learning design for the brain using multimedia principles
[email_address] wanderatwill.com Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0
the multimedia principle  …in action!
Law of Forgetting <ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li></ul><ul><li>Very quickly at first </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Law of Forgetting <ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li></ul><ul><li>Very quickly at first </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Multimedia principle <ul><li>People can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone. </li></ul>dog cat
So let’s figure out… <ul><li>What helps us learn better </li></ul><ul><li>What gets in the way </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E...
how much can the brain handle? Cognitive Load Theory
 
 
BRAIN OVERLOAD! > 7 items
BRAIN OVERLOAD! > 7 items
MEMORY
MEMORY Declarative  (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit)
MEMORY Declarative  (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) Semantic (facts) Episodic  (events)
MEMORY Declarative  (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) Semantic (facts) Episodic  (events) Procedural Skills Priming Co...
MEMORY Declarative  (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) cognitive load theory 2-4 elements when there is a relationship ...
split-attention principle
Split-attention principle - physical <ul><li>Which one is better? Why? What’s the difference? </li></ul>Law of Forgetting ...
Split-attention principle - temporal Memory > Time >
Split-attention principle - temporal <ul><li>Law of Forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li...
Split-attention principle <ul><li>People learn better when words and pictures are physically and temporally integrated. </...
A car moves from rest to speed of 40 m/s in 20 seconds. What is the acceleration of the car? u = 0 m/s, v = 40 m/s, t = 20...
Review: what is (less) helpful? <ul><li>HELPFUL: </li></ul><ul><li>text + pictures </li></ul><ul><li>integrating text + pi...
modality principle
Modality principle: narrated example Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca
Modality principle: narrated example Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca Blakeslee & Blakeslee (2007...
Modality principle: text example <ul><li>Dr. Penfield's experiments in the 1940’s of stimulating the outer layer of the br...
Modality principle <ul><li>People learn better from graphics & narration  </li></ul><ul><li>than graphics & printed text. ...
cognitive theory of  multimedia learning
Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior  Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictori...
Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior  Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictori...
Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior  Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictori...
Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior  Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictori...
Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior  Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictori...
Narration Pictures Multimedia Presentation Sensory Memory Prior  Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pic...
 
 
 
 
 
Next 5 Principles
Redundancy principle <ul><li>Redundancy happens when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you present the same information in different f...
Redundancy principle  <ul><li>LESS is more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is redundant will depend on your learners </li></ul>...
Coherence principle <ul><li>Extra stuff not linked to the instruction usually  gets in the way of learning </li></ul><ul><...
Coherence principle <ul><li>As learners try integrate extra material into their mental model </li></ul><ul><li>It increase...
Signaling principle <ul><li>People learn better when… </li></ul><ul><li>you add cues that highlight the organization of es...
Signaling principle <ul><li>Cues direct the learners attention  </li></ul>EXAMPLE from Multimedia Theory
Segmenting principle <ul><li>People learn better when… </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is chunked into segments </li></ul><ul><...
Pre-training principle <ul><li>People learn better when…  </li></ul><ul><li>they know the name and characteristics of main...
Review - helpful strategies  <ul><li>Text + Pictures = Good </li></ul><ul><li>Narration + Pictures = Better </li></ul><ul>...
Review - things to watch out for  <ul><li>Less is More </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce redundant material </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Put the principles to work! critiquing instructional designs
Check List - key principles max. 2-4 elements of new information Cognitive Load don’t split elements in space or time Spli...
Critique 1 - using principles, how would you make this better?
Critique 1 - using principles, how would you make this better? Cognitive Overload - pull out 2-4 key points Irrelevant pic...
Critique 2 slide 1 slide 2 <ul><li>Split-attention principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal split - put it all on one screen....
Critique 2 slide 1 slide 2
Critique 3 - what is the instructional goal? does it work?
Critique 3 - what is the instructional goal? does it work? Much more subjective - other thoughts? Cognitive overload if yo...
5 more principles if you are at risk of frying your brain feel free to jump ahead 5 slides
Personalization principle <ul><li>Using a conversational style is better than more formal style </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Worked-out example principle <ul><li>People learn better when they receive worked-out examples in initial skill building <...
Self-explanation  principle <ul><li>People learn better when they are encouraged to generate self-explanations while learn...
Navigation & site map principles <ul><li>In online environments: </li></ul><ul><li>people learn better when they have appr...
Animation principle <ul><li>People learn better from animations when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when the concept involves chan...
Check Lists review of key principles additional principles
Check List - key principles max. 2-4 elements of new information Cognitive Load don’t split elements in space or time Spli...
Check List -  additional principles use a conversational style Personalization for initial learning - go through problem s...
Design Challenge <ul><li>Don’t stop here! </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own lesson or even just 2-3 slides using the check...
LICENSING INFORMATION You are welcome to USE and SHARE this work if you ATTRIBUTE the work to the author.  You may not ALT...
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Learning Design for the Brain - Multimedia Principles

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Learning Design for the Brain demonstrates and explains multimedia principles and how to apply in designing information or learning. The intent is boil these principles & theories down to essentials to make them more usable.
NOTE: Slide 57 & 58 (Critique 2) are reversed. The answers come before the critique - tried fixing it many times!!!

Published in: Education, Technology

Learning Design for the Brain - Multimedia Principles

  1. 1. learning design for the brain using multimedia principles
  2. 2. [email_address] wanderatwill.com Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0
  3. 3. the multimedia principle …in action!
  4. 4. Law of Forgetting <ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li></ul><ul><li>Very quickly at first </li></ul><ul><li>Then less so as the time increases </li></ul><ul><li>Most forgetting happens < 1 day </li></ul>words only
  5. 5. Law of Forgetting <ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li></ul><ul><li>Very quickly at first </li></ul><ul><li>Then less so as the time increases </li></ul><ul><li>Most forgetting happens < 1 day </li></ul>words + pictures 5 10 15 1.0 2.0 Delay in days Measure of retention
  6. 6. Multimedia principle <ul><li>People can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone. </li></ul>dog cat
  7. 7. So let’s figure out… <ul><li>What helps us learn better </li></ul><ul><li>What gets in the way </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore key Multimedia Principles & Brain Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fix designs that don’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Create new designs that do </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a checklist tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain your design choices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BONUS!!! use the language of the principles to explain why you made the choices you did </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. how much can the brain handle? Cognitive Load Theory
  9. 11. BRAIN OVERLOAD! > 7 items
  10. 12. BRAIN OVERLOAD! > 7 items
  11. 13. MEMORY
  12. 14. MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit)
  13. 15. MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) Semantic (facts) Episodic (events)
  14. 16. MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) Semantic (facts) Episodic (events) Procedural Skills Priming Conditioning Non-associative BRAIN OVERLOAD!
  15. 17. MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) cognitive load theory 2-4 elements when there is a relationship between the elements
  16. 18. split-attention principle
  17. 19. Split-attention principle - physical <ul><li>Which one is better? Why? What’s the difference? </li></ul>Law of Forgetting Time > Memory > Memory recall deteriorates rapidly at first, then less so over time. Memory > Time > <ul><li>Law of Forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li></ul><ul><li>Very quickly at first </li></ul><ul><li>Then less so over time </li></ul><ul><li>Most forgetting happens < 1 day </li></ul>Most forgetting happens < 1 day 14 days
  18. 20. Split-attention principle - temporal Memory > Time >
  19. 21. Split-attention principle - temporal <ul><li>Law of Forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Memory recall deteriorates with time </li></ul><ul><li>Very quickly at first </li></ul><ul><li>Then less so as the time increases </li></ul><ul><li>Most forgetting happens < 1 day </li></ul>
  20. 22. Split-attention principle <ul><li>People learn better when words and pictures are physically and temporally integrated. </li></ul>
  21. 23. A car moves from rest to speed of 40 m/s in 20 seconds. What is the acceleration of the car? u = 0 m/s, v = 40 m/s, t = 20 s v = u + at v-u = at a = (v-u)/t a = (40-0)/20 a = 2 m/s 2 A car moves from rest (u = 0) to a speed (v = 40m/s) in 20 seconds (t = 20): v = u + at, v - u = at, a = (v-u)/t, a = (40-0)/20, a = 2 m/s 2 . What is the acceleration of the car? split-attention physical integration Example from Mayer (2005) Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, p 139
  22. 24. Review: what is (less) helpful? <ul><li>HELPFUL: </li></ul><ul><li>text + pictures </li></ul><ul><li>integrating text + pictures physically & temporally </li></ul><ul><li>LESS HELPFUL: </li></ul><ul><li>text only </li></ul><ul><li>splitting learner’s attention - making them do the work of integration </li></ul>
  23. 25. modality principle
  24. 26. Modality principle: narrated example Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca
  25. 27. Modality principle: narrated example Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca Blakeslee & Blakeslee (2007) The Body Has a Mind of Its Own
  26. 28. Modality principle: text example <ul><li>Dr. Penfield's experiments in the 1940’s of stimulating the outer layer of the brain enabled him to develop a map of the areas of the brain devoted to particular body parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Most striking is that the areas in our brains assigned to various body parts are proportional not to their actual size, but rather to the complexity of the movements that they can perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas for the hand and face are especially large when compared to those for the rest of the body. </li></ul>Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca
  27. 29. Modality principle <ul><li>People learn better from graphics & narration </li></ul><ul><li>than graphics & printed text. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT WHY? </li></ul>
  28. 30. cognitive theory of multimedia learning
  29. 31. Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating
  30. 32. Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Words Pictures Multimedia Presentation
  31. 33. Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Sensory Memory
  32. 34. Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory
  33. 35. Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Long Term Memory Prior Knowledge
  34. 36. Narration Pictures Multimedia Presentation Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating
  35. 42. Next 5 Principles
  36. 43. Redundancy principle <ul><li>Redundancy happens when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you present the same information in different forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the information is unnecessarily elaborated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or if the learner doesn’t need the additional information in order to understand the instruction </li></ul></ul>+ narration x
  37. 44. Redundancy principle <ul><li>LESS is more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is redundant will depend on your learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what is helpful to novices may hinder people with more expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NOT Helpful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding the text of a narration on-screen </li></ul></ul>
  38. 45. Coherence principle <ul><li>Extra stuff not linked to the instruction usually gets in the way of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, these images are extraneous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learners spend time trying to make sense of them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 46. Coherence principle <ul><li>As learners try integrate extra material into their mental model </li></ul><ul><li>It increases cognitive load </li></ul><ul><li>They may not get to the necessary learning </li></ul>
  40. 47. Signaling principle <ul><li>People learn better when… </li></ul><ul><li>you add cues that highlight the organization of essential material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arrows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highlights or pull-outs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frameworks </li></ul></ul>
  41. 48. Signaling principle <ul><li>Cues direct the learners attention </li></ul>EXAMPLE from Multimedia Theory
  42. 49. Segmenting principle <ul><li>People learn better when… </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is chunked into segments </li></ul><ul><li>And pacing is under the learner’s control </li></ul>EXAMPLE from Multimedia Theory
  43. 50. Pre-training principle <ul><li>People learn better when… </li></ul><ul><li>they know the name and characteristics of main concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - learning about Cognitive Load Theory & Multimedia Theory before getting too deeply into principles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 51. Review - helpful strategies <ul><li>Text + Pictures = Good </li></ul><ul><li>Narration + Pictures = Better </li></ul><ul><li>Keep things together in space & time </li></ul><ul><li>Cue your learners </li></ul><ul><li>Create learner-paced segments </li></ul><ul><li>Give your learners essential prior knowledge or mental models </li></ul>
  45. 52. Review - things to watch out for <ul><li>Less is More </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce redundant material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate elements not essential to the learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t split your learner’s attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keep things together in space and time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce Cognitive Load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this will depend on your learner’s prior knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  46. 53. Put the principles to work! critiquing instructional designs
  47. 54. Check List - key principles max. 2-4 elements of new information Cognitive Load don’t split elements in space or time Split-attention no repeats! if it’s apparent or already explained Redundancy no extras! does to add to instructional goal? Coherence narration + pictures >> text + pictures >> text Modality / MM give learners basic or main concepts first - essential prior knowledge helps create mental models for new material Pre-training chunk into learner-paced segments Segmenting cues direct the learner’s attention Signaling
  48. 55. Critique 1 - using principles, how would you make this better?
  49. 56. Critique 1 - using principles, how would you make this better? Cognitive Overload - pull out 2-4 key points Irrelevant picture - coherence principle Segmenting principle - chunk into segments such as “What works” & “What doesn’t” Multimedia principle - show relevant pictures such as pings & trackbacks if possible Modality principle - narrate as much as possible
  50. 57. Critique 2 slide 1 slide 2 <ul><li>Split-attention principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal split - put it all on one screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical split - relate the words to the image </li></ul>Redundancy Principle - remove most of text - essentially repeats what’s on the picture. Keep what’s underlined. Multimedia/Modality Principle - could possibly add arrows to indicate direction one moves through steps - and better explanatory text via narration.
  51. 58. Critique 2 slide 1 slide 2
  52. 59. Critique 3 - what is the instructional goal? does it work?
  53. 60. Critique 3 - what is the instructional goal? does it work? Much more subjective - other thoughts? Cognitive overload if you view as text - but if you think of this as a picture or snapshot - does it work? Modality - narrator could point out key words in snapshot - direct the learner’s attention Signaling - what if they header were changed to “current resume by word count” - would that clarify instructional goal?
  54. 61. 5 more principles if you are at risk of frying your brain feel free to jump ahead 5 slides
  55. 62. Personalization principle <ul><li>Using a conversational style is better than more formal style </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use I/you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make comments directly to you, the learner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human voice with local accent is better than machine voice </li></ul>
  56. 63. Worked-out example principle <ul><li>People learn better when they receive worked-out examples in initial skill building </li></ul>A car moves from rest (u = 0) to a speed (v = 40m/s) in 20 seconds (t = 20): v = u + at, v - u = at, a = (v-u)/t, a = (40-0)/20, a = 2 m/s 2 . What is the acceleration of the car? Example from Mayer (2005) Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, p 139 MATH PROBLEM - WORKED-OUT EXAMPLE:
  57. 64. Self-explanation principle <ul><li>People learn better when they are encouraged to generate self-explanations while learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by verbalizing what they are learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or by drawing diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generally by making sense of the materials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 65. Navigation & site map principles <ul><li>In online environments: </li></ul><ul><li>people learn better when they have appropriate navigation aids </li></ul><ul><li>people can learn better when the interface includes a map showing where the learner is in the lesson </li></ul>
  59. 66. Animation principle <ul><li>People learn better from animations when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when the concept involves changes over time that are difficult to understand from static images alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or when learners are novices and cannot form a mental model or simulate the activity with a reasonable amount of effort </li></ul></ul>
  60. 67. Check Lists review of key principles additional principles
  61. 68. Check List - key principles max. 2-4 elements of new information Cognitive Load don’t split elements in space or time Split-attention no repeats! if it’s apparent or already explained Redundancy no extras! does to add to instructional goal? Coherence narration + pictures >> text + pictures >> text Modality / MM give learners basic or main concepts first - essential prior knowledge helps create mental models for new material Pre-training chunk into learner-paced segments Segmenting cues direct the learner’s attention Signaling
  62. 69. Check List - additional principles use a conversational style Personalization for initial learning - go through problem solution, step-by-step Worked-out example encourage people to verbalize or draw diagrams while learning Self-explanation works best for complex concepts that are time-dependent or difficult to imagine Animation - easy, consistent navigation - & show where they are in the lesson Navigation Site Map
  63. 70. Design Challenge <ul><li>Don’t stop here! </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own lesson or even just 2-3 slides using the checklists </li></ul><ul><li>Right here, right now! </li></ul><ul><li>You have less than 1 hr </li></ul>Memory > Time >
  64. 71. LICENSING INFORMATION You are welcome to USE and SHARE this work if you ATTRIBUTE the work to the author. You may not ALTER or TRANSFORM this work. Learning Design for the Brain: Using Multimedia Principles by Rani H. Gill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available by sending an email to ranihgill@gmail.com. Reference Text: Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning by Richard Mayer

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