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Sri lanka


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Sri lanka

  2. 2. SRI LANKA INTRODUCTION Independence from the United Kingdom - Dominion 4 February 1948 - Republic 22 May 1972 - Current constitution Capital 7 September 1978 Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte (6°54′ N 79°54′ E) Largest city – Colombo Official languages- Sinhala Tamil Area - Total 65,610 km2 (122nd) 25,332 sq mi - Water (%) 4.4 Population - 2012 census 20,277,597 (57th) - Density 323/km2 (40th) ,836.6/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate - Total $127 billion (64th) - Per capita $6,135 (111th) HDI (2012) 0.715[7], high 92nd Currency Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)
  4. 4. GEOGRAPHY Sri Lanka lies on the Indian tectonic plate, a minor plate within the IndoAustralian Plate. It is in the Indian Ocean southwest of the Bay of Bengal, between latitudes 5° and 10°N, and longitudes 79° and 82°E.Sri Lanka is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf ofMannar and the Palk Strait. According to the Hindu mythology, a land bridge existed between the Indian mainland and Sri Lanka. It now amounts to only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level. It was reportedly passable on foot up to 1480 AD, until cyclones deepened the channel The longest of the 103 rivers in the country is Mahaweli River, covering 335 kilometres (208 mi). These waterways give rise to 51 natural waterfalls of 10 meters or more. The highest is Bambarakanda Falls, with a height of 263 metres (863 ft).[ Sri Lanka's coastline is 1,585 km long. It claims an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extending 200 nautical miles, approximately 6.7 times the country's land area. The coastline and adjacent waters support highly productive marine ecosystems such as fringing coral reefs, shallow beds of coastal and estuarine seagrasses.Sri Lanka inherits 45 estuaries and 40 lagoons too.Country's mangrove ecosystem which spans over 7,000 hectares, played a vital role in buffering the force in the waves of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The island is rich with minerals such as Ilmenite, Feldspar, Graphite, Silica, Kaolin, Mica and Thorium.Existence of Petroleum in the Gulf of Mannar has also been confirmed and extraction attempts are underway HISTORY
  5. 5. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. Known in India as Lanka or Sinhala, ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobane pron.: /təˈ prɒbəniˈ/ and Arabs referred to it as Serendib (the origin the word of "serendipity").Ceilão was the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese when they arrived in 1505, which was transliterated into English as Ceylon.As a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon, and achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. In Sinhala the country is known as śrīlaṃ IPA: *ʃɾiˈˈlaŋkaˈ+, kā, and the island itself as laṃ kāva, IPA: *laŋˈkaˈ ʋə].[citation needed] In Tamil they are both ilaṅkai, IPA: [iˈlaŋai]. The name derives from ɡ the Sanskrit śrī (venerable) and lankā (island).its name in the ancient Indian epics Mahabharata and the Ramayana. In 1972, the name was changed to "Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka". In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". The name Ceylon is still in use in the names of a number of organisations; in 2011, the Sri Lankan government announced a plan to rename all of those for which it is responsible. PRE-HISTORIC TIME
  6. 6. The pre-history of Sri Lanka dates back over 125 thousand years Before Present (BP) and possibly even as early as 500,000 BP.The era spans the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and early Iron ages. Among the Paleolithic (Homo erectus) human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala (named after the Chinese traveller monk Fa-Hsien), which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena (28,500 BP) and Belilena (12,000 BP) are the most important. The remains of Balangoda Man, an anatomically modern human, found inside these caves, suggests that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. ANCIENT SRI LANKA According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāli language, the ancient period of Sri Lanka begins in 543 BC with the landing of Vijaya, a semi-legendary king who sailed 860 nautical miles on eight ships to Sri Lanka with 700 followers from the southwest coast of what is now theRarh region of West Bengal. He established the Kingdom of Tambapanni, near modern day Mannar. Vijaya is the first of the approximately 189 native monarchs of Sri Lanka that the chronicles like Dipavamsa, Mahāvamsa, Chulavamsa, and Rājāvaliya describe (see List of Sri Lankan monarchs). Sri Lankan dynastic history spanned a period of 2359 years, from 543 BC to AD 1815, until the land became part of the British Empire. The Kingdom of Sri Lanka moved to Anuradhapura in 380 BC, during the reign of Pandukabhaya. Thereafter, Anuradhapura served as the capital of the country for nearly 1400 years. Ancient Sri Lankans excelled in various constructions such as tanks, dagobas and palaces. The society underwent a major transformation during the reign of DevanampiyaTissa, with the arrival of Buddhism from India. In 250 BC,bhikkhuMahinda (Sanskrit: ; Mahendra), the son of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka arrived in Mihintale, carrying the message of Buddhism. His mission won over the monarch, who embraced the faith and propagated it throughout the Sinhalese population. The succeeding kingdoms of Sri Lanka would maintain a large number of Buddhist schools and monasteries, and support the propagation of Buddhism into other countries in Southeast Asia as well. Sri Lankan Bikkhus studied in India's famous ancient Buddhist University of
  7. 7. Nalanda which was destroyed by Mohammed Kilji. It is probable that many of the scriptures from Nalanda are preserved in Sri Lanka's many monasteries. In 245 BC, bhikkhuniSangamitta arrived with the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi tree, which is considered to be a sapling from the historical Bodhi tree under which Gautama Buddha became enlightened. It is considered the oldest human-planted tree (with a continuous historical record) in the world. (Bodhivamsa). Medieval Sri Lanka The medieval period of Sri Lanka begins with the fall of Anuradhapura Kingdom. In AD 993, the invasion of Chola emperor Rajaraja I forced the then Sri Lankan ruler Mahinda V to flee to the southern part of the country. Taking advantage of this situation, Rajendra I, son of Rajaraja I, launched a large invasion in AD 1017. Mahinda V was captured and taken to India, and the Cholas sacked the city of Anuradhapura. Subsequently, they moved the capital to Polonnaruwa. This marked the end of the two great houses of dynasties of ancient Sri Lanka, the Moriya and the Lambakanna. Following a seventeen-year long campaign, Vijayabahu I successfully drovethe Chola out of Sri Lanka in 1070, reuniting the country for the first time in over a century. Upon his request, ordained monks were sent from Burma to Sri Lanka to re-establish Buddhism, which had almost disappeared from the country during the Cholareign.During the medieval period, Sri Lanka was divided to three sub-territories, namely Ruhunu, Pihiti and Maya COLONIZATION
  8. 8. By the end of the 19th century, a new educated social class transcending race and caste arose through British attempts to staff the Ceylon Civil Service and the legal, educational, and medical professions. New leaders represented the various ethnic groups of the population in the Ceylon Legislative Council on a communal basis. Buddhist and Hindu revivalism reacted against Christian missionary activities. The first two decades in the 20th century are noted by the unique harmony among Sinhalese and Tamil political leadership, which has since been lostIn 1919, major Sinhalese and Tamil political organisations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of PonnambalamArunachalam, pressing colonial masters for more constitutional reforms. But without massive popular support, and with the governor's encouragement for "communal representation" by creating a "Colombo seat" that dangled between Sinhalese and Tamils, the Congress lost momentum towards the mid-1920s.The Donoughmore reforms of 1931 repudiated the communal representation and introduced universal adult franchise (the franchise stood at 4% before the reforms). This step was strongly criticised by the Tamil political leadership, who realised that they would be reduced to a minority in the newly created State Council of Ceylon, which succeeded the legislative council. In 1937, Tamil leader G. G. Ponnambalam demanded a 50–50 representation (50% for the Sinhalese and 50% for other ethnic groups) in the State Council. However, this demand was not met by the Soulbury reforms of 1944/45. FLORA AND FAUNA
  9. 9. Lying within the Indomalayaecozone, Sri Lanka is one of 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Although the country is relatively small in size, it has the highest biodiversity density in Asia. Remarkably high proportion of thespecies among its flora and fauna, 27% of the 3,210 flowering plants and 22% of the mammals , are endemic. Sri Lanka has declared 24 wildlife reserves, which are home to a wide range of native species such as Asian elephants, leopards, sloth bears, the unique small loris, a variety of deer, the purple-faced langur, the endangered wild boar, porcupines and anteaters. Flowering acacias flourish on the arid Jaffna Peninsula. Among the trees of the dry-land forests are valuable species such as satinwood, ebony, ironwood, mahogany and teak. The wet zone is a tropical evergreen forest with tall trees, broad foliage, and a dense undergrowth of vines and creepers. Subtropical evergreen forests resembling those of temperate climates flourish in the higher altitudes. The Yala National Park in the southeast protects herds of elephant, deer, and peacocks. The Wilpattu National Park, the largest, in the northwest preserves the habitats of many water birds, such as storks, pelicans, ibis, and spoonbills. The island has four biosphere reserves: Bundala, Hurulu Forest Reserve, the
  10. 10. Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya, and Sinharaja. Out of these, Sinharaja forest reserve is home to 26 endemic birds and 20 rainforest species, including the elusive Red-faced Malkoha, Green-billed Coucal and Sri Lanka Blue Magpie. The untapped genetic potential of Sinharaja flora is enormous. Of the 211 woody trees and lianas within the reserve, 139 (66%) are endemic. The Total vegetation density, including trees, shrubs, herbs and seedlings, has been estimated at 240,000 individuals per hectare. Sri Lanka is home to over 250 types of resident birds. It has declared several bird sanctuaries including Kumana.] During the Mahaweli Program of the 1970s and 1980s in northern Sri Lanka, the government set aside four areas of land totalling 1,900 km2 (730 sq mi) as national parks. However the country's forest cover, which was around 49% in 1920, had been fallen to approximately 24% by 2009. ECONOMY According to the International Monetary Fund, Sri Lanka has a yearly gross domestic output of US$59 billion as of 2010.[6] It has a GDP of US$116 billion in terms of purchasing power parity. Sri Lanka is next only to Maldives in the South Asian region in terms of per capita income, with a nominal value of US$2,877 and PPP value of US$5,673.[6] It recorded a GDP growth of 8.3% in 2011.
  11. 11. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Sri Lanka became a plantation economy, famous for its production and export of cinnamon, rubber and Ceylon tea, which remains a trademark national export. The development of modern ports under British rule raised the strategic importance of the island as a centre of trade. From 1948 to 1977 socialism strongly influenced the government's economic policies. Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised and a welfare state established. In 1977 the Free market economy was introduced to the country, incorporating privatisation, deregulation and the promotion of private enterprise. While the production and export of tea, rubber, coffee, sugar and other commodities remain important, industrialisation has increased the importance of food processing, textiles, telecommunications and finance. Main economic sectors of the country are tourism, tea export, clothing, rice production and other agricultural products. In addition to these economic sectors, overseas employment contributes highly in foreign exchange, most of them from the Middle East. As of 2010, the service sector makes up 60% of GDP, the industrial sector 28% and the agriculture sector 12%. The private sector accounts for 85% of the economy. India is the largest trading partner of Sri Lanka. Economic disparies exist between the provinces, with Western province contributing to 45.1% of the GDP, Southern province and Central province, 10.7% and 10% respectively. With the end of the war, Northern province reported a record 22.9% GDP growth in 2010. The Global Competitiveness Report published by the World Economic Forum has listed Sri Lanka as a transitive economy, from factor-driven stage to efficiency-driven stage, ranking 52nd in the global competitiveness. It also ranked 45th in health and primary education, 32nd in business sophistication, 42nd in innovation and 41st in goods market efficiency out of the 142 countries surveyed. Sri Lanka ranks 8th in the World Giving Index, registering high levels of contentment and charitable behaviour in its society.[243] In 2010, The New York Times placed Sri Lanka at number 1 position in 31 places to visit. Dow Jones classified Sri Lanka as an emerging market in 2010, and
  12. 12. Citigroup classified it as a 3G country in February 2011.[245] Sri Lanka ranks well above other South Asian countries in Human Development Index (HDI) with 0.696 points. Although poverty has reduced by 50% during last 5 years, malnutrition remains a problem among children. 29% of the children under 5 years of age are reported to be underweight. Nearly 58% of infants between 6 and 11 months and 38% of children between 12 and 23 months are anaemic. While Dengue remains the major infectious disease,[248] non-communicable diseasees (NCDs) account for 85% of ill health, disability and early death in Sri Lanka.[249] Sri Lankans have a life expectancy of 77.9 years at birth, which is 10% higher than the world average.Infant mortality rate stands at 8.5 per 1000 births and maternal mortality rate at 0.39 per 1000 births, which is in par with figures of the developed countries. The universal, "pro-poor” health care system adopted by the country has contributed much towards these figures. Sri Lanka's road network consists of 35 A grade highways and 1 Controlledaccess highway (E01). The railway network, operated by the state-run national railway operator, Sri Lanka Railways, spans 1,447 kilometres (900 mi).[253] Sri Lanka also has three deep-water ports, at Colombo, Galle, and Trincomalee, in addition to the newest port being built at Hambantota. The Trincomalee port is the fifth largest natural harbour in the world. During world war 2 the British stated they could place their entire navy in Trincomalee with room to spare. Its flag carrier airline is the SriLankan Airlines. Fitch Ratings has affirmed Sri Lanka's Foreign- and Local-Currency Issuer Default Ratings (IDRs) at 'BB-' with a "stable" outlook.[citation needed]. With a grant of 20 million dollars from the US and the help from China a space academy has been set up for the purpose of developing an indigenous space sector to launch satellites of other nations as well as for domestic use. The dual use of launching technology will also serve to develop missile technology. On 26 September 2012 China launched Sri Lanka's first satellite with intentions of more launches in the coming years.
  13. 13. GOVERNMENT PARLIAMENT AND SUPREME COURT Sri Lanka is a democratic republic and a unitary state which is governed by a semi-presidential system, with a mixture of a presidential system and a parliamentary system.[184] It constitutes a parliamentary system governed under the constitution. Most provisions of the constitution can be amended by a two-thirds majority in parliament. However, the amendment of certain basic features such as the clauses on language, religion, and reference to Sri Lanka as a unitary state require both a two-thirds majority and approval at a nationwide referendum. In common with many democracies, the Sri Lankan government has three branches: Executive: The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state, the commander in chief of the armed forces, as well as head of government, and is popularly elected for a six-year term. In the exercise of duties, the President is responsible to the parliament. The President appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers composed of elected members of parliament. President is immune from legal proceedings while in office in respect of any acts done or omitted to be done by him either in his official or private capacity. With the 18th amendment to the constitution in 2010, the President has no term limit, which previously stood at 2.
  14. 14. Legislative: The Parliament of Sri Lanka, is a unicameral 225-member legislature with 196 members elected in multi-seat constituencies and 29 by proportional representation. Members are elected by universal (adult) suffrage based on a modified proportional representation system by district to a sixyear term. The president may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve Parliament any time after it has served for one year. The parliament reserves the power to make all laws. President's deputy, the Prime Minister, leads the ruling party in parliament and shares many executive responsibilities, mainly in domestic affairs. Judicial: Sri Lanka's judiciary consists of a Supreme Court – the highest and final superior court of record, a Court of Appeal, High Courts and a number of subordinate courts. Its highly complex legal system reflects diverse cultural influences. The Criminal law is almost entirely based on British law. Basic Civil law relates to the Roman law and Dutch law. Laws pertaining to marriage, divorce, and inheritance are communal. Due to ancient customary practices and/or religion, the Sinhala customary law (Kandyan law), the Thesavalamai and the Sharia law too are followed on special cases. The President appoints judges to the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, and the High Courts. A judicial service commission, composed of the Chief Justice and two Supreme Court judges, appoints, transfers, and dismisses lower court judges. EDUCATION With a literacy rate of 92.5%,Sri Lanka has one of the most literate populations amongst developing nations. Its youth literacy rate stands at 98%,computer literacy rate at 35%, and primary school enrolment rate at over 99%.An education system which dictates 9 years of compulsory schooling for every child is in place. The free education system established in 1945, is a result of the initiative of C. W. W. Kannangara and A. Ratnayake. It is one of the few countries in the world that provide universal free education from primary to tertiary stage. Kannangara led the establishment of the Madhya MahaVidyalayas (Central Schools) in different parts of the country in order to provide education to Sri Lanka's rural children. In 1942 a special education committee proposed extensive reforms to establish an efficient and quality education system for the
  15. 15. people. However in the 1980s changes to this system saw the separation the of administration of schools between the central government and the provincial government. Thus the elite National Schools are controlled directly by the Ministry of Education and the provincial schools by the provincial government. Sri Lanka has approximately 9675 government schools, 817 private schools and Pirivenas. The number of public universities in Sri Lanka is 15.However, lack of responsiveness of the education system to labour market requirements, disparities in access to quality education, lack of an effective linkage between secondary and tertiary education remain major challenges for the education sector. A number of private, degree awarding institutions have emerged in recent times to fill in these gaps. But still, the participation at tertiary level education hovers around 5.1%. The proposed private university bill has been withdrawn by the Higher Education Ministry after university students’ heavy demonstrations and resistance. FOREIGN RELATION AND MILITARY AND LTTE
  16. 16. BOMB EXPLOSION REFERRED TO AS BLACK JULY Sri Lanka is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It has cultivated relations with India while avoiding sacrificing independence.[206] It became a member of the United Nations in 1955. Sri Lanka is also a member of the Commonwealth, the SAARC, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank and the Colombo Plan. One of the two parties that have governed Sri Lanka since its independence, UNP, traditionally favours links with the West, while its left-leaning counterpart, SLFP favours links to the East. Sri Lankan Finance Minister J. R. Jayewardene, together with the then Australian Foreign Minister Sir Percy Spencer, proposed the Colombo Plan at Commonwealth Foreign Minister's Conference held in Colombo in 1950. Sri Lanka argued for a free Japan, while many countries were reluctant, at the San Francisco Peace Conference in 1951, and refused to accept Japanese payment of reparations for that World War II damage because it would harm Japan's economy. Sri Lanka-China relations started as soon as the PRC was formed in 1949. Two countries signed an important Rice-Rubber Pact in 1952. Sri Lanka played a vital role in Asian– African Conference in 1955, which was an important step toward the crystallisation of the NAM..
  17. 17. The Bandaranaike government of 1956 significantly changed the pro-western policies set by the previous UNP government. It recognised the new Cuba under Fidel Castro in 1959. Shortly after, Cuba's revolutionary Ernesto Che Guevara paid a visit to Sri Lanka. The Sirima-Shastri Pact of 1964 and SirimaGandhi Pact of 1974 were signed between Sri Lankan and Indian leaders in an attempt to solve the long standing dispute over the status of plantation workers of Indian origin. In 1974, Kachchatheevu, a small island in Palk Strait was formally ceded to Sri Lanka. By this time, Sri Lanka was strongly involved in the NAM and Colombo held the fifth NAM summit of 1976. The relationship between Sri Lanka and India became tensed under the government of J. R. Jayawardene. As a result, India intervened in Sri Lankan Civil War and subsequently deployed the Indian Peace Keeping Force in 1987. In the present, Sri Lanka enjoys extensive relations with China, Russia and Pakistan. The Sri Lanka Armed Forces, comprising the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy and the Sri Lanka Air Force, comes under the purview of the Ministry of Defence (MoD).The total strength of the three services is around 259,000 personnel, with nearly 36,000 reserves.Sri Lanka has not enforced military
  18. 18. conscription. Paramilitary units include the Special Task Force, the Civil Security Force and the Sri Lanka Coast Guard. Since independence in 1948, the primary focus of the armed forces has been internal security, crushing three major insurgencies, two by Marxist militants of the JVP and a 30-year long conflict with the LTTE which has been proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries. The armed forces has thereby expanded to its current size and are in a continuous mobilised state for the last 30 years. Marking a rare occurrence in modern military history, Sri Lankan military was able to bring a decisive end to the Sri Lankan Civil War in May 2009. Sri Lanka claimed itself the first country in the modern world to eradicate terrorism on its own soil. Sri Lankan Armed Forces have engaged in United Nations peacekeeping operations since the early 1960s. It has contributed with forces as permanent contingents deployed in several UN peacekeeping missions in Chad, Lebanon and Haiti. RECENT PICTURE SHOWING THE KILLING OF SON OF LTTE CHIEF PRABHAKARAN SON BY THE BRUTAL USE OF BULLET BY SRI LANKAN ARMY.
  19. 19. CULTURE The culture of Sri Lanka dates back over 2500 years. It is influenced primarily by Buddhism and Hinduism. According to Islamic folklore, Adam and Eve were offered refuge on the island as solace for their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. The island is the home to two main traditional cultures: the Sinhalese (centred in the ancient cities of Kandy and Anuradhapura) and the Tamil (centred in the city of Jaffna). In more recent times, the British colonial culture has also influenced the locals. Sri Lanka claims a democratic tradition matched by few other developing countries. The first Tamil immigration was probably around the 3rd century BC.Tamils coexisted with the Sinhalese people since then, and the early mixing rendered the two ethnic groups almost physically indistinct. Ancient Sri Lanka is marked for its genius in hydraulic engineering and architecture. The rich cultural traditions shared by all Sri Lankan cultures is the basis of the country's long life expectancy, advanced health standards and high literacy rate. ART AND LITERATURE The history of Sri Lankan painting and sculpture can be traced as far back as to the 2nd or 3rd century BC. The earliest mention about the art of painting on
  20. 20. Mahavamsa, is to the drawing of a palace on cloth using cinnabar in the 2nd century BC. The chronicles have description of various paintings in relicchambers of Buddhist stupas, and in monastic residence. Theatre moved into the country when a Parsi company from Mumbai introduced Nurti, a blend of European and Indian theatrical conventions to the Colombo audience in 19th century. The golden age of Sri Lankan drama and theatre began with the staging of Maname, a play written by EdiriweeraSarachchandra in 1956. It was followed by a series of popular dramas like Sinhabāhu, Pabāvatī, Mahāsāra, MuuduPuththu and SubhasahaYasa. Sri Lankan literature spans at least two millennia, and is heir to the Aryan literary tradition as embodied in the hymns of the Rigveda. The Pāli Canon, the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, was written down in Sri Lanka during the Fourth Buddhist council, at the Alulena cave temple, Kegalle, as early as 29 BC. Ancient chronicles such as Mahāvamsa, which was written in 6th century provide vivid descriptions of Sri Lankan dynasty. According to the German philosopher Wilhelm Geiger, the chronicles are based on Sinhala Atthakatha (commentary), that dates few more centuries back. The oldest surviving prose work is the Dhampiya-Atuva-Getapadaya, compiled in the 9th century. The greatest literary feats of medieval Sri Lanka include SandeshaKāvya (poetic messages) such as GirāSandeshaya (Parrot message), HansaSandeshaya (Swan message) and SalalihiniSandeshaya (Myna message). Poetry including Kavsilumina, Kavya-Sekharaya (diadem of poetry) and proses such as Saddharma-Ratnāvaliya, Amāvatura (Flood of nectar) and Pujāvaliya are also notable works of this period, which is considered to be the golden age of Sri Lankan literature.The first modern-day novel, Meena, a work of Simon de Silva appeared in 1905, and was followed by a number of revolutionary literary works. Martin Wickramasinghe, the author of MadolDoova is considered the iconic figure of Sri Lankan literature. FOODS AND FESTIVALS
  21. 21. RICH FOOD BUDDHISM Dishes include rice and curry, pittu, Kiribath, wholemeal Roti, String hoppers, wattalapam (a rich pudding of Malay origin made of coconut milk, jaggery, cashew nuts, eggs, and spices including cinnamon and nutmeg), kottu, and hoppers.[288] Jackfruit may sometimes replace rice and curries. Traditionally food is served on a plantain leaf. Middle Eastern influences and practices are found in traditional Moor dishes, while Dutch and Portuguese influences are found with the island's Burgher community preserving their culture through traditional dishes such as Lamprais (rice cooked in stock and baked in a banana leaf), Breudher (Dutch Christmas cake), Bolo Fiado (Portuguese-style layer cake), and Gum Billas (Dutch style honey coated sweet treats). In April, Sri Lankans celebrate the Buddhist and Hindu new year festival.[289] In addition, EsalaPerahera, a symbolic Buddhist festival consisting of dances and richly decorated elephants, is held in Kandy, during the month of August.[290] Fire-dances, whip-dances, Kandian dances and various other cultural dances are integral parts of the festival. Tamils celebrate Thai Pongal, MahaShivaratri and Muslims celebrate Hajj, Ramadan in their respective days of the year.
  22. 22. SPORTS While the national sport in Sri Lanka is volleyball, by far the most popular sport in the country is cricket. Rugby union also enjoys extensive popularity, as do athletics, football (soccer) and tennis. Sri Lanka's schools and colleges regularly organise sports and athletics teams, competing on provincial and national levels. The Sri Lanka national cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the 1990s, rising from underdog status to winning the 1996 Cricket World Cup. They also became the runners up of the Cricket World Cup in 2007,[320] 2011.and of the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009 and 2012.Former Sri Lankan offspinner, MuttiahMuralitharan has been rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack. Sri Lanka has won the Asia Cup in 1986,1997, 2004 and 2008. Current world records for highest team score in all three formats of the game are also held by Sri Lanka.The country co-hosted the Cricket World Cup in 1996, 2011 and have hosted the 2012 ICC World Twenty20. They lost to the West Indies by 36 runs.
  23. 23. Sri Lankans have won two medals at Olympic Games, one silver, by Duncan White at 1948 London Olympics for men's 400 metres hurdles and one silver by SusanthikaJayasinghe at 2000 Sydney Olympics for women's 200 metres.[330] In 1973, Mohammed Lafir won the World Billiards Championship, highest feat of a Sri Lankan in a Cue sport. Aquatic sports such as boating, surfing, swimming, kitesurfingand scuba diving on the coast, the beaches and backwaters attract a large number of Sri Lankans and foreign tourists. There are two styles of martial arts native to Sri Lanka, Cheena di and Angampora. Resources In Sri Lanka the resource potential in minerals such as gemstones, graphite, ilmenite, iron ore, limestone, quartz, mica, industrial clays, and salt is large. Small but commercially extractable amounts of nonferrous metals and minerals like titanium, monazite, and zircon are contained in the beach sands of a few localities. Of fossil fuels, the only known resource is the low-grade peat found in a swampy stretch along the west coast. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES (FOREST) Classification of Forest Lands Nearly 55% of the total forest area of the country is managed by the Forest Department and these forests are declared in to several categories under the Forest Ordinance and National Heritage Wilderness Areas Act. 01.National Heritage Wilderness Areas
  24. 24. These are the unique ecosystems of the country declared under the National Heritage Wilderness Areas Act in order to provide the maximum legal protection. Sinharaja forest is the only area declared as a national heritage wilderness area at present. 02.Conservation Forests The most important ecosystems are declared as conservation forests under the section 3 of the Forest Ordinance. The maximum legal protection under the Forest Ordinance is provided to Conservation Forests and no activity other than research and visitations is allowed within these forests. 03.Reserved Forests Declared under section 3 of the Forest Ordinance, these are the important forest areas for conservation of soil, water and biodiversity. Activities confined to non-extractive uses are allowed within these forests. 04.Village Forests These are the forest areas declared under the section 12 of Forest Ordinance in order to provide forest products and services for the local communities. 05.Other State Forests Forests areas do not fall under the previous categories are included under section 20 of the Forests Ordinance as Other State Forests. After surveying and demarcation of forest boundaries these forests will eventually be declared in to one of the above categories. The two main factors that influence the natural vegetation of Sri Lanka are soil (edaphic factor) and elevation (altitudinal zonation). Due to the interaction of these two factors following eight forest types can be recognized in the country. FOREST TYPES Montane Forests Sub Montane Forests
  25. 25. Lowland Rain Forests Moist Monsoon Forests Dry Monsoon Forests Riverine Dry Forests Sparse and Open Forests Mangroove Forests Forest Cover Sri Lanka has a land area of 6.56 million hectares and according to the forest cover assessment made in 1999, country has a total of 1.94 million hectares of forests covering 29.5% of the land area. An extent of 1.47 million hectares or 22.4% of the land area classified as dense forests (over 75% canopy cover) while the balance 0.47 million hectares or 7% of the land area classified as open forests (40%-75% canopy cover). In addition, there are about 90,000 hectares of forest plantations comprising of Teak, Mahogany, Eucalypts, Pine and other local species which accounted for nearly 1% of the land area. Rubber and Coconut plantations and other agroforestry systems such as home gardens, which cover approximately another 20% of the land area were not considered as forests in this assessment. Sri Lanka was once part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, which also included South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago. The tectonic plate on which Sri Lanka was
  26. 26. located, the Indian plate, collided with the Eurasian plate creating the Himalayas. Sri Lanka was originally part of the Deccan land mass, contiguous with Madagascar. The island was connected, off and on at least 17 times in the past 700,000 years, to India. The Loris, found only in Sri Lanka and South India, is related to the Lemurs of Madagascar. The connection to India led to a commonality of species, e.g. freshwater fish, the now extinct Sri Lankan Gaur (Bibossinhaleyus) and Lion (Pantheraleosinhaleyus). Sri Lanka's forests are amongst the most floristically rich in Asia and for some faunal groups, it has the highest density of species diversity in the world. The southwest portion of the island, where the influence of the moisture-bearing southwest monsoon is strongest, is home to the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests. At higher elevations they make the transition to the Sri Lanka montane rain forests. Both these tropical moist forest ecoregions bear strong affinities to those of India's Western Ghats. The northern and eastern portions of the island are considerably drier, lying in the rain shadow of the central highlands. The Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion, which, likethe neighbouring East Deccan dry evergreen forests of India's Coromandel Coast, is characterised by evergreen trees, rather than the dryseason deciduous trees that predominate in most other tropical dry broadleaf forests. These forests have been largely cleared for agriculture, timber or grazing, and many of the dry evergreen forests have been degraded to thorn scrub, savanna, or thickets. Several preserves have been established to protect some of Sri Lanka's remaining natural areas. The island has three biosphere reserves, Hurulu (established 1977), Sinharaja (established 1978), and Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya (KDN) (established 2004). The coastal estuaries are home to mangrove habitats, e.g. the Madugangariver.
  27. 27. Offshore are found habitats associated with coral reefs, e.g. the Bar Reef. Also of note are the pearl banks of Mannar, which are also home to Chank, sea cucumbers and sea grasses. INDUSTRY Sri Lanka’s mineral-extraction industries include mining of gemstones and graphite; excavation of beach sands containing ilmenite and monazite; and quarrying kaolin, apatite, quartz sand, clay, and salt. Among them, gem mining is the most important, producing high-value gemstones such as sapphire, ruby, and topaz, in addition to a variety of semiprecious stones, most of which reach foreign markets. Graphite, ilmenite, and monazite, exported in semiprocessed form, contribute on a small scale to Sri Lanka’s foreign earnings. The other minerals are used locally as raw materials in the manufacturing and construction industries. Until the late 1970s, manufacturing in Sri Lanka was dominated by several large-scale enterprises developed within the state sector to produce goods such as cement, fabricated steel, ceramics, fuel and lubricant oils, paper, leather, tires, textiles, sugar, and liquor. Only a few factory-based industries, most of them producing light consumer goods, were in private hands. The liberalization policies adopted in 1977 brought significant changes. Some state-owned industrial enterprises were privatized. Fiscal and other concessions were offered to prospective private investors, particularly toattract foreign investments. These included a package of incentives provided at several investment promotion zones. The low wage rates prevalent in the country were an added attraction to the industrial ventures that responded to these incentives. By the early 1990s new industries employed a work force of more than 70,000 and had nearly equaled tea in gross export earnings. Many of them, however, depend on imported inputs and involve considerable repatriation of profits. Hence, they generate relatively low net returns to the economy.
  28. 28. Among the industries that flourished under the liberalization policies was tourism, which, however, remains highly sensitive to political instability. The expansion of tourism, along with the massive irrigation and housing projects undertaken since 1978, have contributed substantially to the growth of the construction industry. The rivers that cascade down the Central Highlands offer prospects for hydropower development. Some of it is being harnessed at large power stations, including those established under the Mahaweli Development Program. Hydropower provides nearly three-fourths of the country’s electricity supply. Imported crude oil is being converted to gasoline and other petroleum products at the state-owned refinery. Some of these products are reexported. Fuelwood continues to be the major source of energy in rural areas. Banking and the issue of currency are controlled by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Until the late 1970s, commercial banking was the near-exclusive monopoly of two state-run banks, the Bank of Ceylon and the People’s Bank. The postliberalization period allowed the establishment of several private commercial banks and an overall expansion in banking, particularly with the government’s decision in 1979 to allow foreign banks to open branches in Sri Lanka. These same trends were replicated in other spheres of commerce such as insurance and wholesale trade in imported goods. The increased participation of the private sector in industry and commerce has led to the emergence of a small but vibrant stock market in Colombo. POLLUTION Mrine pollution can be occurred due to various reasons. Generally it can be divided into three major parts, Landbasemarinepollution. Shipstransportationmarinepollution .
  29. 29. Land run offUrban and domestic debris Industrial debris Agricultural debris Tourism Off-Shore Installation Surface run-off;from farming Urban run-off;from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbours, can carry soil andParticlesladen with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and minerals.
  30. 30. Polluted runoff;from roads and highways are the significant source of water pollution in coastal areas in the country. Polluted run-offUrban runoff Organic matters Heavy metals (Cr, Hg, Cd) Nutrients( N,P) Chemical pesticides, chemical substances used to kill harmful animals or insects, and fertilizers, chemical or natural substances put on the land to make crops grow better, are another source of pollution Marine pollution Oily discharges from ballast water and bilge water) during routine ship operations and illegal dumping of solid waste Designated dumping grounds at sea (dredged spoil, old munitions, sewage sludge, fly ash, oil based drilling mud) Accidental spills from Ships carrying hazardous substances, oil, gas etc Now there is a new threat to our sea and coast pollution from oil spills increasing day by day due to 1. accidents ( collisions/grounding of vessels) 2. Negligence and careless handling 3. Discharge of waste oil into sea water 4. Discharge waste containing oil
  31. 31. 5. Ship/Boat repairing/servicing/cleaning 6. Oil filling/bunkering Impact on water living organisms:Direct physical contact inhalation or ingestion of toxic components Loss of food resources Birds and furred mammals Inhalation of toxic volatile hydrocarbons Inhalation of toxic volatile hydrocarbons Skin irritation Disturbance to nesting habitat coral reefs tidal flats mangrove forests HUMAN CONTROL Natural remedies Weathering, evaporation, oxidation, biodegradation, and emulsification, sedimentation Booms Skimmers (remove floating oil) Sorbents (absorb oil) Dispersing agents, Gelling agents (aid mechanical extraction)
  32. 32. Biological agents (oil metabolizing microbes) Mechanical washing Dredging ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACTS Marine Pollution Prevention Authority contribute to protect the marine environment from ship based and shore based maritime related activity, to comply with International and national obligations by promulgation of laws and regulations and implementation of international Conventions relating to marine pollution prevention and all other matters. Sri Lanka sea pollution increasing -Nov 17, 2008 (LBO) -Pollution of the seas around Sri Lanka is increasing mainly because of pollutants from land, the Marine Pollution Prevention Authority (MPPA) has warned. ACT BY THE GOVERNMENT Marine pollution prevention Act Fisheries and Aquatic resources Act. Coast conservation Act. National environmental ACT
  33. 33. POPULATION ETHNICITY The Sinhalese, make up 74.9% of the population (according to 2012 census) and are concentrated in the densely populated south-west and central parts of the Island. The Sri Lanka Tamils, live predominantly in the north-east of the island forming the largest minority group at 11.2% (according to the 2012 census) of the population. The Moors, who descend from Arab traders that settled in Sri Lanka, form the third largest ethnic group at 9.2% of the population. They are mostly concentrated in urban areas in the southern parts of the island with substantial populations in the Central and Eastern provinces. During times of Portuguese colonization, Moors were persecuted, and many forced to retreat to the central highlands and the eastern coast. There are also Indian Tamils who form distinct ethnic group which comprises 4.2% of the population. The British brought them to Sri Lanka in the 19th century as tea and rubber plantation workers, and they remain concentrated in the "tea country" of south-central Sri Lanka. In accordance with a 1964 agreement with India, Sri Lanka granted citizenship to 230,000 "stateless" Indian Tamils in 1988. Under the pact, India granted citizenship to the remainder, some 200,000 of whom now live in India. Another 75,000 Indian Tamils, who themselves or whose parents once applied for Indian citizenship, now wish to remain in Sri Lanka. The government has stated these Tamils will not be forced to return to India, although they are not technically citizens of Sri Lanka.
  34. 34. Smaller minorities include the Malays who descent from South East Asian settlers, and the Burghers, who are descendants of European colonists, principally from Portugal, the Netherlands and the UK. WATER RESOURCES Sri Lanka's radial network of rivers begins in the central highlands. There are about 103 distinct river basins covering 90 percent of the island. The southwest quarter of the island has seven major basins with catchment areas ranging from 620 to 2,700 square kilometers (km2). They are: Kelaniganga (2,292 km2), Kalu ganga (2,719 km2), Mahaoya (1,528 km2), Attanagallaoya (736 km2), Gin ganga (932 km2), Nilwala ganga (971 km2), and Bentota ganga (629 km2). An exception to the above radial pattern is the largest basin, that of the 335-km-long Mahaweli River which has a catchment area of 10,448 km2. After leaving the central highlands, it runs almost north for 90 kilometers (km) from Minipe to Manampitiya and a then further 70 km through several distributaries as far as Verugal and Mutur on the east coast. Most Sri Lankan river basins are small. Only 17 of the 103 basins exceed 1,000 km2. In addition to the Mahaweli basin, four others exceed 2,500 km2. Three of these (Deduruoya, Kala oya, and Malwatuoya) have their entire catchment are in the dry zone, and only Kaluganga is in the wet zone. The total runoff in Sri Lanka is estimated at 49.2 cubic kilometers (km3/year).
  35. 35. Groundwater resources have been extensively used since ancient times for domestic purposes using shallow open wells in almost all parts of the country. Sri Lanka's largest aquifer extends over 200 km in the northwestern and northern coastal areas. There are about 15,000 tube-wells in the country. The quality of the groundwater is generally fairly good and relatively constant throughout the year. However, in some parts of the country (northern and northwestern coastal areas) excessive concentrations of iron and nitrates (due to agrochemicals and fertilizers) have been reported. Furthermore, due to uncontrolled abstraction of groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses, brackish water intrusion has occurred in the coastal areas. In 1985, the internal renewable groundwater resources were estimated at 7.8 km3, most (estimated at 7 km3/year) returning to the river systems and being included in the surface water resources estimate. In 1991, the total internal renewable water resources of the country were estimated at 50 km3/year. Economic development, population pressure, and growing demands for food production, electric power, and adequate water and sanitation services are placing increasing pressure on water resources. It is predicted that by 2000 the demand for water will outstrip supply particularly in the country's dry zone where most irrigation schemes are located. Dams In 1996, the total dams capacity was 5.942 km3. Dams in Sri Lanka are classed according to the materials they use. They are mainly earthen, rockfill, or concrete dams. Earthen dams are the most common type in Sri Lanka, the longest being the ParakramaSamudraya dam which is 13.5 km long and has a storage capacity of 0.12 km3. The highest in this category is the
  36. 36. SenanayakeSamudraya dam at 44 m and with a storage capacity of 0.95 km3. The Victoria dam, built under the Mahaweli multipurpose project, is the highest concrete (double curvature) dam with a height of 106 m and a storage capacity of 0.73 km3. The gross theoretical hydropower potential in Sri Lanka is estimated at 8,000 gigawatt hours per year (GWh/year). In 1997, 16 hydropower plants were in operation with an installed capacity of 1,103 megawatts (MW). Hydropower accounted for 81 percent of electricity generation in Sri Lanka. AGENCIES FOR WATER MANAGEMENT Water is managed as an input to major development sectors such as irrigation, hydropower, and human and industrial water supply. However, there is little coordination between these sectors. There are about 30 government institutions dealing with water related activities which operate with little coordination. Furthermore, there are over 43 acts of parliament concerning the water sector. These laws have been enacted over time to meet specific needs, often with little consideration for existing legislation or future needs. Laws are administered by numerous agencies with a wide range of responsibilities, and there overlaps, gaps and conflicting jurisdictions. The Department of Irrigation (DI), established in 1900, is primarily responsible for water resources planning, project formulation, construction and maintenance. It is also informally responsible for daily and seasonal allocations of water for irrigation.
  37. 37. The Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka (MASL), established in 1979, is responsible for water resources development in a large area of the country, not only in the Mahaweli project region, but also in many large basins in the country. The Water Management Secretariat of the Mahaweli Authority has the necessary technical resources to plan the distribution of water resources under the authority's jurisdiction. The Water Resources Board (WRB) was established in 1968. It coordinates governmental water resources functions and formulates national policies relating to the control and use of water resources. The National Water Supply and Drainage Board (NWSDB) is the main agency for domestic and industrial water supply, sewage, and surface drainage. The Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) is responsible for the generation, transmission, anddistribution of electric power, including hydropower. The Department of Meteorology (DM) is responsible for gathering information needed for estimating available water supplies nationwide. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN SRI LANKA
  38. 38. Arthur C. Clarke Institute for Modern Technologies Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Institute of Fundamental Studies International Centre for Underutilised Crops International Water Management Institute Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology University of Colombo, Centre for Instrument Development CONCLUSION
  39. 39. SRI LANKA have a very rich cultural heritage and its intimate relation with INDIA has contributed a lot to the development of both the sides in terms of diplomatic relation as well as in terms of technological advancement and religious travelling of people from SRI LANKA to various parts of INDIA has strengthened the relation between these two countries. BIBLIOGRAPHY THANK YOU.