Agriculture 2013


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Agriculture 2013

  2. 2. TYPES OF ACTIVITIES• Primary Activities Extracting something from the Earth• Secondary Activities Conversion of raw materials into products• Tertiary Activities Provide services• Quaternary/Quinary Specialized services in information and education Activities
  3. 3. AGRICULTURE• Agriculture – “the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food and fiber”• US - # farmers ↓ but farm output ↑↑• Most Countries - Agriculture the primary occupation
  4. 4. Food Taboos
  5. 5. HUNTING AND GATHERING• Farming only began 12,000 years ago• Pre-Farming peoples relied on hunting and gathering Ainu people of Japan San people of Southern Africa
  6. 6. The destruction of the buffalo ended the nomadic lifestyle of Plains Indians
  7. 7. Three copper-baseBronze Age (3,000 BC-1200 BC) edgedweapons from TellAbraq, U.A.E.
  8. 8. FIRST AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION Neolithic Revolution• First Agricultural Revolution (10,000 BC) – ↑ carrying capacity → to ↑ population – migration of farmers – First occurred in SE and SW Asia Ziggurat (Ur, Iraq) – Later in Europe, Africa & the Americas
  9. 9. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REGIONS OF DOMESTICATION Primary Regions Secondary RegionsCitrus–Rice–Tea–Sugarcane– Nutmeg Peaches–Soybeans–Pears Southeast Asia China Rices–Sorghums–Eggplant Dates–Garlic–Olives India Mediterranean Lentils–Onions–Grapes Yams–Kola nut–Peas Middle East East Africa Coffee– Cotton Potatoes–Tomatoes–Pumpkin East Africa South America Tomatoes–Chili peppers Pineapple–Tobacco–Peanuts Central America South America
  10. 10. Dates Lentils Peaches Garlic Onions Soybeans Olives grapes pearstomatoes Coffee rices citruschili cotton sorghums Ricespeppers eggplant tea Yams Sugarcane kola nut nutmeg pineapple peas Tobacco potatoes peanuts Tomatoes pumpkin
  11. 11. Karl Sauer proposed early agricultural hearths
  12. 12. ANIMAL DOMESTICATION May have begun 8,000 years ago Pigs water buffalo chickens SE Asia goats sheep camel SW Asiayak horse goats sheep Central Asia llama alpaca turkey MesoamericaCattle Asian elephant? S Asiaguinea fowl (no livestock) Africa
  13. 13. SUBSISTENCE FARMING• Shifting cultivation: farmers move when the soil becomes infertile – AKA slash & burn agriculture; milpa; patch agriculture etc. – Occurs in sparsely populated areas• Small plot farming: – Subsistence agriculture – May sell a little at market – Impoverished tenant farmers 100-200 million farmers do not raise cash crops – they are subsistence farmers
  14. 14. Subsistence Agriculture
  15. 15. SECOND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONOccurred in 1600s & 1700’s• Made food production more efficient – Tools developed – crop care – harvesting improved – Selective breeding• Europe’s population ↑• Industrial Revolution enhanced these changes
  16. 16. Johann von Thünen (1783-1850)• Author of The Isolated State• Assumes land is flat and soil is uniform• Perishable and highly priced items were grown nearest the town.• Further away from town, bulkier and less expensive crops were grown.• Furthest away were livestock farms
  17. 17. Why would von Thünen’s model… Call for these to be grown closer to townand these to be grownfurther from townLand rents and transportation costs to market govern land usage
  18. 18. THIRD AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION The “Green Revolution”• Began in 1945• Emphasis on developing world • Prevented famine in Asia, L.A. (not Africa)• Key Idea:– Experimental seed varieties (IR8 rice) Requirements for success– New farm techniques – Cultural acceptance– equipment – middle class farmers– Pesticides – education– fertilizers – availability of credit– By 1990’s: pest resistant rice with 3 – political stability growing cycles per year – good transportation networks
  19. 19. Problems with the Green Revolution• ↓ genetic diversity• soil erosion• water shortages• salinization• debt• Cancer (pesticides)• Class divisions – Rural-urban migration
  20. 20. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)• Dates back to the 1970’s• Issue: Genetic engineering• Pest resistant foods could produce “super bugs”• Effects of inserted genes on people - Health risks?• GM foods embraced by China; rejected by Europe List of GM Foods (2006)
  21. 21. hypoallergenic cat for petlovers prone to allergies.“Mr. Green Glow” has been engineered tohave fluorescent skin Ailurophobic’s worst nightmare!
  23. 23. CASH CROPS & PLANTATION AGRICULTURE Age of European colonization Core (Europe) manufactured goods Periphery (colony) raw materials “cash crop” TodayCash crops a source of money for ‘periphery’Price dictated by ‘core’
  24. 24. CASH CROPS & PLANTATION AGRICULTURE Pineapple PlantationPlantation agriculture: - “cash crops grown on large estates”Plantations found in Latin America; Africa; S. AsiaPlantation may be owned by multinational corporations – United Fruit Corp. in Guatemala
  25. 25. CASH CROPS & PLANTATION AGRICULTURE• Cotton Production – Southern US; China; Egypt; India; Brazil…. – 19th C industrialization led to mass production• Luxury Products: – Tea – Coffee – the second most valuable commodity traded (oil first) – Cacao – Tobacco
  26. 26. Gezira Scheme (Sudan)• One of the largest irrigation projects at 8,800 sq. miles (about the size of NJ)• Cotton culture
  27. 27. Rubber Plantation, Vietnam
  28. 28. Tea Plantation, Mauritius Your Coffee Dollar
  29. 29. Cote d’Ivoire
  30. 30. Java, Indonesia Logging & Landslides
  31. 31. Haiti - Deforestation
  32. 32. Hundreds of fires burn in the Amazon rainforest in Peru (left) and Brazil (right). The firesare seen as red squares in this image taken by the Aqua satellite on the afternoon ofSeptember 1, 2003.
  33. 33. Slash & burn in the Amazon
  34. 34. Fair PriceFair Labor ConditionsDirect TradeDemocratic OrganizationsCommunity DevelopmentEnvironmental Sustainability
  35. 35. Afghanistan• The average gross income from opium cultivation exceeded wheat—by as much as 27 times
  36. 36. COMMERCIAL LIVESTOCK, FRUITS & GRAIN…Dairying NE US and NW EuropeMixed livestock & crop farming E. US; W. Europe; Russia; S. AmericaLivestock ranching US; Canada; Mexico, Brazil; Argentina; AustraliaRice US (leading producer); Thailand; VietnamMediterranean Agriculture Mediterranean Europe; California;(olives, figs, dates..) South Africa; ChileIllegal Drugs Coca (Columbia, Peru, Bolivia); Heroin & Opium (South Asia especially Afghanistan)
  37. 37. US 92 Million 280 MillionPopulation
  38. 38. Organic Crops
  39. 39. AGRIBUSINESS• Agribusiness: the transformation of farms in corporations – Concentrates agricultural activities – Example: Poultry farming • Large scale hatcheries and feed mills • Farmers as managers • Important decisions made by the corp. – (choice of feed; collection of birds…)
  40. 40. Open Range FarmingFeedlots
  41. 41. The Meatrix
  42. 42. EARLY HOUSING• Larger communities leads to more complex housing• Functional Differentiation – Building built for specific purposes Catal Hüyük – Difference in quality based upon wealth
  43. 43. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS DETERMINE HOUSINGStilt housing in a flood zone Yurt housing for nomadic people Igloo illustrates use of available materialSteeple roof for snow/rain
  44. 44. Great Plains lacks trees therefore settlers built “sod” houses Housing in the Southwest
  45. 45. UNCHANGED TRADITIONAL HOUSES• Houses have not been significantly altered in a century• Can be modified but changes not borrowed from other cultures• Usually in areas resisting foreign influence Tower Houses of Sana’a, Yemen
  46. 46. UNCHANGED TRADITIONAL HOUSESAfrica Ireland Indonesia Germany
  47. 47. TRADITIONAL HOUSING IN US • New England “saltbox” • Mid-Atlantic style adapted from one room log cabin • Southern houses usually reflect relative poverty; one story; porch & raised platform to vent heat
  48. 48. MODIFIED TRADITIONAL HOUSESNew building materialsused or new elementsadded that do notfundamentally alter thestructure Modified South African “rondeval” home
  50. 50. MODERNIZED TRADITIONAL HOUSES• Far-reaching modifications of floor plan and layout• Only elements of the traditional
  51. 51. MODERN HOUSING• Most common in US• Practicality; hygiene; comfort most important American ranch-style house
  52. 52. Suburbia: Aesthetically pleasing?
  53. 53. “Cubic houses” in Rotterdam, Netherlands
  54. 54. Houses can be categorized based upon theirstructure & materials Zulu beehive house made out of grasses and brush
  55. 55. In the 1920’s the California Ranch moved east.Because of climate differences, this is an exampleof maladaptive diffusion
  56. 56. SETTLEMENTSHamlet• small (dozen) cluster of housesVillage• social stratification• differentiated building• 50% of world’s population live in villages• May stress traditional values
  57. 57. Dutch villageItalian hilltop village Chinese village Colombian Village
  58. 58. PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENTDelineating land• Primogeniture: all land to eldest male – Northern Europe & areas of colonization – Leads to large estates• Land divided among heirs – Southern Europe – Leads to small scattered plots – Cause of emigration
  59. 59. Cadastral system: shows property lines
  60. 60. • The metes and bounds system was the earliest form of surveying land.• It used natural features to mark boundaries into irregular lots.• This system comes form Europe and was used along the eastern seaboard of the US
  61. 61. Surveying Land• The rectangular survey system was adopted in the US as part of the township and range system designed to spread settlement across the country.• Also seen in Canada
  62. 62. Map of Kansas counties showing the influence ofthe rectangular survey system
  63. 63. Town in South Dakota
  64. 64. • French influence on land Survey• Long Lot Survey system found in Canada, Louisiana and Texas