Lecture 5HELLENISM AND ROMEINTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
Weakened by the enlarged scope and scale of warfareduring and immediately after the Peloponnesian War,the independence of ...
Alexander the Great
Note: Should say 4th Century BCE not 5th Century
Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus                                           Macedonian phalangite with sariss...
Macedonian phalanx required level groundbut was very effective.The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that whenhe first s...
Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture throughoutthe near eastern world.After his death, the so-called Successor kingd...
Shown here are the great libraryand lighthouse at Alexandria (nearmodern day Cairo).Alexandria eventually becameantiquity’...
The library of Alexandriawas but one part ofthe Museum of Alexandria.Museum = study of themusesIt functioned as a sort ofr...
Some of the scholars at Alexandria included:Euclid invented geometryArchimedes calculated pi, discovered hydraulic technol...
At its peak, the Library ofAlexandria may have hadover a half a million itemsin its collection.In 391 CE (700 years after ...
One of the victims of this much laterdestruction of the Alexandria Library wasHypatia, famous in antiquity for herattainme...
Cyril was rewarded for his efforts bybeing made one of the early Saints ofthe Catholic Church.
The Hellenistic successor kingdoms wereeventually displaced in the Mediterraneanworld by Rome.Rome’s history proper begins...
Over a three hundred yeartime period, Rome’s powergrew and through a continuousseries of wars with itsneighbours, eventual...
So how did Rome do it?Polybius  (ca. 200–118 BC), a Greek prisoner of wartried to explain Rome’s successes for a Greek aud...
Roman Political SystemTwo eras:Republic (509 – 29 BCE)Empire (29 BCE – 476 CE)
Roman Republic Political SystemSenateThe aristocratic patricians (great families) were represented by theSenate. Controlle...
Tribal Assembly                                               For any law or motion, the Tribal Assembly, after receiving ...
Roman ArmyBased on their experience from hundreds of years of fighting in therugged terrain of Italy, Roman armies develop...
Roman ArmyEven though the army was initially composed of citizen farmers, it waswell-trained, disciplined and focused on k...
This image is a recreation of the Battle of Pydna, in which the Macedonians lost some 25,000 men while the Romans lost abo...
Roman ArmyDuring most of the Republic time period, the Roman army was composedof citizens (except for the very poorest), w...
Decline of Roman RepublicAs the Roman Republic grew in land size, it faced two importantand related problems.First, a larg...
Sulla (88 – 78 BCE)       Pompey (70 – 48 BCE)        Crassus (70 – 55 BCE)      Julius Caesar (49 – 44 BCE)Attacked Rome ...
Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul (modern-day France),was a wonderful Latin stylist, a skilled politician, andone of histor...
Painting below is "Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms atthe Feet of Julius Caesar", 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer.Vercingetor...
From the HBO Series Rome, which hadCiarán Hinds playing the role of Caesarwith just the right mixture of arroganceand conf...
Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BCE inthe Senate led by his friend Marcus Brutus, Gaius ...
Roman forces loyal to Caesar, led by Mark Antony and Caesar’syoung nephew Octavian defeated the Brutus and Cassius-ledsena...
Augustus did not have a son. So he adopted Tiberius, his wife’s son (froman earlier marriage).Tiberius had two sons, both ...
Pax RomanaRome’s height is generally connected to the Flavian andAntonine dynasties. During that time, rather than passing...
Pax RomanaIts peak coincided with the rule of the so-called Five Good Emperors (96 – 180 BCE).Edward Gibbons, the 18th cen...
Roman CultureRoman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals.Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
Many Roman sculptures have youthfulGreek-inspired bodies with stern and agedheads.
Roman version of Photoshop: buy statue ofyouthful Greek youth, knock off the head, andattach realistic portrait of aged Ro...
Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
Bust of Flavian Woman
Popular hairstyle duringFlavian time period
Not every Roman matronlooked good in the Flavianupdo!
Roman Civic EngineeringRomans were masters at solving practical problems andappear to have had very sophisticated building...
Much of what we know of regularRoman life comes from the buriedremains of Pompeii, buried in 79CE by volcanic eruption.
Visit Pompeii with Google Maps
Very little of Herculaneum has beenuncovered. Herculaneum was buried under20 meters of ash and is now buried as wellby mod...
Lead water pipes in Pompeii
Painted walls in Pompeii
A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
Cave Canem - Beware of Dog – mosaicsPompeii
Images from the so-called Lupanare or Brothel of                                                               Pompeii. Ar...
http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/geschichte/isb/Museum/insula.jpg
Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century –Typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
http://michellemoran.com/CD/Roman-Villa.jpg
Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters anunderground passage just to the left. ...
Pantheon in Rome. Almost twothousand years after it was built,the Pantheons dome is still theworlds largest unreinforcedco...
Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
Coliseum in Rome
Representations of Gladiator games
“Kill him! Lash him! Burn him” Why does he meet the sword in such a cowardly way? Whydoes he strike so feebly? Why doesn’t...
The so-called Bikini Girls, who appear to have amusedthe gladiatorial audience in between events …
SatyriconPetroniusOn blackboard in class
Roman ReligionRome’s religion is sometimes referred to as pagan. Theyimported Greek and Etruscan deities, renamed them,and...
Rome’s religion was perhaps best analogous to today’spatriotism. You participated in official religious rituals todemonstr...
On the Nature of ThingsLucretiusOn blackboard in class
Roman ReligionWhile Rome’s educated and cultured elite weresecularized, there was also a slow but growing counter-movement...
Some examples: Mithraism, Orphism, Eleusinians,Dionysianism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism,Christianity.
Mithras, the sun god born on Dec 25.
Villa of the Mysteries, PompeiiOne of the richer villas uncovered in Pompeii appears tohave a series of illustrations of a...
Roman ReligionIn conclusion, Romans were very tolerant of differentreligious beliefs as long as the rituals or the beliefs...
ChristianityAfter Jesus of Nazareth’s death around 31 CE, therewere two factions of his followers:Aramaic-speaking Jews fo...
Christianity grew initially almostcompletely amongst the lower classes inRome and in the eastern provinces ofthe Empire.Mu...
Christianity also seemed to gain an early footholdamongst upper-class women.Still, Christianity was very much a fringe rel...
From Pax Romana to …   …the 3rd Century Crisis
Statues of last of the“Good” emperors:Trajan, Hadrian, LuciusVera, Marcus Aurelius,–notice the regal, imperialcalm of the ...
Unlike his predecessors over the previous 100 years,Marcus Aurelius did not appoint his successor based onmerit, but inste...
Commodus was said to have been moreinterested in being a gladiator than anEmperor, and with him began a period ofradical i...
Commodus was eventually assassinated (poisoned,       His second wife Julia Domna was highly learnedthen strangled by his ...
The panel depicts the RomanEmperor Septimus Severus with hisfamily: to the left his wife JuliaDomna, in front of them thei...
Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered hisbrother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years,killed by his soldiers while urinating).Carac...
For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid abonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new empero...
The 3rd Century CrisisBetween 235 and 284 there were 25 Emperors. Only onedied of natural causes. There were also dozens o...
Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Wasassa...
Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by hissoldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of f...
Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 atascension) relative of Septimius Severuswho ...
http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/end%20and%20legacy/invasions.jpg
The silver content of the main roman                                currency (the denari) declined to zero                ...
During the Crisis of the Third Century, Rome’s vast internaltrade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able tos...
Emperor Maximinus (first barbarianemperor, ruled for 3 years,murdered); Emperor Gordian I(ruled at same time, dead within2...
Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate,tried to bring order, murdered by soldierswithin a few months).Emperor Gordian III, ...
Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by histroops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths.Emperor Gallienus, rule...
Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finestgenerals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting theEmpire. Murdered by ...
Thanks to Auerlian, by late 274, the Roman Empire wasreunited into a single entity, and the frontier troopswere back in pl...
The Crisis had a tremendous effect on the cultural sideas well.In general, there was a rejection of the optimistic andsecu...
Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus(late 4th c)
Not the Virgin Mary with theChrist child, but Hermesholding the infant Dionysuswith nimbus (halo). Thesemosaics are from t...
Ceiling from Constantine palace in Trier.Circles of light indicate regal importance
Christianity, which was a very minor religious movementin the Empire, became a bit more widespread (but still aminority re...
Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E.When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305)assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, hedid so w...
The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empirewould be divided into four quadrants, which were to beruled over by...
Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system whichhad become wildly destabilized during the troubles ofthe third century...
Diocletians reforms fundamentally changed the structureof Roman imperial government and helped stabilize theempire economi...
Constantine the Great(ruled as part of Tetrarchyfrom 306 to 312; as soleEmperor from about 312 to337).Following Diocletian...
Constantine is perhaps best known for being the firstChristian Roman emperor (though he also had his wifeand eldest son ex...
Under Constantine, Rome was divided administrativelyinto western and eastern halves, each with their owncapital.The wester...
Constantinople lies in a very favorablelocation that separates Europe fromAsia, the Mediterranean from the BlackSea. Surro...
Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by theOttoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls we...
After Constantine’s death in 337, there were the usualcivil wars [337-353], followed by Julian (last of thepagan emperors)...
It is believed that these barbarianmovements were caused by themovement of Huns and other steppepeople from the grasslands...
These steppe people appear to have played the key role in                                           fatally destabilizing ...
Rome was sacked first in 410 by the Goths (and then repeatidly over the                                            next 50...
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome
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Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome

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Fifth lecture for GNED 1202 (Texts and Ideas). It is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Intro to Western Civilization style course.

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Introduction to Western Humanities - 5 - Hellenism and Rome

  1. 1. Lecture 5HELLENISM AND ROMEINTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
  2. 2. Weakened by the enlarged scope and scale of warfareduring and immediately after the Peloponnesian War,the independence of the Greek polis was ended foreverwith the rise of Macedon and the united Greeks defeatby Philip II and his son Alexander the Great in 338 BCE.
  3. 3. Alexander the Great
  4. 4. Note: Should say 4th Century BCE not 5th Century
  5. 5. Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus Macedonian phalangite with sarissa (over 6m/19ft).http://myweb.unomaha.edu/~mreames/Alexander/sarissa_jones.html
  6. 6. Macedonian phalanx required level groundbut was very effective.The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that whenhe first saw the phalanx, it was the most terrifyingthing he had ever seen. Comparison to Greek Hoplites
  7. 7. Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture throughoutthe near eastern world.After his death, the so-called Successor kingdoms wereruled by his generals.This time period generally referred to as theHellenistic Age.
  8. 8. Shown here are the great libraryand lighthouse at Alexandria (nearmodern day Cairo).Alexandria eventually becameantiquity’s academic center,attracting Greek, Egyptian, Persian,Jewish, and Roman scholars.
  9. 9. The library of Alexandriawas but one part ofthe Museum of Alexandria.Museum = study of themusesIt functioned as a sort ofresearch institute.  addition to the library,Inthe Museum included roomsfor the study of astronomy,anatomy, and even a zoo ofexotic animals. “Starting as early as 300 BCE, the Ptolomaic kings who ruled Alexandria had the inspired idea of luring leading scholars, scientists, and poets to their city by offering them life appointments at the Museum, with handsome salaries, tax exemptions, free food and lodging, and the almost limitless resources of the library.”
  10. 10. Some of the scholars at Alexandria included:Euclid invented geometryArchimedes calculated pi, discovered hydraulic technologyEratosthenes calculated earth’s circumference to within 1% accuracyGalen systematized anatomy and pharmacology
  11. 11. At its peak, the Library ofAlexandria may have hadover a half a million itemsin its collection.In 391 CE (700 years after itscreation), the Musuem atAlexandria and its Library weredestroyed soon after the RomanEmperor Theodosius prohibitedpagan (non-Christian) forms ofworship.
  12. 12. One of the victims of this much laterdestruction of the Alexandria Library wasHypatia, famous in antiquity for herattainments in math and astronomy, aswell, evidently, for her beauty.A mob of monks egged on by Cyril, theChristian patriarch of Alexandria, pulled herfrom her chariot, stripped her clothes anddragged her through the streets and into theCathedral of Alexandria. There the monkstore her skin from her bones with oystershells. The strips were burnt piece by pieceas she died. The rest of her body was takenoutside the city and burned.
  13. 13. Cyril was rewarded for his efforts bybeing made one of the early Saints ofthe Catholic Church.
  14. 14. The Hellenistic successor kingdoms wereeventually displaced in the Mediterraneanworld by Rome.Rome’s history proper begins when it becamea Republic in 509 BCE. At that time, it was asmall town surrounded by richer, morepopulous peoples.
  15. 15. Over a three hundred yeartime period, Rome’s powergrew and through a continuousseries of wars with itsneighbours, eventuallycontrolled the entire Italianpeninsula.Within another century, Romanpower extended across theMediterranean world.
  16. 16. So how did Rome do it?Polybius  (ca. 200–118 BC), a Greek prisoner of wartried to explain Rome’s successes for a Greek audience.He claimed it was due to:1. Rome’s political system (mixed constitution thatblended aristocratic and democratic elements)2. Roman army
  17. 17. Roman Political SystemTwo eras:Republic (509 – 29 BCE)Empire (29 BCE – 476 CE)
  18. 18. Roman Republic Political SystemSenateThe aristocratic patricians (great families) were represented by theSenate. Controlled money, government administration, foreign policy.The Senate also supplied the two Consuls who were elected by theSenate each year, and acted as generals during war.Tribal AssemblyThe plebians (all other Roman citizens) were represented here. Madelaws. Roman citizens were divided into 35 tribes based on income. Eachcitizen voted within his tribe. Each tribal representative then voted. Thetribes were also dispersed by wealth.
  19. 19. Tribal Assembly For any law or motion, the Tribal Assembly, after receiving “advice” from the patrician Senate, would vote. Wealthier were represented by more tribes. Tribal representatives vote yes/no according to its members Each citizen votes yes/no for motion within tribeTribe 1 Tribe 2 Tribe 3 … Tribe 10 … Tribe 15 … Tribe 20 … Tribe 30 … Tribe 35Rich Poor
  20. 20. Roman ArmyBased on their experience from hundreds of years of fighting in therugged terrain of Italy, Roman armies developed a checkerboard-typesystem that was significantly more flexible than the Macedonian phalanxor the Greek hoplite. They also adopted the Spanish short stabbingsword.
  21. 21. Roman ArmyEven though the army was initially composed of citizen farmers, it waswell-trained, disciplined and focused on killing.Most warfare prior to the Romans was about trying to break the morale ofthe enemy and make them flee. Roman warfare by contrast was aboutkilling as many of the enemy as efficiently as possible.As well, the Romans tended to never give up or flee, and would continuea battle or a war until they wore down their opponent’s willingness tocontinue.Over its history, Rome would suffer calamitous defeats but it wouldnever countenance suing for peace.
  22. 22. This image is a recreation of the Battle of Pydna, in which the Macedonians lost some 25,000 men while the Romans lost about 1000.“ With the view of doing more to win the affections of his men and make them more ready to meet danger on his behalf, Philip paid special attention to the burial of the men who had fallen … and ordered the bodies to be brought into camp that all might see the honour paid to the dead. But nothing is so uncertain or so difficult to gauge as the temper of a mass of people. The very thing which was expected to make them keener to face any conflict only inspired them with hesitancy and fear. Philips men had been accustomed to fighting with Greeks and Illyrians and had only seen wounds inflicted by javelins and arrows and in rare instances by lances. But when they saw bodies dismembered with the Spanish sword, arms cut off from the shoulder, heads struck off from the trunk, bowels exposed and other horrible wounds, they recognized the style of weapon and the kind of man against whom they had to fight, and a shudder of horror ran through the ranks. ” Livy, History of Rome XXXI, 34
  23. 23. Roman ArmyDuring most of the Republic time period, the Roman army was composedof citizens (except for the very poorest), who were obliged to leave theirwork, provide their own armour and weapons, and serve in the army.Over time, due to Rome’s constant warfare, the result was that the smalllandholding farmer base of the Roman economy collapsed. Agriculturewas progressively centralized into large estates owned by the Senatorialclass and worked by large holdings of slaves.Around 100 BCE, Rome was forced to professionalize its armies andaccept the landless into the army. In this new professional army, onemade a 25 year commitment to serve; the state provided arms, training,food, shelter, wages, and retirement benefits (land).
  24. 24. Decline of Roman RepublicAs the Roman Republic grew in land size, it faced two importantand related problems.First, a larger and larger percentage of the Roman population becamelandless and indebted to wealthier senators.Second, when the army became professionalized, its soldiers becameprogressively more reliant on their generals for pay, rewards, andretirement lands. Thus the army’s loyalty shifted from the state to itsgenerals.These two factors helped foment a great deal of social unrest and civilwars over the last 100 years of the Republic.
  25. 25. Sulla (88 – 78 BCE) Pompey (70 – 48 BCE) Crassus (70 – 55 BCE) Julius Caesar (49 – 44 BCE)Attacked Rome twice Wealthiest man inwith his armies, became Rome, who used hisdictator for life, and wealth to purchase hisslaughtered almost army, which he used to10000 political defeat Spartacus and hisopponents (mainly from Successful general who slave army. Eventually Successful general who usedthe non-Senatorial used his armies in Greece died leading his army to his power base with theparty) to seize power in Rome. destruction in Syria. plebians. Eventually Joined with Crassus and marched on Rome, and after Caesar to jointly rule a 5 year civil war defeated Rome for a time period Pompey’s armies. Became known as the Triumvirate dictator for life but was (61-55 BCE). assassinated by disgruntled Senators on the Ideas of March (March 15) 44 BCE, which plunged Rome into another 13 years of civil war.
  26. 26. Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul (modern-day France),was a wonderful Latin stylist, a skilled politician, andone of history’s greatest generals.“Veni, vidi, vici” (I came, I saw, I conquered) is hissummation of one of his many successful campaigns.He was victorious in a wide range of battles (land, sea battles,and sieges) against a wide range of enemies (Gauls, Germanbarbarians, Egyptians, Macedonians, and, most important,Romans).
  27. 27. Painting below is "Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms atthe Feet of Julius Caesar", 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer.Vercingetorix was the leader of the unified Gauls in theirattempt to throw off the Roman shackles.The highpoint of the campaign was the Seige of Alesia, inwhich the Roman army besieging Vercingetorix at Alesia,was beseiged in turn by a huge force of Gauls.Caesar had the Romans build a wooden wall around hisforces. Ultimately, the Roman army of about 50,000defeated the 300,000 army of the Gauls.
  28. 28. From the HBO Series Rome, which hadCiarán Hinds playing the role of Caesarwith just the right mixture of arroganceand confidence.
  29. 29. Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BCE inthe Senate led by his friend Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius and 60 other co-conspirators.Caesar had been warned by a seer to fear the Ides of March. On that day,on the way to the senate, Caesar saw the seer and told him “The Ideas ofMarch have come and I’m still alive.” The seer responded, “They havecome but not gone.”
  30. 30. Roman forces loyal to Caesar, led by Mark Antony and Caesar’syoung nephew Octavian defeated the Brutus and Cassius-ledsenatorial forces at the Battle of Philippi.Antony and Octavian ultimately engaged in another civil war,with Octavian defeating Antony (and his wife Cleopatra’s forces)at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE).After the defeat of Antony, Octavian has sole power in Rome – aRome that had been decimated by forty years of constant civilwars.Octavian in power became Augustus Caesar, the first RomanEmperor. Thus began the Principate, or the time known as theRoman Empire.
  31. 31. Augustus did not have a son. So he adopted Tiberius, his wife’s son (froman earlier marriage).Tiberius had two sons, both of whom died before him. Germanicus wasan adopted son, but was suspected of treason and killed. Drusus wasTiberius’s natural son. Drusus died, poisoned by his own wife and herlover Sejanus, the captain of the Praetorian Guards (the only soldiersallowed in city of Rome).Caligula, son of Germanicus, is often portrayed as cruel, extravagant,sexually perverse, and an insane tyrant. Among other things, he wasaccused of incest with his sister, of trying to make his horse a Consul andkilling Senators for amusement. He was assassinated by the Praetorians.Claudius, nephew to Caligula, was an effective and scholarly emperor.He was eventually murdered at the behest of his last wife so that her sonNero (not fathered by Claudius) could rule.Nero was accused of being more interested in acting than ruling, and ofbeing another ruthless tyrant. Was assassinated. Followed by the year offour emperors and plenty of civil wars.
  32. 32. Pax RomanaRome’s height is generally connected to the Flavian andAntonine dynasties. During that time, rather than passingon power to one’s genetic heir, the Emperor wouldadopt the “best” Roman to be his son (and who mayeven have been older than the “father”).This time period is often referred to as the Pax Romana(The Roman Peace), during which trade, engineering,and the arts flourished.
  33. 33. Pax RomanaIts peak coincided with the rule of the so-called Five Good Emperors (96 – 180 BCE).Edward Gibbons, the 18th century historian who pennedDecline and Fall of the Roman Empire, described theperiod as that “in which the condition of the human racewas most happy and prosperous.”
  34. 34. Roman CultureRoman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals.Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
  35. 35. Many Roman sculptures have youthfulGreek-inspired bodies with stern and agedheads.
  36. 36. Roman version of Photoshop: buy statue ofyouthful Greek youth, knock off the head, andattach realistic portrait of aged Roman patriarch.
  37. 37. Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
  38. 38. Bust of Flavian Woman
  39. 39. Popular hairstyle duringFlavian time period
  40. 40. Not every Roman matronlooked good in the Flavianupdo!
  41. 41. Roman Civic EngineeringRomans were masters at solving practical problems andappear to have had very sophisticated building andengineering skills.
  42. 42. Much of what we know of regularRoman life comes from the buriedremains of Pompeii, buried in 79CE by volcanic eruption.
  43. 43. Visit Pompeii with Google Maps
  44. 44. Very little of Herculaneum has beenuncovered. Herculaneum was buried under20 meters of ash and is now buried as wellby modern buildings in Naples.
  45. 45. Lead water pipes in Pompeii
  46. 46. Painted walls in Pompeii
  47. 47. A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
  48. 48. Cave Canem - Beware of Dog – mosaicsPompeii
  49. 49. Images from the so-called Lupanare or Brothel of Pompeii. Are these images, as most have thought, a menu for ordering sexual acts, or …… is the brothel actually a clock room for a bath house, andthese images are cheeky ways to remember where bathershung their toga while they bathed.
  50. 50. http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/geschichte/isb/Museum/insula.jpg
  51. 51. Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century –Typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
  52. 52. http://michellemoran.com/CD/Roman-Villa.jpg
  53. 53. Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
  54. 54. Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters anunderground passage just to the left. Romans constructed elaborate water systems for theircities and generally had a constant gradient drop of 15 to 30 cm every 100 meters. Most wereunderground and were about 1m wide by 2m high. Only when they needed to cross a valley orriver was an aqueduct constructed.
  55. 55. Pantheon in Rome. Almost twothousand years after it was built,the Pantheons dome is still theworlds largest unreinforcedconcrete dome
  56. 56. Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
  57. 57. Coliseum in Rome
  58. 58. Representations of Gladiator games
  59. 59. “Kill him! Lash him! Burn him” Why does he meet the sword in such a cowardly way? Whydoes he strike so feebly? Why doesn’t he die well? Whip him on his wounds!” Seneca, Roman philosopher, author of Letters on Morality
  60. 60. The so-called Bikini Girls, who appear to have amusedthe gladiatorial audience in between events …
  61. 61. SatyriconPetroniusOn blackboard in class
  62. 62. Roman ReligionRome’s religion is sometimes referred to as pagan. Theyimported Greek and Etruscan deities, renamed them,and assimilated them into their own beliefs.Like with the Greeks, Roman religion was orientedaround rituals, such as animal sacrifices, and seemed tolack any type of eschatology (life after death).Roman religion appears to have been more like acontract: quid pro quo [I give you, you give me]
  63. 63. Rome’s religion was perhaps best analogous to today’spatriotism. You participated in official religious rituals todemonstrate your support of the state.Indeed, it appears that most of the Roman educatedelite during the height of Rome’s pax romana werepretty much completely secular.“Just when the gods had ceased to be, and the Christ had not yetcome, there was a unique moment in history, between Cicero andMarcus Aurelius, when man stood alone.” -- Gustave Flaubert
  64. 64. On the Nature of ThingsLucretiusOn blackboard in class
  65. 65. Roman ReligionWhile Rome’s educated and cultured elite weresecularized, there was also a slow but growing counter-movement that embraced so-called MysteryCults/Religions.These cults were transplants from the eastern edge ofthe Empire.They provided a personal spirituality focused aroundmonotheism, mysterious rituals, including rebirth viabaptism in blood or water, salvation, eternallife/damnation, and a personal relationship with thatsingle divinity.
  66. 66. Some examples: Mithraism, Orphism, Eleusinians,Dionysianism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism,Christianity.
  67. 67. Mithras, the sun god born on Dec 25.
  68. 68. Villa of the Mysteries, PompeiiOne of the richer villas uncovered in Pompeii appears tohave a series of illustrations of a ritual in one of thesemystery religions.They seem part of a ritual ceremony aimed at preparingprivileged, protected girls for the psychologicaltransition to life as married women. 
  69. 69. Roman ReligionIn conclusion, Romans were very tolerant of differentreligious beliefs as long as the rituals or the beliefsdidn’t interfere with one’s loyalty to the State.
  70. 70. ChristianityAfter Jesus of Nazareth’s death around 31 CE, therewere two factions of his followers:Aramaic-speaking Jews focused around Jerusalem. Leadby James, Jesus’s brother. “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him.” Mark 6:3 More focused on transforming Judaism.Hellenized, Greek-speaking Christians and Jews. Lead byPaul, who eventually travelled to Rome. More focused on converting and spreading the faith.
  71. 71. Christianity grew initially almostcompletely amongst the lower classes inRome and in the eastern provinces ofthe Empire.Much of our knowledge of early Christianity in Romeis found in the subterranean burial chambers wherethe poor seemed to have favoured as a place ofworship.
  72. 72. Christianity also seemed to gain an early footholdamongst upper-class women.Still, Christianity was very much a fringe religion.Perhaps 5% of the Roman population across the entireextent of the Empire was Christian by 200 CE.
  73. 73. From Pax Romana to … …the 3rd Century Crisis
  74. 74. Statues of last of the“Good” emperors:Trajan, Hadrian, LuciusVera, Marcus Aurelius,–notice the regal, imperialcalm of the portraits
  75. 75. Unlike his predecessors over the previous 100 years,Marcus Aurelius did not appoint his successor based onmerit, but instead appointed his son Commodus, adisastrous choice, who ruled from 180 – 192 CE.
  76. 76. Commodus was said to have been moreinterested in being a gladiator than anEmperor, and with him began a period ofradical imperial instability and badgovernment.He renamed Rome to Colonia Commodiana (City of Commodus),renamed the 12 months of the year to his 12 different names,declared himself the sole god in Roman religion, etcCommodus was the villain in the movie Gladiator, and isone of those rare villains who appear to have actuallybeen significantly nastier in real life than in theirHollywood portrayal!
  77. 77. Commodus was eventually assassinated (poisoned, His second wife Julia Domna was highly learnedthen strangled by his wrestling partner). There in philosophy.followed the Year of Five Emperors and civil war inwhich the general Septimius Severus emergedvictorious.
  78. 78. The panel depicts the RomanEmperor Septimus Severus with hisfamily: to the left his wife JuliaDomna, in front of them theirsons Geta and Caracalla. The face of Geta was presumablyerased after Caracalla murderedhis brother.
  79. 79. Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered hisbrother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years,killed by his soldiers while urinating).Caracella made a number of vitalchanges to the empire. In 212 all freemen within the Roman Empire becamefull Roman citizens. He also increasedthe size of the army by 25% and doubledtheir pay. He also created an incentivestructure (bonus pay to the soldiers whosupported him on his ascension to thethrone) that was going to help fuel theThird Century Crisis.
  80. 80. For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid abonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new emperor would needto buy your loyalty to stay in power. Rinse and repeat.
  81. 81. The 3rd Century CrisisBetween 235 and 284 there were 25 Emperors. Only onedied of natural causes. There were also dozens of otherswho were acclaimed Emperor by their soldiers but whodied before reaching Rome.It was 50 years of unbelievable anarchy: constant civilwar, complete economic collapse, plague, barbarianinvasions, war with a rival superpower (Sassanids), andthe breakup of parts of the Empire into separate states.
  82. 82. Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Wasassassinated.
  83. 83. Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by hissoldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of female fashion, and hisharem of “husbands” who were expected to dress in female clothes andwigs.The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
  84. 84. Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 atascension) relative of Septimius Severuswho also had a rule cut short byassassination.
  85. 85. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/end%20and%20legacy/invasions.jpg
  86. 86. The silver content of the main roman currency (the denari) declined to zero during the crisis There were no budget deficits in Roman times. Since coinage was based on gold and silver, the only way to control the economy was to spend less, tax more, find new gold or silver, or put less gold and silver in the coinage. Because there wasn’t an effective taxation system, the massive cost of the army came through devaluing theSilver denari under Mainly copper denari currency, which eventually ledCaracella (217 CE) (270 CE) to rampant inflation.
  87. 87. During the Crisis of the Third Century, Rome’s vast internaltrade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able tosuccessfully export their crops over long distances, beganproducing food for subsistence and local barter. The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, beganto move out into the countryside in search of food and betterprotection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many ofthese former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, wereforced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order toreceive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, theybecame a half-free class of Roman citizen known as coloni. Theywere tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status wasmade hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom,which would form the basis of medieval feudal society and themedieval peasantry.Rome’s relatively large and prosperous middle class more or lessdisappeared for good. Wealth appears to have becomeconcentrated into the hands of a very few rich families.Roman cities themselves began to change in character. Thelarge, open cities of Classical antiquity slowly gave way to thesmaller, walled cities.
  88. 88. Emperor Maximinus (first barbarianemperor, ruled for 3 years,murdered); Emperor Gordian I(ruled at same time, dead within20 days)
  89. 89. Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate,tried to bring order, murdered by soldierswithin a few months).Emperor Gordian III, 13 year old orphan,murdered after leading his army anddefeating the Persians.
  90. 90. Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by histroops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths.Emperor Gallienus, ruled 8 years (a record!), inflicted massivedefeats on Persians, won two gigantic victories against invadinggothic armies in Greece, and defeated the Alemmani who hadinvaded Italy. Murdered by his own bodyguard while fightingbreakaway Roman Gallic Empire.
  91. 91. Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finestgenerals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting theEmpire. Murdered by his soldiers. Emperor Claudius Gothicus, ruled 2 years, died of smallpox plague.
  92. 92. Thanks to Auerlian, by late 274, the Roman Empire wasreunited into a single entity, and the frontier troopswere back in place.More than a century passed before Rome again lostmilitary ascendancy over its external enemies.However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially inthe Western Empire, had been ruined, their populationsdispersed and, with the breakdown of the economicsystem, could not be rebuilt.Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had notneeded fortifications for many centuries; many nowsurrounded themselves with thick walls.
  93. 93. The Crisis had a tremendous effect on the cultural sideas well.In general, there was a rejection of the optimistic andsecular orientation of classical civilization and a new-found concern for religious and other-worldly ideals.Personal religious experiences and salvation via acompassionate god became increasingly important.
  94. 94. Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus(late 4th c)
  95. 95. Not the Virgin Mary with theChrist child, but Hermesholding the infant Dionysuswith nimbus (halo). Thesemosaics are from the 4thcentury AD from Nea Paphos,Cyprus
  96. 96. Ceiling from Constantine palace in Trier.Circles of light indicate regal importance
  97. 97. Christianity, which was a very minor religious movementin the Empire, became a bit more widespread (but still aminority religion, perhaps no more than 10% ofpopulation).Similar developments can be traced in philosophy, wherePlotinus (205-270) emphasized mans striving for unionwith god and made Neoplatonism the dominantintellectual force among the educated.
  98. 98. Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E.When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305)assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, hedid so with the realization that the empire,with all its far-flung provinces, was far toovast to be ruled effectively by one man.Accordingly, he formed a system of governingknown as the "Tetrarchy", or the rule of Four.
  99. 99. The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empirewould be divided into four quadrants, which were to beruled over by two Augustii, who would be assisted by twoCaesars, or "junior emperors".This system was intended to provide an orderly andsmooth answer to the question of succession.The two Augustii would be training the two Caesars as their eventualreplacements. Upon the retirement of the Augustii, the two Caesarswould be elevated to the position of Augustii, and would then pick twonew Caesars.
  100. 100. Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system whichhad become wildly destabilized during the troubles ofthe third century. These included price controls, jobclassifications, new coinage, broader taxation, etc,which had mixed results.
  101. 101. Diocletians reforms fundamentally changed the structureof Roman imperial government and helped stabilize theempire economically and militarily, enabling the empireto remain essentially intact for another hundred yearsdespite having seemed near the brink of collapse inDiocletians youth.He more or less changed the ideological basis of theEmpire from a pseudo-Republic in which the emperor,army, and senate shared power to a full autocraticsystem with the Emperor in complete control.He also tried to institute a new official monotheisticState religion (worship of the Sun).
  102. 102. Constantine the Great(ruled as part of Tetrarchyfrom 306 to 312; as soleEmperor from about 312 to337).Following Diocletian’sretirement, there was notthe orderly power transitionas imagined by theDiocletian Tetrarchy.Instead, there was anotherseries of brutal civil warsfollowed by the victory ofConstantine.
  103. 103. Constantine is perhaps best known for being the firstChristian Roman emperor (though he also had his wifeand eldest son executed).Emphasized religious uniformity of belief and engaged indramatic church building program.The official Christian Bible and doctrine of the CatholicChurch were codified during Constantine’s reign.Added Christian belief requirements to army andgovernment positions.
  104. 104. Under Constantine, Rome was divided administrativelyinto western and eastern halves, each with their owncapital.The western half’s capital was Rome.The richer eastern half’s capital was the old small Greekcity of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople,and then massively upgraded and improved.Constantinople grew in power and became the center ofthe Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire, which lasteduntil 1423.
  105. 105. Constantinople lies in a very favorablelocation that separates Europe fromAsia, the Mediterranean from the BlackSea. Surrounded by water on threesides, it is also quite defensible. Hugewalls allowed the Eastern RomanEmpire to survive for over 1000 years.
  106. 106. Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by theOttoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls were impregnable.
  107. 107. After Constantine’s death in 337, there were the usualcivil wars [337-353], followed by Julian (last of thepagan emperors), Valens, and Theodosius.Theodosius (379-395) made paganism and other non-Christian religions illegal.At the same time, Rome was subjected to significantwaves of barbarian invasions, which ultimately over-ranmost of the Roman Empire, especially in the West.
  108. 108. It is believed that these barbarianmovements were caused by themovement of Huns and other steppepeople from the grasslands of CentralAsia. These nomadic raiders relied ontheir horse mobility and the power ofthe composite bow (which can beshot from horseback, unlike a normalbow).
  109. 109. These steppe people appear to have played the key role in fatally destabilizing not only the Roman Empire, but similar unified empires in China, India, and Persia.http://www.flickr.com/photos/todorkamenov/209397447/sizes/o/
  110. 110. Rome was sacked first in 410 by the Goths (and then repeatidly over the next 50 years by others). Eventually, the Western part of the Empire was replaced with various “Barbarian Kingdoms”. The prosperous and stable world of antiquity was gone.http://explorethemed.com/FallRome.asp?c=1

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