• Iran is a Democratic Theocracy because it is ruled by religious clerics, but also includes some characteristics of a democracy.• The state of Iran is based on the Islamic Constitution of April-June 1989.• Introduction in Islamic Constitution highlights significance of God, Divine Justice, the Qur’an, the Day of Judgement, Muhammad, the Twelve imams, the return of the Hidden Imam (Mahdi) and doctrine of jurist’s guardianship.• All laws and government affiliates and organizations must conform to the principles in the introduction.
The Executive• The Supreme Leader• The President• The Assembly of Experts• The Guardian Council• The Expediency Council http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3W4- 0w_Hzjs
The Supreme leader• The Supreme Leader is the true ruler of Iran.• Is currently Ayatollah Ali khamenei.• Powers include mobilizing military, granting amnesty, declaring war and peace, appointing and dismissing leaders of the military, nominating and dismissing chief judge, chief prosecutor and lower court judges, and nominating 6 clerics to Guardian Council,
The Supreme Leader (continued)• Appointed by the eighty-six member Assembly of Experts.• Is the bridge between the legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.• Appoints the Expediency Council.• Has obtained more Constitutional power that the Shah. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmeUKh1u 1lA
The President• The top position of the state under the Supreme Leader.• Is currently Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.• Handles treaties, laws and agreements.• Propose legislation to the Majles.• Appoint cabinet members (Minister of Intelligence must be from the clergy).• Appoint governors, ambassadors, and directors of some large public organizations
The President (continued)• Serves up to two 4-year terms.• Elected through a national election.• Must be a faithful Shi’i and a follower of the principles of the Islamic Republic.• Between the ages of 25-75.• Iranian origin.• May select Vice Presidents, or “presidential deputies” for assistance with duties.
The Assembly of Experts• 86 members.• Elected every 8 years.• Members must have an advanced seminary degree.• Oversees work of the Supreme leader, and can dismiss the Supreme leader.• Meets at least once a year.
The Guardian Council• 12 members.• Six members elected by the Supreme Leader, and six members elected by the Majles.• 6 religious experts, and 6 professional jurist.• Has the power to nterpret the Iranian Constitution and implement the interperation into Iranian politics, veto Parliamentary bill, and review candidates to elected office, including presidency and the Majles. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gg6uAJ7h jg
The Expediency Council• Appointed by the Supreme Leader.• Resolves conflicts between the Guardian Council and the Majles (Legislature).• That’s pretty much it.
Legislature• Unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles).• 290 seats.• Members elected by popular vote to serve 4-year terms.• Includes 5 seats for religious minorities including Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians in relation to their population size.• Majles have always included women and ethnic minorities.
Legislature (continued)• Powers include:• Drafting Legislation.• Ratifying International treaties.• Examining and approving annual budget.• Investigating all national affairs.• Removing cabinet ministers.• Can recommend removal of the president to the Supreme leader. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RnG2Rg5 N8E&feature=relmfu
Legislaiton (continued)• Majles have recently lost power.• Can no longer investigate unelected institutions, such as the Council of Guardians.• Investigation of any institution under the Supreme Leader ,such as the media must be approved by…. The Supreme Leader.• Guardian Council reviews any new law by the Majles and decides whether the laws abide by the Constitution and Islamic Law.
Judiciary• The head of Judiciary is appointed by the Supreme Leader, who then appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor.• Head of Judiciary is currently Sadeq Larijani.• The High Council of Justice• The Supreme Court• Special Clerical Court• Revolutionary Court• Special Administrative Court http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4ApyfR3B WI
High Council of Justice• 5 members who serve 5-year, renewable terms.• Includes the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General, and three clergy.• Chief Justice of Supreme Court and the Attorney General must both be members of clergy who have demonstrated high aptitude in Islamic law.• Three clergy members are appointed by religious jurists.
Supreme Court• Composition is based on laws drafted by the High Council of Justice.• Review decisions of lower courts to ensure that these decisions conform to laws of Iran and policies of the Judicial system. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o- zm177T2N0&feature=relmfu
Special Clerical Court, Revolutionary Court and Special Administrative Court• Clerical Court deals with crimes committed by Clerics.• Revolutionary Court deals with acts of terrorism and crimes against national security.• Special Administrative Court deals with complaints from citizens against the government.