the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the
chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to ...
w Organic chemistry is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific
study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and ...
e A branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and
reactions of carbon-containing compounds.
p The role played by organic chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry continues
to be one of the main drivers in the drug discovery process. ...
w the study of the carbon atom and the compounds it forms, mainly with the 20
lightest elements, especially hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some 3 million
organic compounds have been identified and named.
w A branch of chemistry specialising in the structure, properties, and reactions of
molecules made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms.
w The study of substances which have carbon-hydrogen bonds.
e (p. 322) - the study of compounds in which carbon is the principal element
e the chemistry of compounds that do not contain hydrocarbon radicals
w Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties
and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds
except the myriad organic compounds (compounds containing C-H bonds),
which are the subjects of organic chemistry. ...
e Inorganic Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1962
by the American Chemical Society. ...
e (p. 322) - the study of all compounds and elements in which carbon is not the
What is an Atom ?
All substances are made up of matter and the fundamental unit of matter is the
atom. The atom constitutes the smallest particle of an element. The atom is
made of a central nucleus containing protons (positively-charged) and neutrons
(with no charge). The electrons (negatively-charged with negligible mass) revolve
around the nucleus in different imaginary paths called orbits or shells.
What is an Element ?
An element is a substance made up of atoms of one kind. There are about 82
naturally-occurring elements and about 31 artificially-made elements as listed in
the Periodic Table
What is Atomic Number and Atomic Weight ?
• Atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of
an atom. Since atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons equal
the number of electrons in an atom.
• Atomic weight (or relative atomic mass) of an element is the number of
times an atom of that element is heavier than an atom of hydrogen. The
atomic weight of hydrogen is taken to be unity .
• Mass number of an element is the sum of the number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
The elements are arranged according to increasing atomic numbers (along with
their atomic mass) in a table called the Periodic Table.
What is a Molecule ?
A molecule is formed when atoms of the same or different elements combine. A
molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that can normally exist
• Two atoms of oxygen combine to form a molecule of oxygen [O2].
• One atom of carbon combines with two atoms of oxygen to form a
molecule of carbon dioxide [CO2].
What is a Compound ?
A compound is formed when atoms or molecules of different elements combine.
In a compound, elements are chemically combined in a fixed proportion.
• Hydrogen and oxygen are combined in a fixed proportion of 2:1 to form
the compound water [H2O].
• Carbon and oxygen are combined in a fixed proportion of 1:2 to form the
compound carbon dioxide [CO2].
3 types of carbohydrates
monosaccharides-Monosaccharides (simple sugars) have a carbon skeleton of 3
or more carbons depending on the monosaccharide. The most familiar
monosaccharide is Glucose (C6 H12 O6). A ball and stick model of glucose is
shown here in its ring form, which is the form it takes in water. As a solid, glucose
has a straight chain form which is not shown.
Disaccharides. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides linked together by
a dehydration synthesis.
Sucrose is common disaccharide which functions as a transport sugar in plants.
The production of sucrose by means of a dehydration synthesis is shown here.
Each sucrose molecule is made by chemically combining a glucose and a
A hydrogen is removed from the glucose and a hydroxyl(OH) from the fructose
leaving an oxygen to link the two molecules together.
Lactose, another disaccharide, is commonly called milk sugar.
This diagram shows the synthesis of sucrose from glucose and fructose via a
Polysaccharides are the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere.
The most commonly seen polysaccharide is cellulose and scientist estimate that
over one trillion tons of cellulose are synthesized by plants each year. Cellulose
forms the cell wall of plants.
Starches can be digested by animals but cellulose cannot. Most animals that
injest grass or wood have special micro organisms living in their gut that digest
the cellulose and the animals in turn absorp the breakdown product
This diagram compares the way the glucose units bond in starch versus
cellulose. What differences do you observe? These differences are largely
responsible for the quite different properties of starches and cellulose.