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eGovernment Interoperability

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I used these slides to teach a class of 70 students from the Post Graduate Diploma and the Masters Programme in Information Systems, in the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. August, 2008

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eGovernment Interoperability

  1. 1. eGovernment Interoperability   1
  2. 2. What, Why, How, Who Interoperability: as a concept   2
  3. 3. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    3
  4. 4. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    4
  5. 5. Definition “...The  ability  of  two  or  more  diverse  government  information  and  communications  technology  (ICT)  systems  or  components  to  meaningfully  and seamlessly exchange information and use the information that has been  exchanged...”   5
  6. 6. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    6
  7. 7. Demands on governments ● Enhanced efficiency and effectiveness ● Improved delivery of basic public services ● Increased transparency and accountability   7
  8. 8. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    8
  9. 9. Expectations ● Better decisions ● Better public services ● Better governance   9
  10. 10. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    10
  11. 11. Realization ● Through standards ● Through architecture   11
  12. 12. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    12
  13. 13. Characteristics of open standards Open standards enables ● Easy accessibility for all to read and use ● Avoid vendor lock­in ● Developed by a process that is open and  ● Wide technology choices relatively easy for anyone to participate in;  ● Tapping technology cost reduction and ● No control or tie­in by any specific group  and vendor   13
  14. 14. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    14
  15. 15. Design fit ● Framework based/flexible ● Standards oriented ● Open but aligned ● Industry maturity  ● Clearly defined governance model    15
  16. 16. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    16
  17. 17. Involvement ● Stakeholders ● Lead agency ● Decision makers ● Technical personnel   17
  18. 18. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    18
  19. 19. Resource needs ● Funding for institutions ● Appropriate skill sets in government   19
  20. 20. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    20
  21. 21. Role for policy makers ● Vision ● Political sponsorship   21
  22. 22. Agenda What is e­government interoperability? Why is e­government interoperability important?  What would e­government interoperability accomplish? How is e­government interoperability realized? What are open standards? What role do they play in e­government interoperability?  What makes a well­designed GIF/EA? Who should be involved in GIF/EA development? What resources are needed to develop and implement a GIF/EA? What is the role of policy makers in ensuring e­government interoperability? What are the important lessons to remember about e­government interoperability?    22
  23. 23. Take away ●  It's not technology only (It's a mix­Vision, Policy, Strategy) ●  It's an iterative, open and inclusive process ●  Required to have an inter­agency support organization    23
  24. 24. Synthesis GIF/Architecture   24
  25. 25. Agenda Standards approach to interoperability Architectural approach to interoperability Conclusion   25
  26. 26. Agenda Standards approach to interoperability Architectural approach to interoperability Conclusion   26
  27. 27. Standards approach to interoperability::The GIF ­ Content organization 1 2 3 4 5 Context Standards Development   Implementation Compliance   27
  28. 28. 1 2 3 4 5 Context Standards Development   Implementation Compliance Context:  Definition of GIF Aim of the document Principles that supports the selection of standards (Interoperability, Scalability, Re­usability,  Openness, Market support, Security, Privacy, Accessibility, Multilingualism, Transparency) Scope and limitations Organizations bound by specifications of the GIF Relationship of the GIF with other documents/policies   28
  29. 29. 1 2 3 4 5 Context Standards Development   Implementation Compliance Standards: Categories (process, semantic and technical) Basis (diversity and democratic participation, openness and transparency, IPR constraints, access and security) Maturity and obsolescence (Emerging, Current, Fading)   29
  30. 30. 1 2 3 4 5 Context Standards Development   Implementation Compliance Development:  Creation and revisions Actors (Lead organization, secretariat, working groups) Process documentations   30
  31. 31. 1 2 3 4 5 Context Standards Development   Implementation Compliance Implementation and Compliance:  Organization responsibility Compliance and enforcement Capacity development Measures of success   31
  32. 32. Agenda Standards approach to interoperability Architectural approach to interoperability Conclusion   32
  33. 33. Architectural approach to interoperability: (Challenging the way information systems are  organized and governed in public sector and calls for a broader definition of interoperability) EA, NEA, and SOA Objectives (Administrative reforms and interoperability) Principles (balance between excessive and no control) Technical content (Reference models­Performance, Business, Service Component,  Technical and Data (US­Gov)) Development and design (need based, cost effective, flexible)  Implementation and governance (Communication, Cooperation, Incentives, Political  leadership)   33
  34. 34. Agenda Standards approach to interoperability Architectural approach to interoperability Conclusion   34
  35. 35. Conclusion: GIF or A (EA/SOA), what matters actually is policy    35
  36. 36. Comparison  Countries   36
  37. 37. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   37
  38. 38. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   38
  39. 39. GIFs from seven countries: 1. Australia 2. Brazil 3. Denmark 4. Germany 5. Malaysia 6. New Zealand 7. United Kingdom  and  European Union   39
  40. 40. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   40
  41. 41. Comparative content organization of selected GIFs Technical Development Implementation & Context Content Process Compliance Australia Brazil Denmark Germany Malaysia New Zealand UK EU N/A   41
  42. 42. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   42
  43. 43. Standards selection principles for selected GIFs Market Interoperability Scalability Re­usability Openness Security Privacy Support Australia Brazil Denmark Germany Malaysia New Zealand N/A UK EU   43
  44. 44. Scope of selected GIFs G2G G2C G2B G2Orgs G2OG Other Australia Brazil Denmark Germany Malaysia New Zealand UK EU N/A   44
  45. 45. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   45
  46. 46. Technical Content: Two distinct approaches: one common thread 1. Clustering based on layers – Focus in only on the technical dimension:   Followed by 6 out of 8 2. Clustering based on Services or Life Events – Focus is on all three dimensions:  organizational, data/semantic, and  technical  Followed by 2 out of 8 The common thread: Open standards Life cycle of standards: Emerging, Current and Fading   46
  47. 47. Approach 1: Interoperability layers for selected GIFs Information Standards for Data Interconnection Metadata access & Business  Webservices Security Integration Presentation areas Australia Brazil Denmark Germany N/A Malaysia New Zealand UK EU N/A   47
  48. 48. Approach 2: Interoperability life events for selected GIFs Services included under the GIF Around 400 services were identified for the different federal administrations. An analysis Germany of the services along the value chain made it possible to identify 8 service types. 73% of  the services used today belong to the three following types:         • Capturing, processing and providing information;         • Processing applications and requests sent to an administration office; and         • Processing subsidy and assistance applications. Income taxes, job search, social security contribution, personal documents, car EU registration, permits, certificates, enrollment, announcement of relocation, health­related services.   48
  49. 49. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   49
  50. 50. The GIF Authoring Process:  The lead authorities assigned to develop GIFs in five of the seven countries are the  offices in charge of public administration! The bulk of the policy work goes to the designated secretariat and the working groups The lead authorities are mainly responsible for approving and implementing the GIF  document   50
  51. 51. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   51
  52. 52. Validity for selected GIFs Status Australia Guidelines Brazil Mandatory Denmark Guidelines Germany Guidelines Malaysia Mandatory New Zealand Mandatory UK Mandatory EU N/A   52
  53. 53. Ensuring compliance with the GIF. Measures include:   • Adopting GIF specifications as an agency policy; • Drafting a GIF compliance road map or a migration policy; • Self­regulating the system owner and departmental checking; • Providing a decision­support tool or service for public officials who will design IT projects; and • Recommending GIF conformity in the bidding process. (In Germany, preference in the bidding  process is given to those who are GIF­compliant.) Only the UK and Germany include penalties for non­compliance.  Penalties include: ● Possible withholding of project approval or funding; ● Refused connection to government networks; and/or ● Possible discrimination in procurement biddings for suppliers.   53
  54. 54. Agenda Introduction                   Content of GIFs                Context                        Technical Content               The GIF Authoring Process      Implementation and Compliance  Conclusion   54
  55. 55. Conclusion:  No two GIFs are the same. However, there are best practices emerging, such as Open  standards. Governments in the process of developing GIFs may learn from others.   55
  56. 56. Find the source publications at http://www.apdip.net/projects/gif   56
  57. 57. Thank you! Rajiv Ranjan <rajiv.r.in@gmail.com>   57

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