1. International Marketing
Marketing that is concerned to
integrating or standardizing marketing
actions across different geographic
RISKS IN INTERNATIONAL
International trade is characteristically very complex.
There are many risks in international marketing.
A bank's lack of ability to honor its
insolvency of the buyer
Risk of Exchange rate
import and exports licenses
Risk of the imposition of an import ban after the
delivery of the goods
Changes in the policies of the government
Lack of foreign currency
Risks due to war
Lack of knowledge of overseas
Inclination to corrupt business
Risk of the various kinds natural
catastrophes, which cannot be 9
Indicators of market potential
.Size of population
. Rate of population growth
. Degree of urbanization
. Population density
. Age structure and composition of
. Physical size of a country
. Topographical characteristics
. Climate conditions
. GNP per capita
. Income distribution
. Rate of growth of GNP
. Ratio of investment to GNP
Distribution refers to the way in which
consumers find out about product and the
channels they use to research it and make
The options available to international marketer
in organizing direct distribution include
sending missionary skies representatives
abroad from the headquarter, setting up of
local sales/branch office in the foreign country
or for a region, establishing a subsidiary
abroad, entering into a joint venture or
Indirect channels are further classified based
on whether the international marketer makes
use of domestic intermediaries. An
international marketer therefore, can make use
of the following types of intermediaries for
distribution in foreign markets.
Wholesalers provide retail travel agents with
brochured travel packages, usually offering
transport, accommodation and activities. Most
wholesalers are based outside of New Zealand.
Some own retail agencies or sell directly to the
Selling directly to the public, retail travel agents
are the face of the travel industry consumers see
everyday. They will either deal direct with
operators (particularly for short-break holidays) or
sell products out of wholesaler brochures.
Marketing ethics address principles that define acceptable
conduct in the market place . Marketing usually occurs on the
context of develop from the pressure to meet performance
objectives .Same obvious ethical issues in marketing involves
clear cut attempts to take advantages of a situation .
The American marketing Association has its own code of
ethics . This code covers ethical issues on promotions,
distribution, pricing and marketing research .
It is our belief that good marketing is ethical marketing.
Good marketing is about satisfying and developing a long term
relationship with any customer. Caring about any customer
not only results in profit , It is ethical thing to do.
Deceiving customers may help a firms profits in the short
run, but it is not the way to build a successful business . The
same goes social responsibility. A firm has to care about all
stakeholders, customers, employees , suppliers, distributors in
which they do business society and environment.
There are many reasons to understand and develop the
most effective approaches to manage marketing ethics. All
organizations face significant threats from ethical
misconduct and illegal behavior. If we want to achieve a
long term objectives, we must follow marketing ethics.
Without marketing ethics, we can not run any business
permanently. So marketing ethics is the most important
component in business world an ultra modern age.
Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy
that involves systematizing defending and recommending concept
………is a form of applied ethics or
professional ethics that examines ethical
principles and moral.
Impact of ethics on marketing
Ethics create a great impact on international
Such as cultural, religion, environmental,
Code of ethics
The American Marketing association commits
itself to promoting the highest standard of
professional ethical norms and values.
1. Marketers must do no harm.
2. Marketers must foster trust in the
3.Marketers must embrace, communicate
and practice the fundamental ethical values
that will improve consumer relationship.