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  1. 1. Pattern in Strategy Formulation
  2. 2. What is the strategy?A method or plan chosen to bring about adesired future, such as achievement ofa goal or solution to a problem.The term is derived from the Greek word forgeneralship or leading an army.
  3. 3. DefinitionResearch methodologyResults and conclusions
  4. 4.  According to game theory According to military theory According to management theory
  5. 5. “It represents the set of the rules that isthe govern the moves of the player”.
  6. 6. The utilization during both peace and war ,ofall s the nation forces ,through large scale,long range planning and development toensure security and victory.
  7. 7. The determination of the basic long term goalsand objectives of an enterprise and the allocationof resources necessary for carrying out thesegoals.
  8. 8.  Plan Sequence of decisions Form one by one
  9. 9. 1. Collection of basic data2. Inference of strategies and periods ofchange3. Intensive analysis of periods of change4. Theoretical analysis
  10. 10. Research studies starts by listing: Important decisions and actions by theorganization Important events and trends in theenvironment
  11. 11.  What decisions and events to study Uncover the traces of decisions and events Source of data
  12. 12.  Strategies inferred as patterns in stream ofdecisions Comparison of strategies Incremental Piecemeal Global Continuity Periods of Limbo Periods of flux
  13. 13.  Broad perception Intensive investigation
  14. 14.  Hypotheses Open ended questions Debate and discussion
  15. 15. Before 1948: Flux Idea of people’s car Construction of large automobilemanufacturing plant Production of war vehicles Refugees used as a labor force
  16. 16.  Nordhoff inherited half an intended strategyPorche’s design and concept of the market. Emphasis on quality, technical excellence,aggressive exporting, rigorous servicestandards
  17. 17.  Intended strategy ideally suited theenvironment of post war Germany as well asworld wide markets. Manufacturing and distribution channels wereexpanded Two new models were introduced
  18. 18.  Minor changes were made in the strategy Advertising was introduced in United States Firm went public, investment was increased. Original strategy remain unchanged
  19. 19.  Strategy remained essentially the same Profits were squeezed by competitivepressure Cost and sales continue to increased
  20. 20.  The firm finally reacted in search of newmodel Nordhoff died in 1968 The old strategy clearly disintegrated but aclear new one had yet to emerge
  21. 21.  Experienced Volkswagen executive wasreplaced by Lotz in 1971 Period of consolidation and development ofnew integrated strategy Stylish Audi was launched Marketing strategy
  22. 22. 1950: Global changeU.S govt. refused request by Franceto aids its forces fighting inIndochinaCommunist forces took over theChinese govt.U.S changed its strategy and began aprogram direct monetary aid toFrench
  23. 23. Uninterrupted StrategyEncouraging Strategy
  24. 24. • After Geneva conference French leftVietnam• Vietnam divides in two parts• U.S began a program of direct aid tosouth Vietnam with intended strategyof democratizing the government
  25. 25.  United States uninterrupted strategy of directaid to south Vietnam
  26. 26.  Change in strategy first time U.S governmentacted in a purely proactive manner The new Kennedy team change the intendedstrategy from passive aid to active support May 11, 1961 contingent of special force wassent Vietnam to advise and train them
  27. 27.  Number of U.S adviser increase inVietnam There was Economic pressure bygovernment Change U.S president and intendedstrategy grew more intensive bombing and escalation search and destroy strategy had beganto replace enclave strategy
  28. 28. Three strategies were pursued inparallel during this period1. land war was escalated2. bombing campaign was intensified3. pressure to north Vietnam tonegotiating table
  29. 29. Reassessment of strategy due to series of factors1. First time tangible evidence of military reality2. Military request (demand for more troops)3. new strategy of defense working behind thescenes4. Public sentiment made clear the great resistanceto the war effort that was growing among the U.Spopulation
  30. 30. Limbo period to end in 1968 Nixon is new presidentinitiated global change in strategyIn effect Johnson global changes was to halt an oldstrategy Nixon was replace it with new oneproactive integrated strategy its goal as “peacewith honor”Withdrawal of U.S troopsNegotiations were done for settlement
  31. 31.  Strategy remained same just only emphasis ofvarious components changed. U.S troops continue to withdraw. 15 August 1973 American military activity inand over Indochina was ended.
  32. 32. 1. Interplay of environment, leadership andbureaucracy2. Patterns of strategic change3. Deliberate versus emergent strategies
  33. 33. Strategic formulation as a Interplay ofenvironment, leadership and bureaucracy: Environment Bureaucratic momentum Leadership role
  34. 34. Patterns of strategic change
  35. 35. Deliberate versus emergent strategies
  36. 36. There are two approachesto strategy making:1. Deliberate strategy2. Emergent strategyIt can be explain by using different kind ofstrategies
  37. 37. Types of strategy: Intended strategy plan for action Deliberate strategy process Realized strategy outcomes
  38. 38.  Volkswagen strategy (1948-1958) Kennedy strategy (1961) Vietnam strategy (1962-1965) United State strategy
  39. 39. conclusion