Reconstruction 2011

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Reconstruction 2011

  1. 1. Reconstruction (1865-1877) AP US History
  2. 2. Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan 1. Pardon all southerners who swore an oath of loyalty to the united states 2. Recognize new southern state governments when • 10% of those who had voted in 1860 took the oath • state governments had adopted an amendment abolishing slavery
  3. 3. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address“….With malice toward none, withcharity for all, with firmness in theright as God gives us to see theright, let us strive on to finish thework we are in, to bind up thenations wounds, to care for himwho shall have borne the battle andfor his widow and his orphan, to doall which may achieve and cherish ajust and lasting peace amongourselves and with all nations.”
  4. 4. Presidential Reconstruction Congressional Reaction:Wade-Davis bill (1864)• Administration of southern states by provisional governors• 50% of the male white citizens took an oath of loyalty.• No amnesty for confederate civil officers above ministerial rank and military officers ranking colonel or above.Vetoed by president Lincoln Benjamin Wade
  5. 5. Presidential Reconstruction Abraham Lincoln was assassinatedby John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865
  6. 6. Presidential Reconstruction Andrew Johnson Facts about Johnson: Born in North Carolina Grew up in poverty Moved to Tennessee Became a tailor & slave owner Jacksonian Democrat Hated the plantation owners Became a senator Stayed in the Senate (even after secession) Lincoln’s Vice-President
  7. 7. Presidential Reconstruction Johnson’s Actions Issued blanket pardon to all rebels (except the most prominent)To be readmitted to the union rebel states must:1. Nullify Secession2. Abolish slavery3. Not pay confederate debts
  8. 8. The South’s Response The Black Codes “No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .” “No negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . who is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. .” “ No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town” “ No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons”In parts of Louisiana it was required "that every negro [is] to be in theservice of some white person, or former owner.
  9. 9. The South’s Response"it is almost a dailyoccurrence for black men to be hunteddown with dogs and shot like wild beasts.""since the negro has ceased to be property [their] maiming and killing" went unnoticed. Lynching of slave Amy Spain outside Darlington, South Carolina, courthouse. Harpers Weekly, September 30, 1865
  10. 10. Congress Responds Radical RepublicansRadicals:• came from the north• strongly opposed slavery• controlled congress• Saw the Civil War as a battle between good and evil• Viewed white southerners as traitors• criticized Lincoln for being to lenient on the south• supported a “hard peace” for the south Thaddeus Stevens
  11. 11. Freedman’s Bureau• Established by Congress in 1865• Provided education to former slaves• Vetoed by Johnson "I had the feeling that to get into a schoolhouse . . . would be about the same as getting into paradise." (former slave) Booker T. Washington
  12. 12. Congress responds How did congress limit the power of the president? Impeachment“The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.” -US Constitution
  13. 13. Impeachment How impeachment works House of Representatives Formally accuses the president of wrongdoing (impeachment) ↓ SenateServes as a jury and decides the guilt or innocence of president
  14. 14. Impeachment• Johnson accused of violating the Tenure of Office Act• Impeached by the House of Representatives• Found innocent by the Senate• Remained in office but politically weakened
  15. 15. Thomas Nast
  16. 16. SLIDE # 17
  17. 17. Congressional ReconstructionSituation:• President Johnson has been impeached.• The Radical Republicans control reconstruction• In the South: – Widespread lynching & repression of former slaves – Rebels retake control of government – Northerners treated with hostility/harmed
  18. 18. Military Reconstruction Reconstruction Legislation (1867)South divided - 5 military districts• New state constitutions and government set up• New state governments must grant universal male suffrage• Southern states required to ratify 14th amendment• Confederate government officials could not hold office
  19. 19. The Civil War Amendments Amendment 13 (1865)“Neither slavery norinvoluntary servitude, except asa punishment for crime whereofthe party shall have been dulyconvicted, shall exist within theUnited States, or any placesubject to their jurisdiction.”
  20. 20. The Civil War Amendments Amendment 14 (1868)“All persons born or naturalized in the United States …..arecitizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge theprivileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shallany State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, withoutdue process of law;nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protectionof the laws.”
  21. 21. The Civil War Amendments Amendment 15 (1870)“ The right of citizens of theUnited States to vote shall notbe denied or abridged by theUnited States or by any state onaccount of race, color, orprevious condition ofservitude.”
  22. 22. Rise of the KlanEnforcement Acts (1870):• Stop violence against African Americans• Empowered federal government to combat terrorism w/military force & prosecute guilty individuals
  23. 23. The Presidential Election of 1868 Popular E.C. Votes Votes Republican Ulysses S. Grant 3,013,650 214 Democrat Horatio Seymour 2,708,744 80
  24. 24. Ulysses S. Grant & Reconstruction• Concerned about the fate of Southern African- Americans.• Supported the 15th Amendment• Supported the Civil Rights Act of 1875 – Required equal treatment for African-Americans• The public was loosing This cartoon mocks Grant for his administration’s connection to interest in Reconstruction. Whiskey Ring. Corruption became synonymous with his time in office.
  25. 25. The Presidential Election of 1872 Popular E.C. Votes Votes Republican Ulysses S. Grant 3,598,468 286 Democrat Horace Greeley 2,835,315 0
  26. 26. Liberal Republicans• Opposed Grant because of corruption• Favored an end to Military Reconstruction A mouse (presidential candidate Horace Greeley) emerging from a pile of mud labeled the “Liberal Mountain”
  27. 27. The Presidential Election of 1876 Popular E.C. Votes Votes Republican Rutherford B Hayes 4,033,497 185 Democrat Samuel Tilden 4,288,191 184
  28. 28. Compromise Of 1877Problem: Tilden (Dem) won popular vote Electoral College close vote (4 states had disputed returns) SOLUTION HAYES BECOMES PRESIDENT & FEDERAL TROOPS WITHDRAWN FROM SOUTH (NO enforcement of reconstruction)
  29. 29. The “New” South Reconstruction in the South had been upheld by three groups:• Scalawags – white Southern Republicans• Carpetbagger – Northerners who moved into the South after the war• African-Americans – significant voting block for Radical Republicans
  30. 30. Under a new state constitution in South Carolina,African Americans constituted 76 of the 124 members
  31. 31. The “New” South Southern Poverty Why Did It Lag?1) Investment2) Debt3) Labor The Dilemma of the South Compromise Tenancy & Sharecropping
  32. 32. The “New” South Southern EconomyProblems:• Cycle of debt• Single crop dependency• Poor technology• Less industrialization (Textiles, Iron, Tobacco) Sharecroppers in the 1930’s
  33. 33. SharecroppingA system of agriculture in which the land owner (old plantation owner)allows the tenant (often a former slave) to use a piece of land in returnfor a share of the crop (possibly more than 1/3 of the crop)
  34. 34. The “New” SouthViolence• The South: A Violent Society• The Value of Lynching – White Solidarity – Black Control – Psychological Benefits - Racial, Economic, etc…. More than 3,000 people were lynched between 1882 and 1900.
  35. 35. SLIDE # 36 The South RedeemedWhites were overwhelmingly elected to government in the south after 1877Redeemers:• Democrats• government officials• “Redeem” or win back their states from the Republicans
  36. 36. The “New” South Disenfranchisement (loss of voting rights) 1) Poll Tax 2) Literacy test 3) Grandfather clauseSINCE BLACKS COULD NOT VOTE, AND WHITES VOTEDDEMOCRATIC, the South always voted for the Democratic Partyuntil the 1970’s. It was known as the “Solid South”
  37. 37. The “New” SouthJim Crow (segregation)• Legal Basis – Slaughterhouse Case (1873) – the 14th amendment did not intend to deprive state of the right to control civil rights – Civil Rights Cases (1883) – The Civil Rights Act (1875), which stated that public facilities could not discriminate was unconstitutional. Private acts of racial discrimination were private wrongs. – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Separate facilities were legal as long as those facilities were “separate but equal”
  38. 38. The Fight For Civil Rights Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois• From the South • From the North• Born a slave • Ph.D. Harvard• Argued that blacks • Argued for full equality accommodate segregation – “Talented 10th” – Atlanta Compromise • Niagara Movement• Tuskegee Institute • NAACP – Vocational Education • Wrote The Souls of Black• Wrote Up from Slavery Folk

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