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Language 2010


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Language 2010

  1. 1. DeBlij Chapter 6: Language AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
  2. 2. LANGUAGE• Language: “a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of signs, gestures, marks and…. Vocalization” Offensive in S. Europe & Brazil Offensive in Iran
  3. 3. LANGUAGE• Standard Language: (often originates from area around the most important city) – Britain: Received Pronunciation – China: Northern Mandarin – Modern Standard Arabic
  4. 4. DIALECTS• Dialects: – regional variations of standard language• Isoglosses: – indicate the extent of the area in which a particular word is used• Mutual Intelligibility: – two people can understand each other when speaking Regional Accent: Glasgow, Scotland
  5. 5. British Colloquialisms (slang) • Gutted • Devastated • Snog • Kiss • Loo • Bathroom • Nosh • Food • Chav • Trashy person • Git • Annoying person
  6. 6. What is the word for this?
  7. 7. “I caught the train”
  8. 8. 1. Spanish 2. French 3. German 4. Chinese 5. Japanese 6. Urdu 7. PersianInto what languages do you 8. Hindi 9. Russian think the New York City 10.Bengali school system translates 11.Haitian Creoleofficial communications with 12.Korean parents? 13.Arabic
  9. 9. What makes a distinct language?– Not simply the ability to comprehend others– A language represents a cultural community– Currently about 5,000- 6,000 languages (600 in India; 1000 in Africa)
  10. 10. Indo-European Languages• Spoken by 50% of people• Found in Asia & Europe• Most widely spoken Indo- European languages: English: 445 million Hindi: 366 million Spanish: 340 million Language Group Language Subfamily Language Family
  11. 11. INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES NUMBERS 1-5 Irish Persian 1. Aon 1. Yak 2. Do 2. Do 3. Tri 3. Se 4. Ceathair 4. Cahar 5. Cuig 5. PanjItalian Bengali1. Uno 1. Ek2. Due 2. Dvi3. Tre 3. Tri4. Quattro 4. Car5. Cinque 5. pac
  13. 13. How did the Indo-European Language spread from the Russian Steppe 5,000 years ago?• Conquest Theory: Indo-Europeans spread west into Europe on horseback overpowering local populations and spreading their language
  14. 14. Agriculture Theory Proto-European languages spread into Europe through agricultureProblem: Russian Steppe not an agricultural center – so proposed hearth in TurkeyEvidence: Genetic distance decay originating from southern TurkeySuggestion: Agricultural frontier moved 11 miles every generation (25 years)
  15. 15. English: FriendScottish: Car UralicIrish: Cara LanguagesWelsh: Ceraint (non Indo-European)Breton: KamaradBasque, a pre- Altaic LanguageIndo-European (non Indo-European)language, is alanguage isolate(it does notseem to berelated to otherlivinglanguages)
  16. 16. Catalan“only firefighters allowed to park here”,
  17. 17. Longest Town Name (Welsh)The church of St. Mary in the hollow of white hazel trees near the rapid whirlpool by St. Tysilios of the red cave
  18. 18. English Hebrew ArabicFather Aba abEarth ‘olam ‘alamMother Em UmmRain Matar MatarKnife Sakeen Sikeen
  19. 19. Most people near andsouth of the Equatorspeak a Bantulanguage. Bantulanguages areinterrelated suggestingthat they are recentlanguagesThe oldest languagesbelong to the KhoisanFamily
  20. 20. Madagascar was populatedoriginally by people from Asia
  21. 21. “Turkic” States•Azerbaijan•Turkey•Kazakhstan•Kyrgyzstan•Turkmenistan•UzbekistanUralic Languages•Finnish•Estonian•Saami•Hungarian
  22. 22. Hindi is themost prominentIndo-EuropeanLanguageDravidianLanguageappears to havebeen “pushed”south.Dravidianlanguages mayhave originatedas a Altaiclanguage or fromthe Indus RiverCivilization
  23. 23. Mandarin is• one of the world’s oldest languages• spoken by the greatest contiguous population clusters on EarthTo create anational language,China developedthe Pinyin (“spellsound”) systemMao Tse Tung Mao ZedongPeking BeijingSaving Face in China
  24. 24. TRACING LANGUAGES• Sound Shift: – The analysis of similar words having similar sounds • German: Vater • Dutch: Vader • English: Father• Deep Reconstruction: – Tracing the origins of languages
  25. 25. August Schleicher (19th C.)Proposed Language TreeLanguage Divergence:• Languages branch into dialects• Isolation increases differences• Eventually dialects become distinct languagesLanguage Convergence:• Due to migration, languages may come together (Spanglish)Language Replacement:• Traditional, small languages are replaced by invasion
  26. 26. pre-Proto-Indo-Europeanlanguageexisted.They calledit Nostratic.The Nostratic language tells us about its speakersNo words for domesticated plants/animals – probably hunters &gatherers
  27. 27. AMERICAN LANGUAGESEastern Hemisphere40 language familiesWestern Hemisphere200 language families – Native American languages appear to have diverged quickly
  28. 28. WHAT HAS INFLUENCED THE SPREAD OF LANGUAGES?• Factors: – Literacy – Technology – Political organization• Large, technologically advanced, literate societies spread their languages (e.g. Latin)• Linguistic divergence occurs when the Roman Empire falls• Important influences for European languages: – The Printing Press (1588) – Rise of Nation States
  29. 29. Bilingualism• U.S. – Large Hispanic Minority (esp. S & S.W.) – Backlash – “English Only” groups – Bilingualism & Regional Division • Canada • Belgium – Does Bilingualism create social and economic isolation?
  30. 30. Multilingualism• Monolingual States: – Japan, Uruguay, Venezuela, Iceland, Portugal, Poland, Lesotho – No true monolingual states (all have minorities)• Multilingual States: – Bilingual States: Canada & Belgium – Multilingual: Switzerland; India; South Africa
  31. 31. Language & TradeEsperanto "La inteligenta persono lernas la interlingvon Esperanto rapide kaj facile.• Invented language for mass Esperanto estas la moderno, kultura lingvo communication por la internacia mondo. Simpla, fleksebla, praktiva solvo de la problemo de universala• Indo-European language interkompreno, Esperanto meritas vian seriozan konsieron. Lernu la interlingvon• Not widely adopted Esperanto." – Europeans multilingual “The intelligent person learns the language – Nobody ‘needed’ to learn Esperanto quickly and easily. Esperanto is the modern, cultural language for the Esperanto international world. A simple, flexible, practical solution of the problem of an universal mutual understanding, Esperanto deserves your serious consideration. Learn language Esperanto."
  32. 32. Language & TradeLingua Franca• A common language spoken by people with different native tongues• Swahili – Mix of Bantu languages, Arabic, PersianCreolization• Languages sound different when spoken far away• Pidgin: a simplified or modified language – Caribbean – Pidgin English (African languages & simple English) – Pidgin becomes more complex and becomes a lingua franca called “creole”
  33. 33. Canada• British North America Act (1867) – Granted French law & language in Quebec• Quebec Today – 85% French speaking – All business must function in French – All commercial signs must be in French
  34. 34. BelgiumToday Dutch speaking north (Flanders) French speaking south (Wallonia) Attempt to make French official language created a Flemish identity
  35. 35. NigeriaToday• 3 major languages – Hausa – Northern lingua franca – Yoruba – Southwestern language – Ibo – Southeastern language• Nigeria chose English as the official language• English takes time to learn and is not always useful for local employment
  36. 36. Official Languages• Theoretically used by the elite and meant to enhance communication• Official Languages – Benin – French – Angola – Portuguese – Mauritania – French, Arabic – Suriname – Dutch – Singapore – English, Malay, Chinese, Tamil – United States – No official language• Official languages sometimes associated with colonizer
  37. 37. ToponymyTrentino, Italy
  38. 38. Toponymy• Two-Part Names – Amsterdam (River Amstel + dam) Classification? – Battle Creek, MI (Event + feature) • Smithtown – Budapest (towns of Buda + Pest) • Hauppauge• Classifying Place Names • Stony Brook – Descriptive (Rocky Mountains) • Port Jefferson – Associative (Mill Valley, California) • Kings Park – Incident (Battle Creek, Michigan) • Belle Terre – Possessive (Johnson City, Texas) – Commemorative (San Francisco) – Commendatory (Paradise Valley, Arizona)
  39. 39. Changing Place Names• Colonialism – Rhodesia became Zimbabwe• Conflict – Islas Malvinas or Falkland Islands? – Congo or Zaire? Cecil Rhodes
  40. 40. Londonderry or Derry?
  41. 41. How does globalization affect languages?