We the People: Ch. 6: The
Media (Part 2)
By Rani Allan
The Rise of the New Media
The rising diversity of online media has led to variation in the level of
-The liberal nature of the internet can mean hate speech, unsupported
rumors, and outdated data that can overrun voices.
-Vigorous media can also mean that misinformation and unsupported
rumors can act for objective truth as claims are extensively repeated.
• While readers of online news from dominant websites are more
sophisticated than average citizens, those who get their political news
from blogs are actually worse off.
• Most new media do not concede by traditional media's principle of
unbiased journalism, in which both sides of an debate are addressed.
More Media Outlets Owned by Fewer
There are nearly in the U.S. 2,000 TV stations,
approximately 1,400 daily newspapers, and more than
13,000 radio stations (20% of which are committed to news,
talk, or public affairs).
More than three-fourths of the daily newspapers in the U.S.
are owned by large media corporations such as the Hearst,
McClatchy, or Gannett corportations.
A considerable amount of the national news issued by local
newspapers is supplied by one wire service, the Associated
Press. Additional reportage is provided by services run by
several major newspapers, such as the New York Times.
There are only three precisely national newspapers, the
Wall Street Journal, Christian Science Monitor, and USA
The number of news sources - those doing actual news
gathering - has remained quite the same, or has fell.
The Australian press baron
Rupert Murdoch owns the Fox
network, in addittion to a
maltitude of radio, TV, and
newspaper equities around the
world, known collectively as
A small figure of huge corporations
now own a wide swath of media
properties, including TV networks,
film studios, record companies,
cable channels, and local cable
providers, book publishers,
magazines, and newspapers.
-In 2007 Murdoch won control
of the Wall Street Journal.
-Clear Channel Communications,
for example, controls 850 radio
stations, by far the biggest amount
owned by a single company.
-News Corporation controls
800 media companies in more
than 50 countries and has a
net worth of over $5 billion
As major newspapers, TV stations,
and radio networks fall into fewer
and fewer hands, the danger
increases that politicans and
citizens who consider less-popular
or minority outlooks will have
complications finding a public
symposium. As a result, they turn to
the internet to voice their views.
Agenda Setting and Selection Bias
Agenda setting is the potential of the media to bring public attention to singular issues
Groups and forces who wish to bring their beliefs to the public in order to achieve
support must gain media coverage.
The media are businesses that look to attract the largest possible audiences by
naturally tending to report stories with dramatic or entertainment value, while giving
less consideration to important stories that are less fascinating.
The news media also conducts selection bias, focusing on one detail of an event or
Mainstreem media published only few stories ciritical to the Iraq and Afghanistan
wars which have costed $3 trillion dollars and hundreds of thousands of civilian
Press avoided other controversial topics such as the U.S. government's failure to
close Guantánamo Bay prison camp and the Bush tax cuts in 2001 which broadened
the gap between the super rich and most other Americans.
• Framing is the media's potential to influence how the
American people enact political events and results.
• Politicans give attention to choose language that declare
their ideas in the most favorable light possible.
• In the 2008 election the media appeared to regard the
fact that Obama was America's first significant black
presidential candidate as more newsworthy than Hiliary
Clinton's bid to become the first woman to be president.
This extra consideration gave Obama the ability to
dominate the news and bring about popular excitement
for his campaign.
• Priming is a form of
media effect which
energizes the public to
take a particular view of
an event of political actor.
• When it comes to political
candidates, the media
influence over whether a
particular individual will
sustain public attention,
whether a particular
individual will be taken
seriously as a viable
Leaks are relevation of classified
information to the news media.
Leaks may come from government
officials such as lower-level
officials who hope to promote what
they view as their bosses'
For example in 2005, an
undentified source leaked
information concerning President
Bush's underground orders
authorizing the National Security
Agency to conduct illicit,
warrantless surveillence of
Government officials, prominent
politicans, and political activisits
pursue long-term relationships
with journalists, to whom they
regulate priority basis in a form
acceptable to them.
New techonolgy and online media such as WikiLeaks, post leaked
documents and use anonymous drop-box system so leakers
cannot be found.
Wikileaks has circulated thousands of secret government
documents involving instantces of governemnt corruption, war
crimes, torture at Guantánamo detention camp, and numerous
embarrasing private communiqués sent by U.S. diplomants
Political power of the news media has grew in recent years through
the rising prominence of "adversial journalism," an aggressive form of
investigative journalism that attempts to expose and irritate the status
New media have ushered in a new watchdog of governmental
wrongdoing. The release of confidential government documents by
Wikileaks showed the world that the American governemnt and press
(including the New York Times) sometimes covered up news.
In the U.S., the government does not
control the communications networks, but
it does manage the content and
ownership of the broadcast media.
However, the print media are essentially
free from government interference.
American radio and television are
regulated by the Federal Communications
Radio and TV stations must have FCC
FCC regulation does not involve with
cable TV, the Internet, or satellite radio.
Regulation of Content
The federal government has
enforced several regulations
that affects the political
content of radio and TV
Equal Time Rule;
broadcasters must provide
candidates for the same
political office equal
oportunities to disclose their
messages to the public.
Right of Rebutal;
individuals must be given
the opportunity to respond
to personal attacks made on
a radio or television
• Some say it is impossible ro manage political content
• The United Nations has lately announced that access to
the Internet is a human right to indicate the significance
of information technology in modern life.
• Controversy erupted in 2012 with proposed
congressional legislation, referred to as SOPA and
PIPA, that would have regulated content on the internet.
• In the same year the U.S. Justice Department shut
down a website, Megaupload, that ran services for file
storing and viewing. The owners of the Hong Kongbased company were arrested on charges of copyright
Do you completely trust the
Any questions about the