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Presented by:
Dr. Fatema Tuz Zahura Aalpona
Assessment and Treatment for People
with Fertility Problems
NICE Clinical Guideline 156
Issued: February 2013
Definition of Infertility
A woman of reproductive age who has not conceived
after 1 year of unprotected vaginal sexual
intercourse, in the absence of any known cause of
infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment
and investigation along with her partner.
Earlier referral for specialist consultation
 The woman is aged 36 years or over
 There is a known clinical cause of infertility or a
history of predisposing factors for infertility
Principles of care
 Couples who experience problems in conceiving
should be seen together
 They have the opportunity to make informed
decisions regarding their care and treatment via
access to evidence-based information
 Information regarding care and treatment options
should be provided in a form that is accessible to
people who have additional needs (physical, cognitive
or sensory disabilities, or inability to speak or read).
Psychological effects of fertility problems
 Stress can affect their relationship and can
contribute to the fertility problems
 It is helpful to contact a fertility support group
 Counseling should be offered as fertility problems
themselves & investigation and treatment can cause
psychological stress
Psychological effects of fertility problems
 Counseling is offered before, during and after
investigation and treatment, irrespective of the
outcome of these procedures.
 Counseling is provided by someone who is not
directly involved in the management of the
individual's and/or couple's fertility problems.
Generalist and Specialist Care
 Infertile people should be treated by a specialist
team as it is likely to improve the effectiveness and
efficiency of treatment and is known to improve
people's satisfaction with treatment
Initial advice
to people concerned about
delays in conception
Chance of conception
80% of couples in the general population will
conceive within 1 year if:
 The woman is aged under 40 years and
 They do not use contraception and have regular
sexual intercourse.
Of those who do not conceive in the first year, about
half will do so in the second year (cumulative
pregnancy rate over 90%).
Chance of conception
People using artificial insemination to conceive should
be informed that:
 over 50% of women under 40 years will conceive
within 6 cycles of intrauterine insemination (IUI)
 of those who do not conceive within 6 cycles of IUI
about half will do so with a further 6 cycles
(cumulative pregnancy rate over 75%).
Frequency and timing of sexual intercourse
or artificial insemination
 Vaginal sexual intercourse every 2 to 3days
optimizes the chance of pregnancy.
 People using artificial insemination to conceive
should have their insemination timed around
ovulation.
Alcohol
 Women should be informed that drinking no more
than 1 or 2 units of alcohol once or twice per week
and avoiding episodes of intoxication reduces the
risk of harming a developing fetus
 Men should be informed that alcohol consumption of
3 to 4 units per day for men is unlikely to affect their
semen quality
 Excessive alcohol intake is detrimental to semen
quality
Smoking
 Women should be informed that smoking is likely to
reduce their fertility.
 Referral to a smoking cessation program to support
their efforts in stopping smoking.
 Passive smoking is likely to affect their chance of
conceiving.
 Men are informed that there is an association
between smoking and reduced semen quality and
stopping smoking will improve their general health.
Caffeinated Beverages
 No consistent evidence of an association between
consumption of caffeinated beverages (tea, coffee
and colas) and fertility problems.
Obesity
 Women with BMI of 30 or over are likely to take
longer to conceive.
 Losing weight is likely to increase their chance of
conception
 Exercise and dietary advice leads to more
pregnancies than weight loss advice alone.
 Men with BMI of 30 or over should be informed that
they are likely to have reduced fertility.
Low body weight
 Women with BMI of less than 19 and who have
irregular menstruation or are not menstruating
should be advised that increasing body weight is
likely to improve their chance of conception
Occupation
 Some occupations involve exposure to hazards
that can reduce male or female fertility and
therefore a specific enquiry about occupation and
appropriate advice should be offered
Prescribed, OTC & Recreational drug use
 A number of prescription, over-the-counter and
recreational drugs interfere with male and female
fertility, and therefore a specific enquiry about these
and appropriate advice should be offered.
Folic acid supplementation
 Women intending to become pregnant should be
informed that dietary supplementation with folic acid
before conception and up to 12 weeks' gestation
reduces the risk of having a baby with neural tube
defects. The recommended dose is 0.4mg per day.
 For women who have previously had an infant with
a neural tube defect or who are receiving anti-
epileptic medication or who have diabetes, a higher
dose of 5 mg per day is recommended.
Investigation
of fertility problems and
management strategies
Semen analysis:
WHO reference values
Semen volume 1.5 ml or more
pH 7.2 or more
Sperm concentration 15 million spermatozoa per ml or
more
Total sperm number 39 million spermatozoa per
ejaculate or more
Total motility 40% or more motile or 32% or
more with progressive motility
Vitality 58% or more live spermatozoa
Sperm morphology
(% of normal forms)
4% or more
 Abnormal result should be conformed by a repeat
test 3 months after the initial analysis to allow time for
the cycle of spermatozoa formation to be completed
 However, if a gross spermatozoa deficiency
(azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia) has been
detected the repeat test should be undertaken as
soon as possible
Semen analysis:
Ovarian reserve testing
 A woman's age is an initial predictor of her overall
chance of success through natural conception or
with IVF
 Measures are used to predict the ovarian response to
gonadotrophin stimulation:
 Total antral follicle count of ≤4 for a low response and
>16 for a high response
 Anti-Müllerian hormone of ≤5.4pmol/l for a low
response and ≥25.0pmol/l for a high response
 FSH >8.9IU/l for a low response and <4IU/l for a high
response
Confirming Ovulatory Cycles
 Women with regular monthly menstrual cycle are
likely to be ovulating
 Serum progesterone in the mid-luteal phase of their
cycle (day 21 of a 28-day cycle) to confirm ovulation
even if they have regular menstrual cycles
 Women with prolonged irregular menstrual cycles
should be offered a serum progesterone test. This
test may need to be conducted later in the cycle (for
example day 28 of a 35-day cycle) and repeated
weekly thereafter until the next menstrual cycle starts
 The use of basal body temperature charts to confirm
ovulation does not reliably predict ovulation and is
not recommended
 Women with irregular menstrual cycles should be
offered a blood test to measure serum
gonadotrophins (follicle-stimulating hormone and
luteinising hormone)
Confirming Ovulatory Cycles
Prolactin measurement
 Women who are concerned about their fertility should
not be offered a blood test to measure prolactin
 This test should only be offered to women who have
an ovulatory disorder, galactorrhoea or a pituitary
tumour.
Thyroid function tests
 Women with possible fertility problems are no more
likely than the general population to have thyroid
disease and the routine measurement of thyroid
function should not be offered
 Estimation of thyroid function should be confined to
women with symptoms of thyroid disease
Investigation of suspected tubal and
uterine abnormalities
 Women without co morbidities (e.g. PID, previous
ectopic preg. or endometriosis) should be offered
hysterosalpingography (HSG) to screen for tubal
occlusion as it is a reliable test and also less invasive
and makes more efficient use of resources than
laparoscopy
 Where appropriate expertise is available,
hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography should be
considered because it is an effective alternative to
HSG for women having no co morbidities
 Women thought to have co morbidities should be
offered laparoscopy and dye test so that tubal and
other pelvic pathology can be assessed at the same
time.
Investigation of suspected tubal and
uterine abnormalities
Testing for viral status
 People undergoing IVF treatment should be offered
testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C
 People found to positive for one or more of the
infections should be offered specialist advice,
counseling and appropriate clinical management
Viral transmission
 HIV: For couples where the man is HIV positive, any
decision about fertility management should be the
result of discussions between the couple, a fertility
specialist and an HIV specialist
 Hepatitis B: For partners of people with hepatitis B,
vaccination should be offered before starting fertility
treatment
 Hepatitis C: For couples where the man has hepatitis
C, any decision about fertility management should be
the result of discussions between the couple, a fertility
specialist and a hepatitis specialist
Susceptibility to rubella
 Women should be offered testing for their rubella
status so that those who are susceptible to rubella
can be offered vaccination.
 After vaccination woman is advised not to become
pregnant for at least 1 month
Male Factor Fertility Problems:
Medical & Surgical Management
Medical management: Male factor infertility
 Men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism should be
offered gonadotrophin drugs
 In idiopathic semen abnormalities should not be
offered antioestrogens, gonadotrophins, androgens,
bromocriptine or kinin-enhancing drugs as they have
not been shown to be effective
 Men with leucocytes in their semen should not be
offered antibiotic treatment unless there is an
identified infection because there is no evidence that
this improves pregnancy rates
Surgical management: Male factor infertility
 Obstructive azoospermia should be offered surgical
correction of epididymal blockage because it is likely to
improve fertility
 Surgical correction should be considered as an
alternative to surgical sperm recovery & IVF
 Surgery for varicoceles should not be offered as it does
not improve pregnancy rate
Ovulation Disorders
WHO Classification of Ovulatory Disorders
 Group I: Hypothalamic pituitary failure (hypothalamic
amenorrhoea or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism).
 Group II: Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian dysfunction
(predominately polycystic ovary syndrome).
 Group III: Ovarian failure
WHO Group I Ovulation Disorders
 Can improve their chance of regular ovulation,
conception and an uncomplicated pregnancy by:
increasing their body weight if they have a BMI of less
than 19 and/or
moderating their exercise levels if they undertake high
levels of exercise
 Women of this group should be offered:
pulsatile GnRH or
gonadotrophins with LH activity to induce ovulation
WHO Group II Ovulation Disorders:
Candidate for ovarian stimulation
 Loose weight if BMI ≥30
 Should be offered one of the following treatments:
Clomifene citrate or
Metformin or
A combination of the above
 Clomifene citrate: ultrasound monitoring is needed
during at least the first cycle of treatment to ensure
that they are taking a dose that minimizes the risk of
multiple pregnancy
 Clomifene citrate should not be continued for longer
than 6 months
 Metformin: inform the side effects associated with
its use (such as nausea, vomiting and other
gastrointestinal disturbances)
WHO Group II Ovulation Disorders
 One of the second-line treatments should be
considered, depending on clinical circumstances
and the woman's preference:
Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or
Combined treatment with clomifene citrate and
metformin if not already offered as first-line treatment
or
Gonadotrophins
WHO Group II Ovulation Disorders:
Resistant to clomifene citrate
Hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea
 These women should be offered treatment with
dopamine agonists (such as bromocriptine)
 Consideration should be given to safety for use in
pregnancy and minimizing cost when prescribing
Monitoring ovulation induction during
gonadotrophin therapy
 Women should be informed about the risk of multiple
pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation before
starting treatment
 Ovarian ultrasound monitoring to measure follicular
size and number should be an integral part of
gonadotrophin therapy to reduce the risk of multiple
pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation
Tubal and Uterine Surgery
Tubal Catheterization or Cannulation
 For women with proximal tubal obstruction, following
may be treatment options because these treatments
improve the chance of pregnancy:
 Selective salpingography plus tubal
catheterisation
 Hysteroscopic tubal cannulation
Surgery for Hydrosalpinges before IVF
 Salpingectomy should be offered, preferably by
laparoscopy, before IVF treatment because this
improves the chance of a live birth.
Uterine Surgery
 Women with amenorrhoea due to intrauterine
adhesions should be offered hysteroscopic
adhesiolysis because this is likely to restore
menstruation and improve the chance of pregnancy
Unexplained Infertility
Ovarian stimulation for unexplained infertility
 Oral ovarian stimulation agents (such as clomifene
citrate, letrozole) should not be offered
 Clomifene citrate as a stand-alone treatment does
not increase the chances of a pregnancy or a live
birth
 These women are advised of having regular
unprotected sexual intercourse for a total of 2 years
before IVF will be considered
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Indications
Unstimulated IUI is considered as a treatment option
in the following groups as an alternative to vaginal
intercourse:
 Who are unable to, or find it very difficult to, have
vaginal intercourse because of physical disability or
psychosexual problem who are using partner or donor
sperm
 In conditions that require specific consideration e.g.
after sperm washing where the man is HIV positive
 In same-sex relationships
 Who have not conceived after 6 cycles of donor or
partner insemination, despite normal ovulation, tubal
patency and semen analysis, should be offered a
further 6 cycles of unstimulated IUI before IVF is
considered
 In case of unexplained infertility, mild endometriosis or
mild male factor infertility, who are having regular
unprotected sexual intercourse, routine IUI should not
be offered, either with or without ovarian stimulation
(exceptional circumstances include, for example,
when people have social, cultural or religious
objections to IVF)
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Indications
 Female age: the chance of a live birth following IVF
treatment falls with rising female age.
 Number of previous treatment cycles: overall
chance of a live birth following IVF treatment falls as
the number of unsuccessful cycles increases.
 Previous pregnancy history: IVF treatment is more
effective in women who have past pregnancy and/or
had a live birth.
 Body mass index: BMI should ideally be in the range
19–30 before commencing assisted reproduction
Prediction of IVF Success
Access Criteria For IVF
Referral Criteria for IVF
 Women under 40 years who have not conceived after 2
years of regular unprotected intercourse or 12 cycles of IUI,
3 full cycles of IVF, with/without ICSI are offered
 If woman reaches the age of 40 during treatment, only the
current full cycle is completed
 For women aged 40–42 years 1 full cycle of IVF, with or
without ICSI is offered, provided the following 3 criteria are
fulfilled:
They have never previously had IVF treatment
There is no evidence of low ovarian reserve
There has been a discussion of the additional
implications of IVF and pregnancy at this age
Procedures Used During IVF
Treatment
Down regulation and other regimens to
avoid premature luteinising hormone
surges in IVF
 Either GNRH agonist down-regulation or GNRH
antagonists as part of gonadotrophin stimulated IVF
treatment cycles is used
Controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF
 Either urinary or recombinant gonadotrophins is used
for ovarian stimulation
 An individualized starting dose of FSH, based on
factors such as:
Age
BMI
Presence of polycystic ovaries
Ovarian reserve
 A dose of FSH not more than 450IU/day is used
 Ultrasound monitoring (with/without oestradiol levels)
Triggering Ovulation in IVF
 HCG (urinary or recombinant) is used
 Clinics providing ovarian stimulation with
gonadotrophins should have protocols in place for
preventing, diagnosing and managing ovarian
hyperstimulation syndrome (OHS)
Oocyte and Sperm Retrieval in IVF
 Women undergoing transvaginal retrieval of oocytes
should be offered conscious sedation
 Surgical sperm recovery before ICSI may be
performed using several different techniques
depending on the pathology and wishes of the man.
 In all cases, facilities for cryopreservation of
spermatozoa should be available
Embryo Transfer Strategies in IVF
 USG-guided embryo transfer because this improves
pregnancy rates
 Replacement of embryos into a uterine cavity with an
endometrium of less than 5mm thickness is unlikely
to result in a pregnancy
Number of fresh or frozen embryos to transfer
 For women aged under 37 years:
o In the first full IVF cycle - single embryo transfer
o In the second full IVF cycle - single embryo transfer if 1 or
more top-quality embryos are available. If no top-quality
embryos are available 2 embryos are used
o In the third full IVF cycle - no more than 2 embryos should
be transferred
 For women aged 37–39 years:
o In the first and second full IVF cycles use single embryo
transfer if there are 1 or more top-quality embryos. Double
embryo transfer if there are no top-quality embryos
o In the third full IVF cycle transfer no more than 2 embryos
 For women aged 40–42 years: double embryo transfer
Luteal Phase Support After IVF
 Progesterone for luteal phase support after IVF
treatment up to 8 weeks
Indications for ICSI
 The recognised indications are:
 Severe deficits in semen quality
 Obstructive azoospermia
 Non-obstructive azoospermia
 In addition, treatment by ICSI should be considered
for couples in whom a previous IVF cycle has
resulted in failed or very poor fertilisation
Donor Insemination
 The use of donor insemination is considered effective
in managing fertility problems associated with-
obstructive azoospermia
non-obstructive azoospermia
 Severe deficits in semen quality in couples who do
not wish to undergo ICSI
 High risk of trasmitting genetic disease or infection to
the offsprings
 Severe Rhesus isoimmunization
Oocyte Donation
The use of donor oocytes is considered effective in
managing fertility problems associated --
 Premature ovarian failure
 Gonadal dysgenesis, including Turner syndrome
 Bilateral oophorectomy
 Ovarian failure following chemotherapy/radiotherapy
 Certain cases of IVF treatment failure
 A high risk of transmitting a genetic disorder to the
offspring
People with cancer who wish to preserve fertility
 At diagnosis, the impact of the cancer and its treatment on
future fertility should be discussed between the person
diagnosed with cancer and their cancer team.
 When deciding to offer fertility preservation to people
diagnosed with cancer, the factors to be considered:
Diagnosis
Treatment plan
Expected outcome of subsequent fertility treatment
Prognosis of the cancer treatment
Viability of stored/post-thawed material
 Sperm cryopreservation to men and adolescent boys
who are preparing for treatment of cancer that is
likely to make them infertile
 Oocyte or embryo cryopreservation as appropriate to
women of reproductive age (including adolescent
girls) who are preparing for treatment for cancer that
is likely to make them infertile if:
They are well enough to undergo ovarian stimulation
and egg collection
This will not worsen their condition
Enough time is available before the start of their
cancer treatment
People with cancer who wish to preserve fertility
Long-term safety of assisted
reproductive technologies for
women with infertility and their
children
Long-term health outcomes of ovulation induction
and ovarian stimulation
Women who are offered ovulation induction or ovarian
stimulation should be informed that:
 No direct association has been found between these
treatments and invasive cancer
 No association has been found in the short- to
medium-term between these treatments and adverse
outcomes (including cancer) in children born from
ovulation induction
 Information about long-term health outcomes in
women and children is still awaited
Long-term health outcomes and safety of IVF
 Absolute risks of long-term adverse outcomes of IVF
treatment, with or without ICSI, are low, a small
increased risk of borderline ovarian tumours cannot
be excluded
 People, considering IVF treatment should be
informed that that the absolute risks of long-term
adverse outcomes in children born as result of IVF
are low
Acknowledgement
Thank you

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NICE Fertility Guideline

  • 1. Presented by: Dr. Fatema Tuz Zahura Aalpona Assessment and Treatment for People with Fertility Problems NICE Clinical Guideline 156 Issued: February 2013
  • 2. Definition of Infertility A woman of reproductive age who has not conceived after 1 year of unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse, in the absence of any known cause of infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment and investigation along with her partner.
  • 3. Earlier referral for specialist consultation  The woman is aged 36 years or over  There is a known clinical cause of infertility or a history of predisposing factors for infertility
  • 4. Principles of care  Couples who experience problems in conceiving should be seen together  They have the opportunity to make informed decisions regarding their care and treatment via access to evidence-based information  Information regarding care and treatment options should be provided in a form that is accessible to people who have additional needs (physical, cognitive or sensory disabilities, or inability to speak or read).
  • 5. Psychological effects of fertility problems  Stress can affect their relationship and can contribute to the fertility problems  It is helpful to contact a fertility support group  Counseling should be offered as fertility problems themselves & investigation and treatment can cause psychological stress
  • 6. Psychological effects of fertility problems  Counseling is offered before, during and after investigation and treatment, irrespective of the outcome of these procedures.  Counseling is provided by someone who is not directly involved in the management of the individual's and/or couple's fertility problems.
  • 7. Generalist and Specialist Care  Infertile people should be treated by a specialist team as it is likely to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of treatment and is known to improve people's satisfaction with treatment
  • 8. Initial advice to people concerned about delays in conception
  • 9. Chance of conception 80% of couples in the general population will conceive within 1 year if:  The woman is aged under 40 years and  They do not use contraception and have regular sexual intercourse. Of those who do not conceive in the first year, about half will do so in the second year (cumulative pregnancy rate over 90%).
  • 10. Chance of conception People using artificial insemination to conceive should be informed that:  over 50% of women under 40 years will conceive within 6 cycles of intrauterine insemination (IUI)  of those who do not conceive within 6 cycles of IUI about half will do so with a further 6 cycles (cumulative pregnancy rate over 75%).
  • 11. Frequency and timing of sexual intercourse or artificial insemination  Vaginal sexual intercourse every 2 to 3days optimizes the chance of pregnancy.  People using artificial insemination to conceive should have their insemination timed around ovulation.
  • 12. Alcohol  Women should be informed that drinking no more than 1 or 2 units of alcohol once or twice per week and avoiding episodes of intoxication reduces the risk of harming a developing fetus  Men should be informed that alcohol consumption of 3 to 4 units per day for men is unlikely to affect their semen quality  Excessive alcohol intake is detrimental to semen quality
  • 13. Smoking  Women should be informed that smoking is likely to reduce their fertility.  Referral to a smoking cessation program to support their efforts in stopping smoking.  Passive smoking is likely to affect their chance of conceiving.  Men are informed that there is an association between smoking and reduced semen quality and stopping smoking will improve their general health.
  • 14. Caffeinated Beverages  No consistent evidence of an association between consumption of caffeinated beverages (tea, coffee and colas) and fertility problems.
  • 15. Obesity  Women with BMI of 30 or over are likely to take longer to conceive.  Losing weight is likely to increase their chance of conception  Exercise and dietary advice leads to more pregnancies than weight loss advice alone.  Men with BMI of 30 or over should be informed that they are likely to have reduced fertility.
  • 16. Low body weight  Women with BMI of less than 19 and who have irregular menstruation or are not menstruating should be advised that increasing body weight is likely to improve their chance of conception
  • 17. Occupation  Some occupations involve exposure to hazards that can reduce male or female fertility and therefore a specific enquiry about occupation and appropriate advice should be offered
  • 18. Prescribed, OTC & Recreational drug use  A number of prescription, over-the-counter and recreational drugs interfere with male and female fertility, and therefore a specific enquiry about these and appropriate advice should be offered.
  • 19. Folic acid supplementation  Women intending to become pregnant should be informed that dietary supplementation with folic acid before conception and up to 12 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects. The recommended dose is 0.4mg per day.  For women who have previously had an infant with a neural tube defect or who are receiving anti- epileptic medication or who have diabetes, a higher dose of 5 mg per day is recommended.
  • 20. Investigation of fertility problems and management strategies
  • 21. Semen analysis: WHO reference values Semen volume 1.5 ml or more pH 7.2 or more Sperm concentration 15 million spermatozoa per ml or more Total sperm number 39 million spermatozoa per ejaculate or more Total motility 40% or more motile or 32% or more with progressive motility Vitality 58% or more live spermatozoa Sperm morphology (% of normal forms) 4% or more
  • 22.  Abnormal result should be conformed by a repeat test 3 months after the initial analysis to allow time for the cycle of spermatozoa formation to be completed  However, if a gross spermatozoa deficiency (azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia) has been detected the repeat test should be undertaken as soon as possible Semen analysis:
  • 23. Ovarian reserve testing  A woman's age is an initial predictor of her overall chance of success through natural conception or with IVF  Measures are used to predict the ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation:  Total antral follicle count of ≤4 for a low response and >16 for a high response  Anti-Müllerian hormone of ≤5.4pmol/l for a low response and ≥25.0pmol/l for a high response  FSH >8.9IU/l for a low response and <4IU/l for a high response
  • 24. Confirming Ovulatory Cycles  Women with regular monthly menstrual cycle are likely to be ovulating  Serum progesterone in the mid-luteal phase of their cycle (day 21 of a 28-day cycle) to confirm ovulation even if they have regular menstrual cycles  Women with prolonged irregular menstrual cycles should be offered a serum progesterone test. This test may need to be conducted later in the cycle (for example day 28 of a 35-day cycle) and repeated weekly thereafter until the next menstrual cycle starts
  • 25.  The use of basal body temperature charts to confirm ovulation does not reliably predict ovulation and is not recommended  Women with irregular menstrual cycles should be offered a blood test to measure serum gonadotrophins (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone) Confirming Ovulatory Cycles
  • 26. Prolactin measurement  Women who are concerned about their fertility should not be offered a blood test to measure prolactin  This test should only be offered to women who have an ovulatory disorder, galactorrhoea or a pituitary tumour.
  • 27. Thyroid function tests  Women with possible fertility problems are no more likely than the general population to have thyroid disease and the routine measurement of thyroid function should not be offered  Estimation of thyroid function should be confined to women with symptoms of thyroid disease
  • 28. Investigation of suspected tubal and uterine abnormalities  Women without co morbidities (e.g. PID, previous ectopic preg. or endometriosis) should be offered hysterosalpingography (HSG) to screen for tubal occlusion as it is a reliable test and also less invasive and makes more efficient use of resources than laparoscopy  Where appropriate expertise is available, hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography should be considered because it is an effective alternative to HSG for women having no co morbidities
  • 29.  Women thought to have co morbidities should be offered laparoscopy and dye test so that tubal and other pelvic pathology can be assessed at the same time. Investigation of suspected tubal and uterine abnormalities
  • 30. Testing for viral status  People undergoing IVF treatment should be offered testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C  People found to positive for one or more of the infections should be offered specialist advice, counseling and appropriate clinical management
  • 31. Viral transmission  HIV: For couples where the man is HIV positive, any decision about fertility management should be the result of discussions between the couple, a fertility specialist and an HIV specialist  Hepatitis B: For partners of people with hepatitis B, vaccination should be offered before starting fertility treatment  Hepatitis C: For couples where the man has hepatitis C, any decision about fertility management should be the result of discussions between the couple, a fertility specialist and a hepatitis specialist
  • 32. Susceptibility to rubella  Women should be offered testing for their rubella status so that those who are susceptible to rubella can be offered vaccination.  After vaccination woman is advised not to become pregnant for at least 1 month
  • 33. Male Factor Fertility Problems: Medical & Surgical Management
  • 34. Medical management: Male factor infertility  Men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism should be offered gonadotrophin drugs  In idiopathic semen abnormalities should not be offered antioestrogens, gonadotrophins, androgens, bromocriptine or kinin-enhancing drugs as they have not been shown to be effective  Men with leucocytes in their semen should not be offered antibiotic treatment unless there is an identified infection because there is no evidence that this improves pregnancy rates
  • 35. Surgical management: Male factor infertility  Obstructive azoospermia should be offered surgical correction of epididymal blockage because it is likely to improve fertility  Surgical correction should be considered as an alternative to surgical sperm recovery & IVF  Surgery for varicoceles should not be offered as it does not improve pregnancy rate
  • 37. WHO Classification of Ovulatory Disorders  Group I: Hypothalamic pituitary failure (hypothalamic amenorrhoea or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism).  Group II: Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian dysfunction (predominately polycystic ovary syndrome).  Group III: Ovarian failure
  • 38. WHO Group I Ovulation Disorders  Can improve their chance of regular ovulation, conception and an uncomplicated pregnancy by: increasing their body weight if they have a BMI of less than 19 and/or moderating their exercise levels if they undertake high levels of exercise  Women of this group should be offered: pulsatile GnRH or gonadotrophins with LH activity to induce ovulation
  • 39. WHO Group II Ovulation Disorders: Candidate for ovarian stimulation  Loose weight if BMI ≥30  Should be offered one of the following treatments: Clomifene citrate or Metformin or A combination of the above
  • 40.  Clomifene citrate: ultrasound monitoring is needed during at least the first cycle of treatment to ensure that they are taking a dose that minimizes the risk of multiple pregnancy  Clomifene citrate should not be continued for longer than 6 months  Metformin: inform the side effects associated with its use (such as nausea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal disturbances) WHO Group II Ovulation Disorders
  • 41.  One of the second-line treatments should be considered, depending on clinical circumstances and the woman's preference: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or Combined treatment with clomifene citrate and metformin if not already offered as first-line treatment or Gonadotrophins WHO Group II Ovulation Disorders: Resistant to clomifene citrate
  • 42. Hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea  These women should be offered treatment with dopamine agonists (such as bromocriptine)  Consideration should be given to safety for use in pregnancy and minimizing cost when prescribing
  • 43. Monitoring ovulation induction during gonadotrophin therapy  Women should be informed about the risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation before starting treatment  Ovarian ultrasound monitoring to measure follicular size and number should be an integral part of gonadotrophin therapy to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation
  • 44. Tubal and Uterine Surgery
  • 45. Tubal Catheterization or Cannulation  For women with proximal tubal obstruction, following may be treatment options because these treatments improve the chance of pregnancy:  Selective salpingography plus tubal catheterisation  Hysteroscopic tubal cannulation
  • 46. Surgery for Hydrosalpinges before IVF  Salpingectomy should be offered, preferably by laparoscopy, before IVF treatment because this improves the chance of a live birth.
  • 47. Uterine Surgery  Women with amenorrhoea due to intrauterine adhesions should be offered hysteroscopic adhesiolysis because this is likely to restore menstruation and improve the chance of pregnancy
  • 49. Ovarian stimulation for unexplained infertility  Oral ovarian stimulation agents (such as clomifene citrate, letrozole) should not be offered  Clomifene citrate as a stand-alone treatment does not increase the chances of a pregnancy or a live birth  These women are advised of having regular unprotected sexual intercourse for a total of 2 years before IVF will be considered
  • 50. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Indications Unstimulated IUI is considered as a treatment option in the following groups as an alternative to vaginal intercourse:  Who are unable to, or find it very difficult to, have vaginal intercourse because of physical disability or psychosexual problem who are using partner or donor sperm  In conditions that require specific consideration e.g. after sperm washing where the man is HIV positive  In same-sex relationships
  • 51.  Who have not conceived after 6 cycles of donor or partner insemination, despite normal ovulation, tubal patency and semen analysis, should be offered a further 6 cycles of unstimulated IUI before IVF is considered  In case of unexplained infertility, mild endometriosis or mild male factor infertility, who are having regular unprotected sexual intercourse, routine IUI should not be offered, either with or without ovarian stimulation (exceptional circumstances include, for example, when people have social, cultural or religious objections to IVF) Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Indications
  • 52.  Female age: the chance of a live birth following IVF treatment falls with rising female age.  Number of previous treatment cycles: overall chance of a live birth following IVF treatment falls as the number of unsuccessful cycles increases.  Previous pregnancy history: IVF treatment is more effective in women who have past pregnancy and/or had a live birth.  Body mass index: BMI should ideally be in the range 19–30 before commencing assisted reproduction Prediction of IVF Success
  • 54. Referral Criteria for IVF  Women under 40 years who have not conceived after 2 years of regular unprotected intercourse or 12 cycles of IUI, 3 full cycles of IVF, with/without ICSI are offered  If woman reaches the age of 40 during treatment, only the current full cycle is completed  For women aged 40–42 years 1 full cycle of IVF, with or without ICSI is offered, provided the following 3 criteria are fulfilled: They have never previously had IVF treatment There is no evidence of low ovarian reserve There has been a discussion of the additional implications of IVF and pregnancy at this age
  • 55. Procedures Used During IVF Treatment
  • 56. Down regulation and other regimens to avoid premature luteinising hormone surges in IVF  Either GNRH agonist down-regulation or GNRH antagonists as part of gonadotrophin stimulated IVF treatment cycles is used
  • 57. Controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF  Either urinary or recombinant gonadotrophins is used for ovarian stimulation  An individualized starting dose of FSH, based on factors such as: Age BMI Presence of polycystic ovaries Ovarian reserve  A dose of FSH not more than 450IU/day is used  Ultrasound monitoring (with/without oestradiol levels)
  • 58. Triggering Ovulation in IVF  HCG (urinary or recombinant) is used  Clinics providing ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins should have protocols in place for preventing, diagnosing and managing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHS)
  • 59. Oocyte and Sperm Retrieval in IVF  Women undergoing transvaginal retrieval of oocytes should be offered conscious sedation  Surgical sperm recovery before ICSI may be performed using several different techniques depending on the pathology and wishes of the man.  In all cases, facilities for cryopreservation of spermatozoa should be available
  • 60. Embryo Transfer Strategies in IVF  USG-guided embryo transfer because this improves pregnancy rates  Replacement of embryos into a uterine cavity with an endometrium of less than 5mm thickness is unlikely to result in a pregnancy
  • 61. Number of fresh or frozen embryos to transfer  For women aged under 37 years: o In the first full IVF cycle - single embryo transfer o In the second full IVF cycle - single embryo transfer if 1 or more top-quality embryos are available. If no top-quality embryos are available 2 embryos are used o In the third full IVF cycle - no more than 2 embryos should be transferred  For women aged 37–39 years: o In the first and second full IVF cycles use single embryo transfer if there are 1 or more top-quality embryos. Double embryo transfer if there are no top-quality embryos o In the third full IVF cycle transfer no more than 2 embryos  For women aged 40–42 years: double embryo transfer
  • 62. Luteal Phase Support After IVF  Progesterone for luteal phase support after IVF treatment up to 8 weeks
  • 63. Indications for ICSI  The recognised indications are:  Severe deficits in semen quality  Obstructive azoospermia  Non-obstructive azoospermia  In addition, treatment by ICSI should be considered for couples in whom a previous IVF cycle has resulted in failed or very poor fertilisation
  • 64. Donor Insemination  The use of donor insemination is considered effective in managing fertility problems associated with- obstructive azoospermia non-obstructive azoospermia  Severe deficits in semen quality in couples who do not wish to undergo ICSI  High risk of trasmitting genetic disease or infection to the offsprings  Severe Rhesus isoimmunization
  • 65. Oocyte Donation The use of donor oocytes is considered effective in managing fertility problems associated --  Premature ovarian failure  Gonadal dysgenesis, including Turner syndrome  Bilateral oophorectomy  Ovarian failure following chemotherapy/radiotherapy  Certain cases of IVF treatment failure  A high risk of transmitting a genetic disorder to the offspring
  • 66. People with cancer who wish to preserve fertility  At diagnosis, the impact of the cancer and its treatment on future fertility should be discussed between the person diagnosed with cancer and their cancer team.  When deciding to offer fertility preservation to people diagnosed with cancer, the factors to be considered: Diagnosis Treatment plan Expected outcome of subsequent fertility treatment Prognosis of the cancer treatment Viability of stored/post-thawed material
  • 67.  Sperm cryopreservation to men and adolescent boys who are preparing for treatment of cancer that is likely to make them infertile  Oocyte or embryo cryopreservation as appropriate to women of reproductive age (including adolescent girls) who are preparing for treatment for cancer that is likely to make them infertile if: They are well enough to undergo ovarian stimulation and egg collection This will not worsen their condition Enough time is available before the start of their cancer treatment People with cancer who wish to preserve fertility
  • 68. Long-term safety of assisted reproductive technologies for women with infertility and their children
  • 69. Long-term health outcomes of ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation Women who are offered ovulation induction or ovarian stimulation should be informed that:  No direct association has been found between these treatments and invasive cancer  No association has been found in the short- to medium-term between these treatments and adverse outcomes (including cancer) in children born from ovulation induction  Information about long-term health outcomes in women and children is still awaited
  • 70. Long-term health outcomes and safety of IVF  Absolute risks of long-term adverse outcomes of IVF treatment, with or without ICSI, are low, a small increased risk of borderline ovarian tumours cannot be excluded  People, considering IVF treatment should be informed that that the absolute risks of long-term adverse outcomes in children born as result of IVF are low
  • 72.