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  1. 1. Properties of Carbon• The atomic symbol is C• The atomic number is 6 – The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom.• The atomic mass is 12.01g – The mass number is the total protons and neutrons in an atom‟s nucleus.• The freezing point is 3500 C• The boiling point is 4827 C
  2. 2. Electron Configuration Diagrams• Carbon has 6 electrons, 6 neutrons, and 6 protons.• The electron configuration of carbon is [He] 2s2 2p2• The atomic radius is 77 pm or 0.91Å• Its oxidation states are 4 and 2
  3. 3. Carbon Compounds• Graphite (2 types of graphite) • Alpha • Beta• Diamond• Fullerines• “White” Carbon – It was discovered in 1969. It is a transparent birefringent material.
  4. 4. Carbon dioxide Characteristics• The chemical formula is CO2• The molecule weight is 44• The Triple point is -56°C 4.28 bar rel.• The sublimation temperature (atm) is 78.9°C• The critical temperature is 31°C• The critical pressure is 73.96 bar rel.• The sublimation heat at -78.9°C is 136,89 cal/kg• The specific weight in the gaseous phase at 0°C and at atm is 1.977 kg/m³
  5. 5. Molecular Structure of Carbon
  6. 6. Facts about Carbon• In 1990, the cost of carbon 13 was about $700 per gram• It is abundant in the sun, stars, comets, and the atmospheres of most planets.• Diamonds are a form of carbon. It is found in kimberlite of ancient volcanic „pipes‟ found in South America.
  7. 7. The Carbon Cycle Carbon atoms continually move through living organisms, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the rocks that make up the earth system. This movement is known as the carbon cycle. The paths taken by carbon atoms through this cycle are extremely complex, and may take years to millions of years to come full circle. In the cycle there are various sinks, or stores, of carbon and fluxes, or processes, by which the various sinks exchange carbon on various time scales.
  8. 8. The Carbon Cycle Evaporation Weathering Carbon Carbon In Carbon InIn Ocean Water Atmosphere Rocks Dissolution Tectonics Decomposition Photosynthesis Combustion Respiration Plants Soil FossilPhytoplankton Marine Sediment Lithification Fuels “Biomass” Consumption “Organic Matter” Boxes are carbon sinks Arrows are carbon fluxes
  9. 9. Why is Carbon so Important?1. All life, from a whale to a redwood tree, down to a lady bug, to an amoeba, down to our cells, even to the components inside our cells — all of it contains carbon. Carbon is the “duct tape of life,” It holds us together.2. Carbon is the main source of food3. Hydrocarbon Moleculeseat carbon molecules energy. When you (coal oil, natural gas) are the primary sources of energy in our (plantssociety. modern and animals), the digestive juices4. Carbon Molecules (CO2 and the4) in the bonds in your stomach break CH carbon inside andare greenhouseenergy andthe form atmosphere release the gasses in are play a key role in climate change. of calories.
  10. 10. What’s so Special About Carbon? Carbon is one of the most important elements in the earth system. The carbon atom has four valence electrons e- and has the ability to e- form bonds with as many as four other atoms e- C e- including other carbon atoms. e- e-
  11. 11. Problem Description• Have you ever seen a greenhouse? Most greenhouses look like a small glass house. Greenhouses are used to grow plants, especially in the winter. Greenhouses work by trapping heat from the sun. The glass panels of the greenhouse let in light but keep heat from escaping. This causes the greenhouse to heat up, much like the inside of a car parked in sunlight, and keeps the plants warm enough to live in the winter.
  12. 12. • The Earth’s atmosphere is all around us. It is the air that we breathe. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere behave much like the glass panes in a greenhouse. Sunlight enters the Earths atmosphere, passing through the blanket of greenhouse gases. As it reaches the Earths surface, land, water, and biosphere absorb the sunlight’s energy. Once absorbed, this energy is sent back into the atmosphere. Some of the energy passes back into space, but much of it remains trapped in the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases, causing our world to heat up.
  13. 13. The greehouse effect
  14. 14. Causes• The main causes are:• The big amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.• The release of greenhouse gases like CO2, s,etc.• Accelerated usages of fosil fuels.• Lack of education to save eletricity at home and therefore less releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by energy plants.
  15. 15. Causes
  16. 16. Effects• Temperature increase in the whole planet.• Climate change due to the increase of heat in the earth.• Increase in sea levels due to the ice melting .• Forestal burnings.
  17. 17. Effects
  18. 18. Possible Solutions• Saving energy at home, turning off the lights when they are not being used and trying to use the microwave oven the less possible.• Don’t use the car unless you are gonna go to a place far from your house, not to go to the corner.• Don’t do littering, because an acumulation of garbage produces methane, that is one of the greenhouses gases.
  19. 19. Conclusions• The conclusions according to me, is that we have to start to think about our planet because it’s the only place that we have to live and if our planet is destroyed we wouldn’t have a place where to go so we have to do the preventive measures to help to stop this problem.
  20. 20. Green House Gases: An Introduction
  21. 21. Definition Earth gets energy from the Sun mostly from visible light Half of this energy is passed through Earth’s atmosphere since the atmosphere is transparent to visible light Energy that reaches the Earth is absorbed by the surface as heat Earths surface radiates heat energy back out as infrared waves Greenhouse gases, not transparent to infrared, trap and absorb earth’s returning infrared radiations This delicate system prevents the wild swings in temperature between day and night that planets with no green house gases experience
  22. 22. The Problem is the Balance Too many green house gases and the earth warms up  Venus, with lots of CO2 , heats up to 872 F Too few green house gases and the earth cools off, and day and night temperatures swing more wildly
  23. 23. THE GREENHOUSE GASES C nrb to soGr H u eGa es o ti ui n f een o s s Water vapor • NF3 Carbon Dioxide • Ozone Methane CO er Ft s NO s Ch • CFC-12 Nitrous Oxidee Oo zn Mh e et an • CFC-11 C bn ar o Wat r e do d i xi e v o ap r
  24. 24. Rise in Greenhouse Gases
  25. 25. Rise in Greenhouse Gases International Energy Commission estimates Green House Gas emissions must rise by 45 percent by the year 2030 last 650,000 years 6.1 Held steady at 180 to 300 ppm over the last 650,000 years By the end of the 21st century, CO2 concentrations will rise to 490 ppm to 1260 ppm (75-350% above the pre-industrial concentration)
  26. 26. Rises inGreenhouseGases: 5000 Years
  27. 27. Increase in Some Green House Gases Increase since Preindustrial Current Level 1750 Gas Level Carbon 280 ppm 384 ppm 104 ppm Dioxide Methane 700 ppm 1745 ppm 1045 ppm Nitrous 270 ppb 314 ppb 44 ppb Oxide CFC12 -- -- 553 ppt 553 ppt
  28. 28. Where They From 1990 to 2007, overall In 2008, a white paper from the U.S. green house gas Chinese government admittedCome emissions have rise by green China’s contributions of14.7 From percent. the had exceeded house gasesUnited States 10.2 those of the United States 10.1
  29. 29.  Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. Its name derives from the Greek roots) ("acid", literally "sharp", referring to the sour taste and - ("producer", literally "begetter"), because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition. Atstandard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2.
  30. 30.  The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere(air), the total content of biological matter within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), and the lithosphere (Earths crust). Failures in the oxygen cycle within the hydrosphere (the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet) can result in the development of hypoxic zones.
  31. 31. Oxygen Cycle Movement of oxygen between the atmosphere and the biota 21% of atmosphere Released by photosynthesis Consumed by respiration
  32. 32. Oxygen Cycle
  33. 33. Ozone O3
  34. 34. The Ozone Layer absorbs most of UV light from sun in stratosphere.
  35. 35. How ozone is formed UV or lightning splits an oxygen (O2) - these join other O2 to form O3
  36. 36. Breaking apart CFCstakes10-20 yrs forCFC molecules toreach stratosphere
  37. 37. Solar Radiation Types1. UV-A – milding irritating2. UV-B – most harmful to organisms3. UV-C – deadly ; does not reach Earth’s surface
  38. 38. Dec 2007
  39. 39. Sept 2007
  40. 40. The Ozone Holeozone thinning over Antarctica
  41. 41. Breaking apart CFCs1Cl atom candestroy 100,000ozonemolecules!
  42. 42. Ozone Eaters1. CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons): CClF3coolants in refrig. & a.c.
  43. 43. Sept 2006
  44. 44. Effects of Ozone Thinning1. More UV light passes through, damaging DNA, causing mutations, skin cancer, cataracts.
  45. 45. Effects of Ozone Thinning2. UV-B – kill some species of plants and microbes
  46. 46. Effects of Ozone Thinning-Limiting factor for coral communities-Reduced productivity of aquatic ecosystems