Overview chap 3

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Overview chap 3

  1. 1. UN & Population Control • 1974 Bucharest Meeting – Capitalism vs. Communism • 1994 Cairo Meeting – Fundamentalism vs. SecularismMao Zedong encouragedexpansive population policies
  2. 2. National Population Policies• France: encourages large families – (UK : 3 children = $4,000/year)• Singapore: – 1960s abortion & sterilization – 1990s expansive population policy• Germany – 1930s Eugenics Movement• China: one child policy
  3. 3. Population Policies Most effective means of population control:Urbanization, industrialization, liberation of women, sex education Religions tend to favor big families Islamic Saudi Arabia: high growth rates but Catholic Italy: population declining
  4. 4. Case Study: Japan• Population grew after WWII• 1948 – Contraception & abortion• 1990’s : Population declining – Issues: living space; industrialization; little immigration NEGATIVE POPULATION GROWTH IN JAPAN
  5. 5. Japan is densely populated: 127 million people in an area the size of Montana Capsule Hotels
  6. 6. Case Study: India• Issues: Cultural/Political diversity• Policies: – enforced sterilization (failed) – persuasion
  7. 7. Case Study: China• Mao Zedong – population expanded• 1979 – one child policy – Mandatory contraception after child #1 – Sterilization after child #2 – Exception: Minorities – Forced abortions – “birth control police”• 1984 – One child rule ends in countryside
  8. 8. Miao Mongol Tibetan Uigher Tartar
  9. 9. MIGRATION
  10. 10. How many people left their home country in 2010? 214,000,000 (est.)
  11. 11. Where do the largest number of migrants come from? Where do they go to?Where do they leave? Where did they go?1. China (468,000) 1. US (1,130,000)2. Romania (255,000) 2. Britain (398,000)3. India (226,000) 3. Italy (369,000)4. Poland (204,000) 4. Spain(334,000)5. Mexico (180,000) 5. Russia (299,000) Data from 2009
  12. 12. Policies Targeting Migration• Preventing Migration – Barriers • Walls (China, Berlin…) – Immigration Laws • US – Chinese Exclusion Act; National Origins Act
  13. 13. MOBILITY IN THE U.S.• 5 million move to a new state each year• 35 million move within their state• Average: Americans move every 6 yrs
  14. 14. Distance• Absolute Distance: distance “as the crow flies”• Relative Distance: distance in terms of cost and time
  15. 15. Migration• Emigration: leaving a country• Immigration: entering a country• Internal migration: movement within a country Sichuan
  16. 16. How do people migrate?Every migration International migrantshas a return flow are usually young adults Ernst Ravenstein “Laws” of Migration (1885)Long distance migrants Most people migrate move to big cities short distances (step migration) City dwellers move less than rural people
  17. 17. The Gravity Model • Migration is based upon – The size of the population in each place – Distance between placesStrength of the bond Population (1) x Population (2)between two places = Distance²
  18. 18. Reasons for Migration Environmental Problems Technology Political War Culture/Tradition Poverty Oppression
  19. 19. Immigration & Assimilation“Dish City” - Europe
  20. 20. Push & Pull Factors Push Factors Pull Favors Lead people to Attract people to leave their homes particular placesHigh cost of livingin New York Climate in Florida
  21. 21. Push or Pull Factor?1. Pollution2. Kinship (family) links3. Political oppression4. Natural disaster5. Lack of work6. University7. Security8. Religious freedom
  22. 22. Distance Decay
  23. 23. Intervening Opportunity• Migrants are often more familiar with places closer to home – can lead to step migration.• Many migrants do not make it to their final destination because of intervening opportunity.
  24. 24. Voluntary Migration
  25. 25. Forced Migration Partition of India (1947)Trail of Tears (1830’s) Clearances in Scotland (18th/19th C)
  26. 26. Human Trafficking Modern Slavery in Muttontown Long Island • Two Indonesian housekeepers were kept as virtual slaves. • They were beaten, slashed with knives for misdeeds such as sleeping late or stealing food from the trash because they were so poorly fed.
  27. 27. Types of Movement• Action (Activity) Space – People have a routine that takes them through a series of short moves• Cyclic Movement – Closed route repeated frequently (nomads)• Commuting• Seasonal Movement• Nomadism – people move with animals following water sources and pastureland• Periodic Movement – people move away from home for a long period of time• Transhumance – people move with livestock
  28. 28. Woman from Bahia, Brazil
  29. 29. Ethnic Suriname
  30. 30. Bali
  31. 31. Old vs. New Immigration to US• Pre 1880 • Post 1880 – N & W Europe – E & S Europe – Protestant – Catholic/Jewish – Assimilated – Ethnic Ghettos
  32. 32. Gastarbeiters(Guestworkers)
  33. 33. Brain Drain Sergey Brin Andreas von Bechtolsheim & Vinod Khosla
  34. 34. Refugees• United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR)• Refugee: “a person who has a well- founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion”• International vs. Intranational refugees• Permanent vs. Temporary refugees
  35. 35. Refugee vs. Migrant• How is a refugee different from a migrant? – Little or no property – Sudden displacement (trip not planned) – No official documentation
  36. 36. Abandoned German farm in Romania

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