Gender, disaster and conflict


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Defines disasters and conflict, delineates gender issues in conflicts and disasters, summarises UN Conventions/agreements on gender, disasters and conflict and good practices in addresses gender issues in conflicts and disasters

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Gender, disaster and conflict

  1. 1. Gender, disasters and conflicts Ranjani and Mercy
  2. 2. Objectives • To reflect on the range of disasters and conflicts and reasons for the same • To reflect on the gender and socially differentiated impact of disasters and conflicts • To reflect on the sex, gender and socially differentiated needs and interests at different stages • To reflect on ways to strengthen sensitivity of our own organizations work on disasters and conflicts
  3. 3. Disasters
  4. 4. Important terms • Emergencies • Disasters • Disaster risk reduction • Disaster response • Disaster recovery • Human made or natural or both • Nature of disasters
  5. 5. Exercise 1: gender issues in disasters • Hypothetical situations/case studies
  6. 6. Questions • How far are the women and men likely to have access to early warning systems and be prepared for the disaster? • What is the likely impact of disaster on women and men in the hypothetical situation/case study? • What is the likely access of the women and men concerned to response and recovery in the hypothetical situation/case study? To participation?
  7. 7. Gender issues in disaster situations • Disaster preparedness measures often do not reach women, marginalized men and transgender people • Disasters have worse impact – e.g death-on above groups • The above groups have lesser access to response and recovery measures • The above groups face greater assault on their bodily integrity
  8. 8. Gender issues in disaster situations • The above groups are less represented in leadership positions and exercise leadership • The needs and interests of the above groups are not taken into account in preparedness, response, recovery • The above groups face greater increase in their work load
  9. 9. Reasons: Sex or gender? • Sex • Gender • Combination
  10. 10. Reasons continued Individual identity Household identity Community identity Habitat location
  11. 11. Reasons continued Pre existing norms Gender blind/neutral policies in pre- disaster contexts Gender blind /neutral disaster policies and law
  12. 12. Two forms of unequal access • Exclusion :e.g. denied housing • Unwanted inclusion: e.g. girl child labour May strengthen pre existing biases or lead to new ones
  13. 13. A word of caution • Though women and girls bear a disproportionate burden of disasters, men and boys are also affected in gender specific ways
  14. 14. Exercise 2: Gender differentiated needs and interests Disaster risk reduction Response and recovery • Food & Non food items • Nutrition and child care, health • WATSAN • Shelter • Education • Livelihood • Violence • participation
  15. 15. Conflict
  16. 16. Important terms • Conflict • Conflict prevention • Conflict recovery • Disarmament • Demobilization • Reintegration
  17. 17. Different types of conflict • Where armed groups are conservative for women • Where armed groups are progressive • Neither conservative nor progressive but are struggling for autonomy of a particular area or people.
  18. 18. Gender issues in conflict • Hypothetical situations/case studies
  19. 19. Gender issues before conflict • More men than women mobilized as soldiers • If refused to join they are called as transgender or women
  20. 20. Other Gender issues during conflict • Men and women involved in different ways in conflict situations • High rates of sexual violence • Increase in number of women headed households • Women relatives of men involved in armed conflict enter new roles • Huge displacement- gender issues in response stage of disasters applies here
  21. 21. Gender issues in post conflict • Privacy for women in disarmament • Special needs of women, transgender people in demobilization ignored • Women have lesser access to recovery • Women, marginalized men and transgender people less found in peace committees • Women face greater problems in reintegration • Women get pushed back into traditional roles
  22. 22. Gender issues in post conflict • Getting justice in case of sexual violence is difficult • Less emphasis on involving women in electoral process • Less participation of women in peace committees
  23. 23. Various guidelines • IASC, 2006 women, girls, boys and men: different needs equal opportunity gender handbook in humanitarian action • IASC, 2005, guidelines for gender based violence interventions in humanitarian settings • Inter-agency working group on Reproductive health in crisis, 2010 • UNDP, 2003 Gender approaches in conflict and post conflict situations • UN security council resolution 1325
  24. 24. IASC: women, girls, boys and men: different needs equal opportunity • Multi sectors- registering, site selection additions • Gender based violence as cross cutting in each • Analysis, design, access, participation, training capacity building, targeted action based on analysis, monitoring and evaluation, coordination • No focus on DRR, or distinction between response and recovery. Similarly no distinction between different stages of conflict • Transgender missing
  25. 25. IASC, 2005, guidelines for gender based violence interventions in humanitarian settings • Various sectors • Coordination, human resources, protection, • Emergency preparedness, minimum prevention and response and comprehensive prevention and response • Transgender missing • More applicable to disasters than conflicts
  26. 26. MISP for RH Fact sheet • Investing in responsibility for coordination of RH work • Prevention of sexual violence • Reduce the transmission of HIV • Prevent excess maternal and neo natal mortality • Focuses mainly on response stage • No reference to transgender people
  27. 27. UN resolution 1325 • Representation of women in decision making • Govt. to appoint more women as special envoys • Expand the role of women in UN field based operations • Gender perspective in repatriation, resettlement and rehabilitation, • Gender perspective in peace keeping operations and all field operations • Gender training and HIV/AIDS awareness training for army • Measures against gender based violence, and put an end to impunity and prosecute those responsible
  28. 28. Overall • While there are several important guidelines, not all stakeholders aware of the same • Operationalized to varying degrees in countries due to above as well as constraints of funds, co-ordination and socio economic and political contexts • NGOs can use only UN Resolution 1325 to hold governments to account • Transgender issues are not well integrated.