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  1. 1. Chapter Five Individual Differences: Personality, Attitudes, Abilities and Emotions Irwin/McGraw-Hill <ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter Five Outline <ul><li>Self-Concept: The I and Me in OB - Self-Esteem: A Controversial Topic - Self-Efficacy - Self-Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Personality: Dimensions, Insights, and Issues - The Big Five Personality Dimensions - Locus of Control: Self or Environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and Behaviour - Attitudes versus Values - Attitudes and Behavioural Intentions - Attitudinal Research and Application </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities and Performance - Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities - Jung’s Cognitive Styles Typology </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions: An Emerging OB Topic - Positive and Negative Emotions - More Attention Needed - Managing Anger </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-1 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
  3. 3. Self-Esteem <ul><li>Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE): “Self-perceived value that individuals have of themselves as organization members acting within an organizational context.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Determinants and Consequences of Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of OBSE - Managerial respect - Organizational structure - Job complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Factors Influenced by OBSE - Global self-esteem - Job performance - Intrinsic motivation - General satisfaction - Citizenship behaviour - Organizational commitment and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-2 Self-esteem : “A belief about one’s own self-worth based on an overall self-evaluation.” Irwin/McGraw-Hill
  4. 4. Self-Efficacy <ul><li>A Model of Self-Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs : - Prior experience - Behaviour models - Persuasion from others - Assessment of physical/emotional state </li></ul>Self-efficacy : “A person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.” <ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-3 Irwin /McGraw-Hill
  5. 5. Self-Monitoring <ul><li>Two horns of a behavioural dilemma ? Very high self-monitors are criticized for being inconsistent chameleons while very low self-monitors are criticized for being too self-centred and insensitive to others. </li></ul><ul><li>For class discussion : What is the appropriate degree of self-monitoring for managerial success in modern organizations? </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-4 Irwin /McGraw-Hill Self-monitoring : “The extent to which a person observes their own self-expressive behaviour and adapts it to the demands of the situation.”
  6. 6. The Big Five Personality Dimensions <ul><li>Extroversion : Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness : Trusting, good natured, co-operative, soft hearted </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness : Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional stability : Relaxed, secure, unworried </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to experience : Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded </li></ul><ul><li>Research finding : Conscientiousness is the best (but not a strong) predictor of job performance </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-5 Irwin /McGraw-Hill
  7. 7. Seven Major Mental Abilities <ul><li>Verbal comprehension : Meaning of words and reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Word fluency : Ability to produce isolated words to meet specific requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical : Arithmetic computation </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial: Perceive spatial patterns and visualize geometric shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Memory: Good rote memory of words, symbols, and lists </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed : Perception of similarities and differences in figures </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning : Reasoning from specifics to general conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-6 Irwin /McGraw-Hill
  8. 8. Jung’s Cognitive Styles Typology <ul><li>Sensation/thinking (ST): Use senses for perception and rational thinking for judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition/thinking (NT): Focuses more on possibilities than on facts; theoretical and technical abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation/feeling (SF): Factual person who relates well to others </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition/feeling (NF): Has artistic flair and relies on personal insights rather than facts </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-7 Irwin /McGraw-Hill
  9. 9. Emotions <ul><li>Positive and Negative Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Negative emotions (Goal incongruent): - Anger - Fright/anxiety - Guilt/shame - Sadness - Envy/jealousy - Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotions (Goal congruent) - Happiness/joy - Pride - Love/affection - Relief </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-8 Irwin /McGraw-Hill Emotions: “Complex, patterned, organismic reactions to how we think we are doing in our lifelong efforts to survive and flourish and to achieve what we wish for ourselves.”
  10. 10. How To Manage Yourself And Others <ul><li>Expect angry people to exaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the other’s frustrations and pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Use the provocation to develop your abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to problem solve when the anger is at moderate levels </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulate yourself on turning an outburst into an opportunity to find solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Share successes with partners </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 </li></ul>5-9 Irwin /McGraw-Hill Responding to Angry Provocation Guides For Action: