolgabeul dureun deutBaram seori bulbyeonhameun uri gisangilseThe pinetree atop foremountain stands firmly unchanged under wind and frost as if wrapped in armour,as is our resilient spirit.Ga-eul haneul gonghwalhande nopgo gureum eopsiBalgeun dareun uri gaseum ilpyeondansimilseAutumn sky is void and vast, high and cloudless,the bright moon is our heart, undivided and true.I gisanggwa i mameuro chungseong-eul dahayeoGoerouna jeulgeouna nara saranghaseWith this spirit and this mind, give all loyalty,in suffering or in joy, love the country.Mugunghwa samcheolli hwaryeogangsanDaehansaram daehaneuro giri bojeonhaseThree thousand Li of splendid rivers and mountains, filled with Roses of Sharon;Great Korean People, stay true to the Great Korean way.<br />Aegukga is the national anthem of South Korea, though it is not legally recognized as such. The title literally means "
The Song of Love for the Country,"
The Patriotic Song."
<br />It is believed that the lyrics were written at the time of the corner stone ceremony of the Independence Gate in Seoul in 1896 by Yun Chiho, a politician, or by An Chang-ho, a pro-independence leader and educator. Initially, Aegukga was sung to the Scottish folk song "
Auld Lang Syne"
that American missionaries had taught. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (1919-1945) in Shanghai, China adopted it as their national anthem. At a ceremony celebrating the founding of South Korea on 15 August 1948, exactly three years after liberation from Japanese rule, the Scottish tune was finally replaced by the Finale of Korea Fantasia that Ahn Eak-tae had composed in 1935. The new "
was later adopted under the Presidential Decree of 1948 by the then President Syngman Rhee (or Lee Seungman).<br />National Anthem of North Korea<br />Aegukka (The Patriotic Song)<br />McCune-Reischauer transliterationEnglish translationAch'imŭn pinnara i kangsan Ŭn'gŭme chawŏndo kadŭkhanSamch'ŏlli arŭmdaun nae choguk Panmannyŏn oraen ryŏksaëCh'allanhan munhwaro charanan Sŭlgiron inminŭi i yŏnggwangMomgwa mam ta pach'yŏ i chosŏn Kiri pattŭseLet morning shine on the silver and gold of this land,Three thousand leagues packed with natural wealth.My beautiful fatherland.The glory of a wise peopleBrought up in a culture brilliantWith a history five millennia long.Let us devote our bodies and mindsTo supporting this Korea forever.Paektusan kisangŭl ta anko Kŭlloŭi chŏngsinŭn kittŭrŏChilliro mungch'yŏjin ŏksen ttŭt On segye apsŏ nagariSonnŭn him nododo naemirŏ Inminŭi ttŭsŭro sŏn naraHanŏpsi puganghanŭn i chosŏn Kiri pinnaeseEmbracing the atmosphere of Mount Paektu,Nest for the spirit of labour,The firm will, bonded with truth,Will go forth to all the world.The country established by the will of the people,Breasting the raging waves with soaring strength.Let us glorify forever this Korea,Limitlessly rich and strong.<br />Aegukka (The Patriotic Song) is the national anthem of North Korea. It is also known by the first phrase of the song Ach'imŭn pinnara or "
Let Morning Shine."
<br />Before the founding of North Korea, the northern part of Korea initially had as its anthem the same song as South Korea, but North Korea adopted this newly-written piece in 1947. The words were written by Pak Seyŏng (박세영; 朴世永; 1902–1989) and the music was composed by Kim Wŏn'gyun (김원균; 金元均; 1917–2002).<br />