SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 142
Lecture 5

HELLENISM AND ROME
INTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
Weakened by the enlarged scope and scale of warfare
during and immediately after the Peloponnesian War,
the independence of the Greek polis was ended forever
with the rise of Macedon and the united Greeks defeat
by Philip II and his son Alexander the Great in 338 BCE.
Alexander the Great
Note: Should say 4th Century BCE not 5th Century
Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus
                                           Macedonian phalangite with sarissa (over 6m/19ft).




http://myweb.unomaha.edu/~mreames/Alexander/sarissa_jones.html
Macedonian phalanx required level ground
but was very effective.

The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that when
he first saw the phalanx, it was the most terrifying
thing he had ever seen.


                                    Comparison to Greek Hoplites
Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture throughout
the near eastern world.

After his death, the so-called Successor kingdoms were
ruled by his generals.

This time period generally referred to as the
Hellenistic Age.
Shown here are the great library
and lighthouse at Alexandria (near
modern day Cairo).

Alexandria eventually became
antiquity’s academic center,
attracting Greek, Egyptian, Persian,
Jewish, and Roman scholars.
The library of Alexandria
was but one part of
the Museum of Alexandria.

Museum = study of the
muses

It functioned as a sort of
research institute.

  addition to the library,
In
the Museum included rooms
for the study of astronomy,
anatomy, and even a zoo of
exotic animals.

                              “Starting as early as 300 BCE, the Ptolomaic kings who ruled Alexandria
                              had the inspired idea of luring leading scholars, scientists, and poets to
                              their city by offering them life appointments at the Museum, with
                              handsome salaries, tax exemptions, free food and lodging, and the
                              almost limitless resources of the library.”
Some of the scholars at Alexandria included:

Euclid
 invented geometry

Archimedes
 calculated pi, discovered hydraulic technology

Eratosthenes
 calculated earth’s circumference to within 1% accuracy

Galen
 systematized anatomy and pharmacology
At its peak, the Library of
Alexandria may have had
over a half a million items
in its collection.




In 391 CE (700 years after its
creation), the Musuem at
Alexandria and its Library were
destroyed soon after the Roman
Emperor Theodosius prohibited
pagan (non-Christian) forms of
worship.
One of the victims of this much later
destruction of the Alexandria Library was
Hypatia, famous in antiquity for her
attainments in math and astronomy, as
well, evidently, for her beauty.




A mob of monks egged on by Cyril, the
Christian patriarch of Alexandria, pulled her
from her chariot, stripped her clothes and
dragged her through the streets and into the
Cathedral of Alexandria. There the monks
tore her skin from her bones with oyster
shells. The strips were burnt piece by piece
as she died. The rest of her body was taken
outside the city and burned.
Cyril was rewarded for his efforts by
being made one of the early Saints of
the Catholic Church.
The Hellenistic successor kingdoms were
eventually displaced in the Mediterranean
world by Rome.




Rome’s history proper begins when it became
a Republic in 509 BCE. At that time, it was a
small town surrounded by richer, more
populous peoples.
Over a three hundred year
time period, Rome’s power
grew and through a continuous
series of wars with its
neighbours, eventually
controlled the entire Italian
peninsula.



Within another century, Roman
power extended across the
Mediterranean world.
So how did Rome do it?
Polybius  (ca. 200–118 BC), a Greek prisoner of war
tried to explain Rome’s successes for a Greek audience.

He claimed it was due to:

1. Rome’s political system (mixed constitution that
blended aristocratic and democratic elements)


2. Roman army
Roman Political System
Two eras:


Republic (509 – 29 BCE)



Empire (29 BCE – 476 CE)
Roman Republic Political System
Senate
The aristocratic patricians (great families) were represented by the
Senate. Controlled money, government administration, foreign policy.
The Senate also supplied the two Consuls who were elected by the
Senate each year, and acted as generals during war.




Tribal Assembly
The plebians (all other Roman citizens) were represented here. Made
laws. Roman citizens were divided into 35 tribes based on income. Each
citizen voted within his tribe. Each tribal representative then voted. The
tribes were also dispersed by wealth.
Tribal Assembly
                                               For any law or motion, the Tribal Assembly, after receiving “advice”
                                               from the patrician Senate, would vote. Wealthier were represented by
                                               more tribes.
                                                                                              Tribal
                                                                                              representatives
                                                                                              vote yes/no
                                                                                              according to its
                                                                                              members




                                                     Each citizen
                                                     votes yes/no
                                                     for motion
                                                     within tribe




Tribe 1   Tribe 2   Tribe 3   …   Tribe 10 …   Tribe 15   …         Tribe 20   …   Tribe 30             …        Tribe 35

Rich                                                                                                               Poor
Roman Army
Based on their experience from hundreds of years of fighting in the
rugged terrain of Italy, Roman armies developed a checkerboard-type
system that was significantly more flexible than the Macedonian phalanx
or the Greek hoplite. They also adopted the Spanish short stabbing
sword.
Roman Army
Even though the army was initially composed of citizen farmers, it was
well-trained, disciplined and focused on killing.

Most warfare prior to the Romans was about trying to break the morale of
the enemy and make them flee. Roman warfare by contrast was about
killing as many of the enemy as efficiently as possible.




As well, the Romans tended to never give up or flee, and would continue
a battle or a war until they wore down their opponent’s willingness to
continue.

Over its history, Rome would suffer calamitous defeats but it would
never countenance suing for peace.
This image is a recreation of the
 Battle of Pydna, in which the
 Macedonians lost some 25,000 men
 while the Romans lost about 1000.



“ With the view of doing more to win the
 affections of his men and make them more
 ready to meet danger on his behalf, Philip
 paid special attention to the burial of the
 men who had fallen … and ordered the
 bodies to be brought into camp that all
 might see the honour paid to the dead.

 But nothing is so uncertain or so difficult
 to gauge as the temper of a mass of people.
 The very thing which was expected to
 make them keener to face any conflict only
 inspired them with hesitancy and fear.

 Philip's men had been accustomed to
 fighting with Greeks and Illyrians and had
 only seen wounds inflicted by javelins and
 arrows and in rare instances by lances.

 But when they saw bodies dismembered
 with the Spanish sword, arms cut off from
 the shoulder, heads struck off from the
 trunk, bowels exposed and other horrible
 wounds, they recognized the style of
 weapon and the kind of man against whom
 they had to fight, and a shudder of horror
 ran through the ranks.
                        ”
 Livy, History of Rome XXXI, 34
Roman Army
During most of the Republic time period, the Roman army was composed
of citizens (except for the very poorest), who were obliged to leave their
work, provide their own armour and weapons, and serve in the army.




Over time, due to Rome’s constant warfare, the result was that the small
landholding farmer base of the Roman economy collapsed. Agriculture
was progressively centralized into large estates owned by the Senatorial
class and worked by large holdings of slaves.



Around 100 BCE, Rome was forced to professionalize its armies and
accept the landless into the army. In this new professional army, one
made a 25 year commitment to serve; the state provided arms, training,
food, shelter, wages, and retirement benefits (land).
Decline of Roman Republic
As the Roman Republic grew in land size, it faced two important
and related problems.


First, a larger and larger percentage of the Roman population became
landless and indebted to wealthier senators.



Second, when the army became professionalized, its soldiers became
progressively more reliant on their generals for pay, rewards, and
retirement lands. Thus the army’s loyalty shifted from the state to its
generals.



These two factors helped foment a great deal of social unrest and civil
wars over the last 100 years of the Republic.
Sulla (88 – 78 BCE)       Pompey (70 – 48 BCE)        Crassus (70 – 55 BCE)      Julius Caesar (49 – 44 BCE)

Attacked Rome twice                                   Wealthiest man in
with his armies, became                               Rome, who used his
dictator for life, and                                wealth to purchase his
slaughtered almost                                    army, which he used to
10000 political                                       defeat Spartacus and his
opponents (mainly from    Successful general who      slave army. Eventually      Successful general who used
the non-Senatorial        used his armies in Greece   died leading his army to    his power base with the
party)                    to seize power in Rome.     destruction in Syria.       plebians. Eventually
                          Joined with Crassus and                                 marched on Rome, and after
                          Caesar to jointly rule                                  a 5 year civil war defeated
                          Rome for a time period                                  Pompey’s armies. Became
                          known as the Triumvirate                                dictator for life but was
                          (61-55 BCE).                                            assassinated by disgruntled
                                                                                  Senators on the Ideas of
                                                                                  March (March 15) 44 BCE,
                                                                                  which plunged Rome into
                                                                                  another 13 years of civil war.
Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul (modern-day France),
was a wonderful Latin stylist, a skilled politician, and
one of history’s greatest generals.

“Veni, vidi, vici” (I came, I saw, I conquered) is his
summation of one of his many successful campaigns.

He was victorious in a wide range of battles (land, sea battles,
and sieges) against a wide range of enemies (Gauls, German
barbarians, Egyptians, Macedonians, and, most important,
Romans).
Painting below is "Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at
the Feet of Julius Caesar", 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer.

Vercingetorix was the leader of the unified Gauls in their
attempt to throw off the Roman shackles.

The highpoint of the campaign was the Seige of Alesia, in
which the Roman army besieging Vercingetorix at Alesia,
was beseiged in turn by a huge force of Gauls.

Caesar had the Romans build a wooden wall around his
forces. Ultimately, the Roman army of about 50,000
defeated the 300,000 army of the Gauls.
From the HBO Series Rome, which had
Ciarán Hinds playing the role of Caesar
with just the right mixture of arrogance
and confidence.
Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BCE in
the Senate led by his friend Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius and 60 other co-
conspirators.

Caesar had been warned by a seer to fear the Ides of March. On that day,
on the way to the senate, Caesar saw the seer and told him “The Ideas of
March have come and I’m still alive.” The seer responded, “They have
come but not gone.”
Roman forces loyal to Caesar, led by Mark Antony and Caesar’s
young nephew Octavian defeated the Brutus and Cassius-led
senatorial forces at the Battle of Philippi.

Antony and Octavian ultimately engaged in another civil war,
with Octavian defeating Antony (and his wife Cleopatra’s forces)
at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE).

After the defeat of Antony, Octavian has sole power in Rome – a
Rome that had been decimated by forty years of constant civil
wars.

Octavian in power became Augustus Caesar, the first Roman
Emperor. Thus began the Principate, or the time known as the
Roman Empire.
Augustus did not have a son. So he adopted Tiberius, his wife’s son (from
an earlier marriage).

Tiberius had two sons, both of whom died before him. Germanicus was
an adopted son, but was suspected of treason and killed. Drusus was
Tiberius’s natural son. Drusus died, poisoned by his own wife and her
lover Sejanus, the captain of the Praetorian Guards (the only soldiers
allowed in city of Rome).

Caligula, son of Germanicus, is often portrayed as cruel, extravagant,
sexually perverse, and an insane tyrant. Among other things, he was
accused of incest with his sister, of trying to make his horse a Consul and
killing Senators for amusement. He was assassinated by the Praetorians.

Claudius, nephew to Caligula, was an effective and scholarly emperor.
He was eventually murdered at the behest of his last wife so that her son
Nero (not fathered by Claudius) could rule.

Nero was accused of being more interested in acting than ruling, and of
being another ruthless tyrant. Was assassinated. Followed by the year of
four emperors and plenty of civil wars.
Pax Romana
Rome’s height is generally connected to the Flavian and
Antonine dynasties. During that time, rather than passing
on power to one’s genetic heir, the Emperor would
adopt the “best” Roman to be his son (and who may
even have been older than the “father”).

This time period is often referred to as the Pax Romana
(The Roman Peace), during which trade, engineering,
and the arts flourished.
Pax Romana
Its peak coincided with the rule of the so-
called Five Good Emperors (96 – 180 BCE).

Edward Gibbons, the 18th century historian who penned
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, described the
period as that “in which the condition of the human race
was most happy and prosperous.”
Roman Culture
Roman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals.
Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
Many Roman sculptures have youthful
Greek-inspired bodies with stern and aged
heads.
Roman version of Photoshop: buy statue of
youthful Greek youth, knock off the head, and
attach realistic portrait of aged Roman patriarch.
Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
Bust of Flavian Woman
Popular hairstyle during
Flavian time period
Not every Roman matron
looked good in the Flavian
updo!
Roman Civic Engineering
Romans were masters at solving practical problems and
appear to have had very sophisticated building and
engineering skills.
Much of what we know of regular
Roman life comes from the buried
remains of Pompeii, buried in 79
CE by volcanic eruption.
Visit Pompeii with Google Maps
Very little of Herculaneum has been
uncovered. Herculaneum was buried under
20 meters of ash and is now buried as well
by modern buildings in Naples.
Lead water pipes in Pompeii
Painted walls in Pompeii
A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
Cave Canem - Beware of Dog – mosaics
Pompeii
Images from the so-called Lupanare or Brothel of
                                                               Pompeii. Are these images, as most have thought, a
                                                               menu for ordering sexual acts, or …


… is the brothel actually a clock room for a bath house, and
these images are cheeky ways to remember where bathers
hung their toga while they bathed.
http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/geschichte/isb/Museum/insul
a.jpg
Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century –
Typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
http://michellemoran.com/CD/Roman-Villa.jpg
Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters an
underground passage just to the left. Romans constructed elaborate water systems for their
cities and generally had a constant gradient drop of 15 to 30 cm every 100 meters. Most were
underground and were about 1m wide by 2m high. Only when they needed to cross a valley or
river was an aqueduct constructed.
Pantheon in Rome. Almost two
thousand years after it was built,
the Pantheon's dome is still the
world's largest unreinforced
concrete dome
Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
Coliseum in Rome
Representations of Gladiator games
“Kill him! Lash him! Burn him” Why does he meet the sword in such a cowardly way? Why
does he strike so feebly? Why doesn’t he die well? Whip him on his wounds!”
           Seneca, Roman philosopher, author of Letters on Morality
The so-called Bikini Girls, who appear to have amused
the gladiatorial audience in between events …
Satyricon
Petronius

On blackboard in class
Roman Religion
Rome’s religion is sometimes referred to as pagan. They
imported Greek and Etruscan deities, renamed them,
and assimilated them into their own beliefs.


Like with the Greeks, Roman religion was oriented
around rituals, such as animal sacrifices, and seemed to
lack any type of eschatology (life after death).


Roman religion appears to have been more like a
contract: quid pro quo [I give you, you give me]
Rome’s religion was perhaps best analogous to today’s
patriotism. You participated in official religious rituals to
demonstrate your support of the state.

Indeed, it appears that most of the Roman educated
elite during the height of Rome’s pax romana were
pretty much completely secular.




“Just when the gods had ceased to be, and the Christ had not yet
come, there was a unique moment in history, between Cicero and
Marcus Aurelius, when man stood alone.”
                                                 -- Gustave Flaubert
On the Nature of Things
Lucretius

On blackboard in class
Roman Religion
While Rome’s educated and cultured elite were
secularized, there was also a slow but growing counter-
movement that embraced so-called Mystery
Cults/Religions.

These cults were transplants from the eastern edge of
the Empire.


They provided a personal spirituality focused around
monotheism, mysterious rituals, including rebirth via
baptism in blood or water, salvation, eternal
life/damnation, and a personal relationship with that
single divinity.
Some examples: Mithraism, Orphism, Eleusinians,
Dionysianism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism,
Christianity.
Mithras, the sun god born on Dec 25.
Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
One of the richer villas uncovered in Pompeii appears to
have a series of illustrations of a ritual in one of these
mystery religions.


They seem part of a ritual ceremony aimed at preparing
privileged, protected girls for the psychological
transition to life as married women. 
Roman Religion
In conclusion, Romans were very tolerant of different
religious beliefs as long as the rituals or the beliefs
didn’t interfere with one’s loyalty to the State.
Christianity
After Jesus of Nazareth’s death around 31 CE, there
were two factions of his followers:

Aramaic-speaking Jews focused around Jerusalem. Lead
by James, Jesus’s brother.
      “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of
      Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at
      him.” Mark 6:3


       More focused on transforming Judaism.



Hellenized, Greek-speaking Christians and Jews. Lead by
Paul, who eventually travelled to Rome.
       More focused on converting and spreading the faith.
Christianity grew initially almost
completely amongst the lower classes in
Rome and in the eastern provinces of
the Empire.

Much of our knowledge of early Christianity in Rome
is found in the subterranean burial chambers where
the poor seemed to have favoured as a place of
worship.
Christianity also seemed to gain an early foothold
amongst upper-class women.




Still, Christianity was very much a fringe religion.
Perhaps 5% of the Roman population across the entire
extent of the Empire was Christian by 200 CE.
From Pax Romana to …   …the 3rd Century Crisis
Statues of last of the
“Good” emperors:
Trajan, Hadrian, Lucius
Vera, Marcus Aurelius,–
notice the regal, imperial
calm of the portraits
Unlike his predecessors over the previous 100 years,
Marcus Aurelius did not appoint his successor based on
merit, but instead appointed his son Commodus, a
disastrous choice, who ruled from 180 – 192 CE.
Commodus was said to have been more
interested in being a gladiator than an
Emperor, and with him began a period of
radical imperial instability and bad
government.
He renamed Rome to Colonia Commodiana (City of Commodus),
renamed the 12 months of the year to his 12 different names,
declared himself the sole god in Roman religion, etc




Commodus was the villain in the movie Gladiator, and is
one of those rare villains who appear to have actually
been significantly nastier in real life than in their
Hollywood portrayal!
Commodus was eventually assassinated (poisoned,       His second wife Julia Domna was highly learned
then strangled by his wrestling partner). There       in philosophy.
followed the Year of Five Emperors and civil war in
which the general Septimius Severus emerged
victorious.
The panel depicts the Roman
Emperor Septimus Severus with his
family: to the left his wife Julia
Domna, in front of them their
sons Geta and Caracalla. 

The face of Geta was presumably
erased after Caracalla murdered
his brother.
Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered his
brother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years,
killed by his soldiers while urinating).

Caracella made a number of vital
changes to the empire. In 212 all free
men within the Roman Empire became
full Roman citizens. He also increased
the size of the army by 25% and doubled
their pay. He also created an incentive
structure (bonus pay to the soldiers who
supported him on his ascension to the
throne) that was going to help fuel the
Third Century Crisis.
For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid a
bonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new emperor would need
to buy your loyalty to stay in power. Rinse and repeat.
The 3rd Century Crisis
Between 235 and 284 there were 25 Emperors. Only one
died of natural causes. There were also dozens of others
who were acclaimed Emperor by their soldiers but who
died before reaching Rome.




It was 50 years of unbelievable anarchy: constant civil
war, complete economic collapse, plague, barbarian
invasions, war with a rival superpower (Sassanids), and
the breakup of parts of the Empire into separate states.
Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14
at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Was
assassinated.
Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by his
soldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of female fashion, and his
harem of “husbands” who were expected to dress in female clothes and
wigs.

The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from
222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 at
ascension) relative of Septimius Severus
who also had a rule cut short by
assassination.
http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/end%20and%20legacy/invasions.jpg
The silver content of the main roman
                                currency (the denari) declined to zero
                                during the crisis




                                                   There were no budget deficits
                                                   in Roman times. Since coinage
                                                   was based on gold and silver,
                                                   the only way to control the
                                                   economy was to spend less,
                                                   tax more, find new gold or
                                                   silver, or put less gold and
                                                   silver in the coinage.

                                                   Because there wasn’t an
                                                   effective taxation system, the
                                                   massive cost of the army came
                                                   through devaluing the
Silver denari under   Mainly copper denari         currency, which eventually led
Caracella (217 CE)    (270 CE)                     to rampant inflation.
During the Crisis of the Third Century, Rome’s vast internal
trade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able to
successfully export their crops over long distances, began
producing food for subsistence and local barter. 

The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, began
to move out into the countryside in search of food and better
protection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many of
these former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, were
forced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order to
receive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, they
became a half-free class of Roman citizen known as coloni. They
were tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status was
made hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom,
which would form the basis of medieval feudal society and the
medieval peasantry.

Rome’s relatively large and prosperous middle class more or less
disappeared for good. Wealth appears to have become
concentrated into the hands of a very few rich families.

Roman cities themselves began to change in character. The
large, open cities of Classical antiquity slowly gave way to the
smaller, walled cities.
Emperor Maximinus (first barbarian
emperor, ruled for 3 years,
murdered); Emperor Gordian I
(ruled at same time, dead within
20 days)
Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate,
tried to bring order, murdered by soldiers
within a few months).

Emperor Gordian III, 13 year old orphan,
murdered after leading his army and
defeating the Persians.
Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by his
troops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths.

Emperor Gallienus, ruled 8 years (a record!), inflicted massive
defeats on Persians, won two gigantic victories against invading
gothic armies in Greece, and defeated the Alemmani who had
invaded Italy. Murdered by his own bodyguard while fighting
breakaway Roman Gallic Empire.
Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finest
generals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting the
Empire. Murdered by his soldiers.




                                                         Emperor Claudius Gothicus, ruled 2 years, died
                                                         of smallpox plague.
Thanks to Auerlian, by late 274, the Roman Empire was
reunited into a single entity, and the frontier troops
were back in place.

More than a century passed before Rome again lost
military ascendancy over its external enemies.

However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially in
the Western Empire, had been ruined, their populations
dispersed and, with the breakdown of the economic
system, could not be rebuilt.

Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not
needed fortifications for many centuries; many now
surrounded themselves with thick walls.
The Crisis had a tremendous effect on the cultural side
as well.

In general, there was a rejection of the optimistic and
secular orientation of classical civilization and a new-
found concern for religious and other-worldly ideals.
Personal religious experiences and salvation via a
compassionate god became increasingly important.
Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus
(late 4th c)
Not the Virgin Mary with the
Christ child, but Hermes
holding the infant Dionysus
with nimbus (halo). These
mosaics are from the 4th
century AD from Nea Paphos,
Cyprus
Ceiling from Constantine palace in Trier.
Circles of light indicate regal importance
Christianity, which was a very minor religious movement
in the Empire, became a bit more widespread (but still a
minority religion, perhaps no more than 10% of
population).

Similar developments can be traced in philosophy, where
Plotinus (205-270) emphasized man's striving for union
with god and made Neoplatonism the dominant
intellectual force among the educated.
Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E.

When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305)
assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, he
did so with the realization that the empire,
with all it's far-flung provinces, was far too
vast to be ruled effectively by one man.

Accordingly, he formed a system of governing
known as the "Tetrarchy", or the rule of Four.
The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empire
would be divided into four quadrants, which were to be
ruled over by two Augustii, who would be assisted by two
Caesars, or "junior emperors".

This system was intended to provide an orderly and
smooth answer to the question of succession.

The two Augustii would be training the two Caesars as their eventual
replacements. Upon the retirement of the Augustii, the two Caesars
would be elevated to the position of Augustii, and would then pick two
new Caesars.
Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system which
had become wildly destabilized during the troubles of
the third century. These included price controls, job
classifications, new coinage, broader taxation, etc,
which had mixed results.
Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure
of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the
empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire
to remain essentially intact for another hundred years
despite having seemed near the brink of collapse in
Diocletian's youth.

He more or less changed the ideological basis of the
Empire from a pseudo-Republic in which the emperor,
army, and senate shared power to a full autocratic
system with the Emperor in complete control.

He also tried to institute a new official monotheistic
State religion (worship of the Sun).
Constantine the Great
(ruled as part of Tetrarchy
from 306 to 312; as sole
Emperor from about 312 to
337).

Following Diocletian’s
retirement, there was not
the orderly power transition
as imagined by the
Diocletian Tetrarchy.

Instead, there was another
series of brutal civil wars
followed by the victory of
Constantine.
Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first
Christian Roman emperor (though he also had his wife
and eldest son executed).



Emphasized religious uniformity of belief and engaged in
dramatic church building program.

The official Christian Bible and doctrine of the Catholic
Church were codified during Constantine’s reign.

Added Christian belief requirements to army and
government positions.
Under Constantine, Rome was divided administratively
into western and eastern halves, each with their own
capital.

The western half’s capital was Rome.

The richer eastern half’s capital was the old small Greek
city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople,
and then massively upgraded and improved.

Constantinople grew in power and became the center of
the Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire, which lasted
until 1423.
Constantinople lies in a very favorable
location that separates Europe from
Asia, the Mediterranean from the Black
Sea. Surrounded by water on three
sides, it is also quite defensible. Huge
walls allowed the Eastern Roman
Empire to survive for over 1000 years.
Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by the
Ottoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls were impregnable.
After Constantine’s death in 337, there were the usual
civil wars [337-353], followed by Julian (last of the
pagan emperors), Valens, and Theodosius.

Theodosius (379-395) made paganism and other non-
Christian religions illegal.

At the same time, Rome was subjected to significant
waves of barbarian invasions, which ultimately over-ran
most of the Roman Empire, especially in the West.
It is believed that these barbarian
movements were caused by the
movement of Huns and other steppe
people from the grasslands of Central
Asia. These nomadic raiders relied on
their horse mobility and the power of
the composite bow (which can be
shot from horseback, unlike a normal
bow).
These steppe people appear to have played the key role in
                                           fatally destabilizing not only the Roman Empire, but similar
                                           unified empires in China, India, and Persia.




http://www.flickr.com/photos/todorkamenov/209397447/sizes/o/
Rome was sacked first in 410 by the Goths (and then repeatidly over the
                                            next 50 years by others). Eventually, the Western part of the Empire
                                            was replaced with various “Barbarian Kingdoms”. The prosperous and
                                            stable world of antiquity was gone.
http://explorethemed.com/FallRome.asp?c=1
Hellenism and Rome: Rise of Macedon and Spread of Greek Culture

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

WH 1111 Rome
WH 1111 RomeWH 1111 Rome
WH 1111 Rome
 
Ancient rome
Ancient romeAncient rome
Ancient rome
 
Unit 4. Ancient Rome
Unit 4. Ancient RomeUnit 4. Ancient Rome
Unit 4. Ancient Rome
 
WH 1111 Ancient greece
WH 1111 Ancient greeceWH 1111 Ancient greece
WH 1111 Ancient greece
 
Roman Republic
Roman RepublicRoman Republic
Roman Republic
 
Rome Part 2
Rome Part 2Rome Part 2
Rome Part 2
 
Ancient Rome
Ancient RomeAncient Rome
Ancient Rome
 
The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade
The  Rome  Republic Chap 14 6th GradeThe  Rome  Republic Chap 14 6th Grade
The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade
 
Ancient Rome: Political Evolution
Ancient Rome: Political EvolutionAncient Rome: Political Evolution
Ancient Rome: Political Evolution
 
Roman republic to empire
Roman republic to empireRoman republic to empire
Roman republic to empire
 
Rise of rome
Rise of romeRise of rome
Rise of rome
 
Day 1 legendary beginnings & roman republic wenger
Day 1 legendary beginnings & roman republic wengerDay 1 legendary beginnings & roman republic wenger
Day 1 legendary beginnings & roman republic wenger
 
Rome from Republic to Empire
Rome from Republic to EmpireRome from Republic to Empire
Rome from Republic to Empire
 
Rome Review
Rome ReviewRome Review
Rome Review
 
Unit 4. Ancient Rome
Unit 4. Ancient RomeUnit 4. Ancient Rome
Unit 4. Ancient Rome
 
Unit 2 test_review
Unit 2 test_reviewUnit 2 test_review
Unit 2 test_review
 
Rome Sec1
Rome Sec1Rome Sec1
Rome Sec1
 
E 5 egptian history class 5 the greek invasion - year 5
E 5 egptian history class 5 the greek invasion - year 5E 5 egptian history class 5 the greek invasion - year 5
E 5 egptian history class 5 the greek invasion - year 5
 
Overview of Roman History
Overview of Roman HistoryOverview of Roman History
Overview of Roman History
 
Rome Part 3
Rome Part 3Rome Part 3
Rome Part 3
 

Similar to Hellenism and Rome: Rise of Macedon and Spread of Greek Culture

Similar to Hellenism and Rome: Rise of Macedon and Spread of Greek Culture (20)

Greek
GreekGreek
Greek
 
His 101 rome ch 5 6 fall 2014
His 101 rome ch 5 6 fall 2014His 101 rome ch 5 6 fall 2014
His 101 rome ch 5 6 fall 2014
 
Roman Republic
Roman RepublicRoman Republic
Roman Republic
 
Chapter 4 part 1 persia and greece
Chapter 4 part 1 persia and greeceChapter 4 part 1 persia and greece
Chapter 4 part 1 persia and greece
 
His 101 chapter 5 & chapter 6 the civilization and transformation of rome
His 101 chapter 5 & chapter 6 the civilization and transformation of romeHis 101 chapter 5 & chapter 6 the civilization and transformation of rome
His 101 chapter 5 & chapter 6 the civilization and transformation of rome
 
World History I SOL Review PowerPoint.ppt
World History I SOL Review PowerPoint.pptWorld History I SOL Review PowerPoint.ppt
World History I SOL Review PowerPoint.ppt
 
11 the roman period v2018
11 the roman period  v201811 the roman period  v2018
11 the roman period v2018
 
Unit 4. Ancient Rome
Unit 4. Ancient RomeUnit 4. Ancient Rome
Unit 4. Ancient Rome
 
Unit 5. Ancient rome
Unit 5. Ancient romeUnit 5. Ancient rome
Unit 5. Ancient rome
 
Ch 03 strayer 2e lecture
Ch 03 strayer 2e lectureCh 03 strayer 2e lecture
Ch 03 strayer 2e lecture
 
Greece
GreeceGreece
Greece
 
Unit 4. ancient rome
Unit 4. ancient romeUnit 4. ancient rome
Unit 4. ancient rome
 
Unit 5. ancient rome
Unit 5. ancient romeUnit 5. ancient rome
Unit 5. ancient rome
 
antigua roma
antigua romaantigua roma
antigua roma
 
World History Unit3 Ancientrome And Christianity
World History Unit3 Ancientrome And ChristianityWorld History Unit3 Ancientrome And Christianity
World History Unit3 Ancientrome And Christianity
 
Unit 5. ancient rome
Unit 5. ancient romeUnit 5. ancient rome
Unit 5. ancient rome
 
Ancient Greece History
Ancient Greece HistoryAncient Greece History
Ancient Greece History
 
Unit 4. ancient rome
Unit 4. ancient romeUnit 4. ancient rome
Unit 4. ancient rome
 
6.1 the roman republic
6.1   the roman republic6.1   the roman republic
6.1 the roman republic
 
Rome
RomeRome
Rome
 

More from Randy Connolly

Ten-Year Anniversary of our CIS Degree
Ten-Year Anniversary of our CIS DegreeTen-Year Anniversary of our CIS Degree
Ten-Year Anniversary of our CIS DegreeRandy Connolly
 
Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)
Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)
Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)Randy Connolly
 
Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...
Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...
Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...Randy Connolly
 
Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)
Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)
Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)Randy Connolly
 
Modern Web Development (2018)
Modern Web Development (2018)Modern Web Development (2018)
Modern Web Development (2018)Randy Connolly
 
Helping Prospective Students Understand the Computing Disciplines
Helping Prospective Students Understand the Computing DisciplinesHelping Prospective Students Understand the Computing Disciplines
Helping Prospective Students Understand the Computing DisciplinesRandy Connolly
 
Constructing a Web Development Textbook
Constructing a Web Development TextbookConstructing a Web Development Textbook
Constructing a Web Development TextbookRandy Connolly
 
Web Development for Managers
Web Development for ManagersWeb Development for Managers
Web Development for ManagersRandy Connolly
 
Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"
Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"
Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"Randy Connolly
 
17 Ways to Fail Your Courses
17 Ways to Fail Your Courses17 Ways to Fail Your Courses
17 Ways to Fail Your CoursesRandy Connolly
 
Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...
Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...
Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...Randy Connolly
 
Constructing and revising a web development textbook
Constructing and revising a web development textbookConstructing and revising a web development textbook
Constructing and revising a web development textbookRandy Connolly
 
Computing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing Disciplines
Computing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing DisciplinesComputing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing Disciplines
Computing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing DisciplinesRandy Connolly
 
Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...
Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...
Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...Randy Connolly
 
Thinking About Technology
Thinking About TechnologyThinking About Technology
Thinking About TechnologyRandy Connolly
 
A longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission data
A longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission dataA longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission data
A longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission dataRandy Connolly
 
Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?
Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?
Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?Randy Connolly
 
Constructing a Contemporary Textbook
Constructing a Contemporary TextbookConstructing a Contemporary Textbook
Constructing a Contemporary TextbookRandy Connolly
 

More from Randy Connolly (20)

Ten-Year Anniversary of our CIS Degree
Ten-Year Anniversary of our CIS DegreeTen-Year Anniversary of our CIS Degree
Ten-Year Anniversary of our CIS Degree
 
Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)
Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)
Careers in Computing (2019 Edition)
 
Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...
Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...
Facing Backwards While Stumbling Forwards: The Future of Teaching Web Develop...
 
Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)
Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)
Where is the Internet? (2019 Edition)
 
Modern Web Development (2018)
Modern Web Development (2018)Modern Web Development (2018)
Modern Web Development (2018)
 
Helping Prospective Students Understand the Computing Disciplines
Helping Prospective Students Understand the Computing DisciplinesHelping Prospective Students Understand the Computing Disciplines
Helping Prospective Students Understand the Computing Disciplines
 
Constructing a Web Development Textbook
Constructing a Web Development TextbookConstructing a Web Development Textbook
Constructing a Web Development Textbook
 
Web Development for Managers
Web Development for ManagersWeb Development for Managers
Web Development for Managers
 
Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"
Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"
Disrupting the Discourse of the "Digital Disruption of _____"
 
17 Ways to Fail Your Courses
17 Ways to Fail Your Courses17 Ways to Fail Your Courses
17 Ways to Fail Your Courses
 
Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...
Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...
Red Fish Blue Fish: Reexamining Student Understanding of the Computing Discip...
 
Constructing and revising a web development textbook
Constructing and revising a web development textbookConstructing and revising a web development textbook
Constructing and revising a web development textbook
 
Computing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing Disciplines
Computing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing DisciplinesComputing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing Disciplines
Computing is Not a Rock Band: Student Understanding of the Computing Disciplines
 
Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...
Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...
Citizenship: How do leaders in universities think about and experience citize...
 
Thinking About Technology
Thinking About TechnologyThinking About Technology
Thinking About Technology
 
A longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission data
A longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission dataA longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission data
A longitudinal examination of SIGITE conference submission data
 
Web Security
Web SecurityWeb Security
Web Security
 
Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?
Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?
Is Human Flourishing in the ICT World of the Future Likely?
 
Constructing a Contemporary Textbook
Constructing a Contemporary TextbookConstructing a Contemporary Textbook
Constructing a Contemporary Textbook
 
CSS: Introduction
CSS: IntroductionCSS: Introduction
CSS: Introduction
 

Recently uploaded

Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPThe Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPHow to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17Celine George
 
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024St.John's College
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17Celine George
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
 
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
 
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPThe Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPHow to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
 
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 

Hellenism and Rome: Rise of Macedon and Spread of Greek Culture

  • 1. Lecture 5 HELLENISM AND ROME INTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
  • 2. Weakened by the enlarged scope and scale of warfare during and immediately after the Peloponnesian War, the independence of the Greek polis was ended forever with the rise of Macedon and the united Greeks defeat by Philip II and his son Alexander the Great in 338 BCE.
  • 3.
  • 5. Note: Should say 4th Century BCE not 5th Century
  • 6. Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus Macedonian phalangite with sarissa (over 6m/19ft). http://myweb.unomaha.edu/~mreames/Alexander/sarissa_jones.html
  • 7. Macedonian phalanx required level ground but was very effective. The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that when he first saw the phalanx, it was the most terrifying thing he had ever seen. Comparison to Greek Hoplites
  • 8. Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture throughout the near eastern world. After his death, the so-called Successor kingdoms were ruled by his generals. This time period generally referred to as the Hellenistic Age.
  • 9. Shown here are the great library and lighthouse at Alexandria (near modern day Cairo). Alexandria eventually became antiquity’s academic center, attracting Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Jewish, and Roman scholars.
  • 10. The library of Alexandria was but one part of the Museum of Alexandria. Museum = study of the muses It functioned as a sort of research institute.   addition to the library, In the Museum included rooms for the study of astronomy, anatomy, and even a zoo of exotic animals. “Starting as early as 300 BCE, the Ptolomaic kings who ruled Alexandria had the inspired idea of luring leading scholars, scientists, and poets to their city by offering them life appointments at the Museum, with handsome salaries, tax exemptions, free food and lodging, and the almost limitless resources of the library.”
  • 11. Some of the scholars at Alexandria included: Euclid invented geometry Archimedes calculated pi, discovered hydraulic technology Eratosthenes calculated earth’s circumference to within 1% accuracy Galen systematized anatomy and pharmacology
  • 12. At its peak, the Library of Alexandria may have had over a half a million items in its collection. In 391 CE (700 years after its creation), the Musuem at Alexandria and its Library were destroyed soon after the Roman Emperor Theodosius prohibited pagan (non-Christian) forms of worship.
  • 13. One of the victims of this much later destruction of the Alexandria Library was Hypatia, famous in antiquity for her attainments in math and astronomy, as well, evidently, for her beauty. A mob of monks egged on by Cyril, the Christian patriarch of Alexandria, pulled her from her chariot, stripped her clothes and dragged her through the streets and into the Cathedral of Alexandria. There the monks tore her skin from her bones with oyster shells. The strips were burnt piece by piece as she died. The rest of her body was taken outside the city and burned.
  • 14. Cyril was rewarded for his efforts by being made one of the early Saints of the Catholic Church.
  • 15. The Hellenistic successor kingdoms were eventually displaced in the Mediterranean world by Rome. Rome’s history proper begins when it became a Republic in 509 BCE. At that time, it was a small town surrounded by richer, more populous peoples.
  • 16.
  • 17. Over a three hundred year time period, Rome’s power grew and through a continuous series of wars with its neighbours, eventually controlled the entire Italian peninsula. Within another century, Roman power extended across the Mediterranean world.
  • 18. So how did Rome do it? Polybius  (ca. 200–118 BC), a Greek prisoner of war tried to explain Rome’s successes for a Greek audience. He claimed it was due to: 1. Rome’s political system (mixed constitution that blended aristocratic and democratic elements) 2. Roman army
  • 19. Roman Political System Two eras: Republic (509 – 29 BCE) Empire (29 BCE – 476 CE)
  • 20. Roman Republic Political System Senate The aristocratic patricians (great families) were represented by the Senate. Controlled money, government administration, foreign policy. The Senate also supplied the two Consuls who were elected by the Senate each year, and acted as generals during war. Tribal Assembly The plebians (all other Roman citizens) were represented here. Made laws. Roman citizens were divided into 35 tribes based on income. Each citizen voted within his tribe. Each tribal representative then voted. The tribes were also dispersed by wealth.
  • 21. Tribal Assembly For any law or motion, the Tribal Assembly, after receiving “advice” from the patrician Senate, would vote. Wealthier were represented by more tribes. Tribal representatives vote yes/no according to its members Each citizen votes yes/no for motion within tribe Tribe 1 Tribe 2 Tribe 3 … Tribe 10 … Tribe 15 … Tribe 20 … Tribe 30 … Tribe 35 Rich Poor
  • 22. Roman Army Based on their experience from hundreds of years of fighting in the rugged terrain of Italy, Roman armies developed a checkerboard-type system that was significantly more flexible than the Macedonian phalanx or the Greek hoplite. They also adopted the Spanish short stabbing sword.
  • 23.
  • 24. Roman Army Even though the army was initially composed of citizen farmers, it was well-trained, disciplined and focused on killing. Most warfare prior to the Romans was about trying to break the morale of the enemy and make them flee. Roman warfare by contrast was about killing as many of the enemy as efficiently as possible. As well, the Romans tended to never give up or flee, and would continue a battle or a war until they wore down their opponent’s willingness to continue. Over its history, Rome would suffer calamitous defeats but it would never countenance suing for peace.
  • 25. This image is a recreation of the Battle of Pydna, in which the Macedonians lost some 25,000 men while the Romans lost about 1000. “ With the view of doing more to win the affections of his men and make them more ready to meet danger on his behalf, Philip paid special attention to the burial of the men who had fallen … and ordered the bodies to be brought into camp that all might see the honour paid to the dead. But nothing is so uncertain or so difficult to gauge as the temper of a mass of people. The very thing which was expected to make them keener to face any conflict only inspired them with hesitancy and fear. Philip's men had been accustomed to fighting with Greeks and Illyrians and had only seen wounds inflicted by javelins and arrows and in rare instances by lances. But when they saw bodies dismembered with the Spanish sword, arms cut off from the shoulder, heads struck off from the trunk, bowels exposed and other horrible wounds, they recognized the style of weapon and the kind of man against whom they had to fight, and a shudder of horror ran through the ranks. ” Livy, History of Rome XXXI, 34
  • 26. Roman Army During most of the Republic time period, the Roman army was composed of citizens (except for the very poorest), who were obliged to leave their work, provide their own armour and weapons, and serve in the army. Over time, due to Rome’s constant warfare, the result was that the small landholding farmer base of the Roman economy collapsed. Agriculture was progressively centralized into large estates owned by the Senatorial class and worked by large holdings of slaves. Around 100 BCE, Rome was forced to professionalize its armies and accept the landless into the army. In this new professional army, one made a 25 year commitment to serve; the state provided arms, training, food, shelter, wages, and retirement benefits (land).
  • 27. Decline of Roman Republic As the Roman Republic grew in land size, it faced two important and related problems. First, a larger and larger percentage of the Roman population became landless and indebted to wealthier senators. Second, when the army became professionalized, its soldiers became progressively more reliant on their generals for pay, rewards, and retirement lands. Thus the army’s loyalty shifted from the state to its generals. These two factors helped foment a great deal of social unrest and civil wars over the last 100 years of the Republic.
  • 28. Sulla (88 – 78 BCE) Pompey (70 – 48 BCE) Crassus (70 – 55 BCE) Julius Caesar (49 – 44 BCE) Attacked Rome twice Wealthiest man in with his armies, became Rome, who used his dictator for life, and wealth to purchase his slaughtered almost army, which he used to 10000 political defeat Spartacus and his opponents (mainly from Successful general who slave army. Eventually Successful general who used the non-Senatorial used his armies in Greece died leading his army to his power base with the party) to seize power in Rome. destruction in Syria. plebians. Eventually Joined with Crassus and marched on Rome, and after Caesar to jointly rule a 5 year civil war defeated Rome for a time period Pompey’s armies. Became known as the Triumvirate dictator for life but was (61-55 BCE). assassinated by disgruntled Senators on the Ideas of March (March 15) 44 BCE, which plunged Rome into another 13 years of civil war.
  • 29. Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul (modern-day France), was a wonderful Latin stylist, a skilled politician, and one of history’s greatest generals. “Veni, vidi, vici” (I came, I saw, I conquered) is his summation of one of his many successful campaigns. He was victorious in a wide range of battles (land, sea battles, and sieges) against a wide range of enemies (Gauls, German barbarians, Egyptians, Macedonians, and, most important, Romans).
  • 30. Painting below is "Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar", 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer. Vercingetorix was the leader of the unified Gauls in their attempt to throw off the Roman shackles. The highpoint of the campaign was the Seige of Alesia, in which the Roman army besieging Vercingetorix at Alesia, was beseiged in turn by a huge force of Gauls. Caesar had the Romans build a wooden wall around his forces. Ultimately, the Roman army of about 50,000 defeated the 300,000 army of the Gauls.
  • 31. From the HBO Series Rome, which had Ciarán Hinds playing the role of Caesar with just the right mixture of arrogance and confidence.
  • 32. Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BCE in the Senate led by his friend Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius and 60 other co- conspirators. Caesar had been warned by a seer to fear the Ides of March. On that day, on the way to the senate, Caesar saw the seer and told him “The Ideas of March have come and I’m still alive.” The seer responded, “They have come but not gone.”
  • 33. Roman forces loyal to Caesar, led by Mark Antony and Caesar’s young nephew Octavian defeated the Brutus and Cassius-led senatorial forces at the Battle of Philippi. Antony and Octavian ultimately engaged in another civil war, with Octavian defeating Antony (and his wife Cleopatra’s forces) at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE). After the defeat of Antony, Octavian has sole power in Rome – a Rome that had been decimated by forty years of constant civil wars. Octavian in power became Augustus Caesar, the first Roman Emperor. Thus began the Principate, or the time known as the Roman Empire.
  • 34. Augustus did not have a son. So he adopted Tiberius, his wife’s son (from an earlier marriage). Tiberius had two sons, both of whom died before him. Germanicus was an adopted son, but was suspected of treason and killed. Drusus was Tiberius’s natural son. Drusus died, poisoned by his own wife and her lover Sejanus, the captain of the Praetorian Guards (the only soldiers allowed in city of Rome). Caligula, son of Germanicus, is often portrayed as cruel, extravagant, sexually perverse, and an insane tyrant. Among other things, he was accused of incest with his sister, of trying to make his horse a Consul and killing Senators for amusement. He was assassinated by the Praetorians. Claudius, nephew to Caligula, was an effective and scholarly emperor. He was eventually murdered at the behest of his last wife so that her son Nero (not fathered by Claudius) could rule. Nero was accused of being more interested in acting than ruling, and of being another ruthless tyrant. Was assassinated. Followed by the year of four emperors and plenty of civil wars.
  • 35.
  • 36. Pax Romana Rome’s height is generally connected to the Flavian and Antonine dynasties. During that time, rather than passing on power to one’s genetic heir, the Emperor would adopt the “best” Roman to be his son (and who may even have been older than the “father”). This time period is often referred to as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace), during which trade, engineering, and the arts flourished.
  • 37. Pax Romana Its peak coincided with the rule of the so- called Five Good Emperors (96 – 180 BCE). Edward Gibbons, the 18th century historian who penned Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, described the period as that “in which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous.”
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Roman Culture Roman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals. Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
  • 41.
  • 42. Many Roman sculptures have youthful Greek-inspired bodies with stern and aged heads.
  • 43.
  • 44. Roman version of Photoshop: buy statue of youthful Greek youth, knock off the head, and attach realistic portrait of aged Roman patriarch.
  • 45. Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
  • 48. Not every Roman matron looked good in the Flavian updo!
  • 49. Roman Civic Engineering Romans were masters at solving practical problems and appear to have had very sophisticated building and engineering skills.
  • 50. Much of what we know of regular Roman life comes from the buried remains of Pompeii, buried in 79 CE by volcanic eruption.
  • 51.
  • 52. Visit Pompeii with Google Maps
  • 53.
  • 54. Very little of Herculaneum has been uncovered. Herculaneum was buried under 20 meters of ash and is now buried as well by modern buildings in Naples.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57. Lead water pipes in Pompeii
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60. Painted walls in Pompeii
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
  • 64. Cave Canem - Beware of Dog – mosaics Pompeii
  • 65. Images from the so-called Lupanare or Brothel of Pompeii. Are these images, as most have thought, a menu for ordering sexual acts, or … … is the brothel actually a clock room for a bath house, and these images are cheeky ways to remember where bathers hung their toga while they bathed.
  • 66.
  • 68. Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century – Typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 73. Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters an underground passage just to the left. Romans constructed elaborate water systems for their cities and generally had a constant gradient drop of 15 to 30 cm every 100 meters. Most were underground and were about 1m wide by 2m high. Only when they needed to cross a valley or river was an aqueduct constructed.
  • 74. Pantheon in Rome. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome
  • 75. Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
  • 78.
  • 79. “Kill him! Lash him! Burn him” Why does he meet the sword in such a cowardly way? Why does he strike so feebly? Why doesn’t he die well? Whip him on his wounds!” Seneca, Roman philosopher, author of Letters on Morality
  • 80.
  • 81. The so-called Bikini Girls, who appear to have amused the gladiatorial audience in between events …
  • 83. Roman Religion Rome’s religion is sometimes referred to as pagan. They imported Greek and Etruscan deities, renamed them, and assimilated them into their own beliefs. Like with the Greeks, Roman religion was oriented around rituals, such as animal sacrifices, and seemed to lack any type of eschatology (life after death). Roman religion appears to have been more like a contract: quid pro quo [I give you, you give me]
  • 84. Rome’s religion was perhaps best analogous to today’s patriotism. You participated in official religious rituals to demonstrate your support of the state. Indeed, it appears that most of the Roman educated elite during the height of Rome’s pax romana were pretty much completely secular. “Just when the gods had ceased to be, and the Christ had not yet come, there was a unique moment in history, between Cicero and Marcus Aurelius, when man stood alone.” -- Gustave Flaubert
  • 85. On the Nature of Things Lucretius On blackboard in class
  • 86. Roman Religion While Rome’s educated and cultured elite were secularized, there was also a slow but growing counter- movement that embraced so-called Mystery Cults/Religions. These cults were transplants from the eastern edge of the Empire. They provided a personal spirituality focused around monotheism, mysterious rituals, including rebirth via baptism in blood or water, salvation, eternal life/damnation, and a personal relationship with that single divinity.
  • 87. Some examples: Mithraism, Orphism, Eleusinians, Dionysianism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, Christianity.
  • 88. Mithras, the sun god born on Dec 25.
  • 89. Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii One of the richer villas uncovered in Pompeii appears to have a series of illustrations of a ritual in one of these mystery religions. They seem part of a ritual ceremony aimed at preparing privileged, protected girls for the psychological transition to life as married women. 
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92. Roman Religion In conclusion, Romans were very tolerant of different religious beliefs as long as the rituals or the beliefs didn’t interfere with one’s loyalty to the State.
  • 93. Christianity After Jesus of Nazareth’s death around 31 CE, there were two factions of his followers: Aramaic-speaking Jews focused around Jerusalem. Lead by James, Jesus’s brother. “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him.” Mark 6:3 More focused on transforming Judaism. Hellenized, Greek-speaking Christians and Jews. Lead by Paul, who eventually travelled to Rome. More focused on converting and spreading the faith.
  • 94. Christianity grew initially almost completely amongst the lower classes in Rome and in the eastern provinces of the Empire. Much of our knowledge of early Christianity in Rome is found in the subterranean burial chambers where the poor seemed to have favoured as a place of worship.
  • 95. Christianity also seemed to gain an early foothold amongst upper-class women. Still, Christianity was very much a fringe religion. Perhaps 5% of the Roman population across the entire extent of the Empire was Christian by 200 CE.
  • 96.
  • 97. From Pax Romana to … …the 3rd Century Crisis
  • 98. Statues of last of the “Good” emperors: Trajan, Hadrian, Lucius Vera, Marcus Aurelius,– notice the regal, imperial calm of the portraits
  • 99. Unlike his predecessors over the previous 100 years, Marcus Aurelius did not appoint his successor based on merit, but instead appointed his son Commodus, a disastrous choice, who ruled from 180 – 192 CE.
  • 100. Commodus was said to have been more interested in being a gladiator than an Emperor, and with him began a period of radical imperial instability and bad government. He renamed Rome to Colonia Commodiana (City of Commodus), renamed the 12 months of the year to his 12 different names, declared himself the sole god in Roman religion, etc Commodus was the villain in the movie Gladiator, and is one of those rare villains who appear to have actually been significantly nastier in real life than in their Hollywood portrayal!
  • 101. Commodus was eventually assassinated (poisoned, His second wife Julia Domna was highly learned then strangled by his wrestling partner). There in philosophy. followed the Year of Five Emperors and civil war in which the general Septimius Severus emerged victorious.
  • 102. The panel depicts the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus with his family: to the left his wife Julia Domna, in front of them their sons Geta and Caracalla.  The face of Geta was presumably erased after Caracalla murdered his brother.
  • 103. Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered his brother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years, killed by his soldiers while urinating). Caracella made a number of vital changes to the empire. In 212 all free men within the Roman Empire became full Roman citizens. He also increased the size of the army by 25% and doubled their pay. He also created an incentive structure (bonus pay to the soldiers who supported him on his ascension to the throne) that was going to help fuel the Third Century Crisis.
  • 104. For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid a bonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new emperor would need to buy your loyalty to stay in power. Rinse and repeat.
  • 105. The 3rd Century Crisis Between 235 and 284 there were 25 Emperors. Only one died of natural causes. There were also dozens of others who were acclaimed Emperor by their soldiers but who died before reaching Rome. It was 50 years of unbelievable anarchy: constant civil war, complete economic collapse, plague, barbarian invasions, war with a rival superpower (Sassanids), and the breakup of parts of the Empire into separate states.
  • 106. Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14 at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Was assassinated.
  • 107. Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by his soldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of female fashion, and his harem of “husbands” who were expected to dress in female clothes and wigs. The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
  • 108. Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from 222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus who also had a rule cut short by assassination.
  • 109.
  • 111.
  • 112.
  • 113. The silver content of the main roman currency (the denari) declined to zero during the crisis There were no budget deficits in Roman times. Since coinage was based on gold and silver, the only way to control the economy was to spend less, tax more, find new gold or silver, or put less gold and silver in the coinage. Because there wasn’t an effective taxation system, the massive cost of the army came through devaluing the Silver denari under Mainly copper denari currency, which eventually led Caracella (217 CE) (270 CE) to rampant inflation.
  • 114. During the Crisis of the Third Century, Rome’s vast internal trade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able to successfully export their crops over long distances, began producing food for subsistence and local barter.  The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, began to move out into the countryside in search of food and better protection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many of these former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, were forced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order to receive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, they became a half-free class of Roman citizen known as coloni. They were tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status was made hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom, which would form the basis of medieval feudal society and the medieval peasantry. Rome’s relatively large and prosperous middle class more or less disappeared for good. Wealth appears to have become concentrated into the hands of a very few rich families. Roman cities themselves began to change in character. The large, open cities of Classical antiquity slowly gave way to the smaller, walled cities.
  • 115. Emperor Maximinus (first barbarian emperor, ruled for 3 years, murdered); Emperor Gordian I (ruled at same time, dead within 20 days)
  • 116. Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate, tried to bring order, murdered by soldiers within a few months). Emperor Gordian III, 13 year old orphan, murdered after leading his army and defeating the Persians.
  • 117. Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by his troops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths. Emperor Gallienus, ruled 8 years (a record!), inflicted massive defeats on Persians, won two gigantic victories against invading gothic armies in Greece, and defeated the Alemmani who had invaded Italy. Murdered by his own bodyguard while fighting breakaway Roman Gallic Empire.
  • 118. Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finest generals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting the Empire. Murdered by his soldiers. Emperor Claudius Gothicus, ruled 2 years, died of smallpox plague.
  • 119. Thanks to Auerlian, by late 274, the Roman Empire was reunited into a single entity, and the frontier troops were back in place. More than a century passed before Rome again lost military ascendancy over its external enemies. However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially in the Western Empire, had been ruined, their populations dispersed and, with the breakdown of the economic system, could not be rebuilt. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many now surrounded themselves with thick walls.
  • 120. The Crisis had a tremendous effect on the cultural side as well. In general, there was a rejection of the optimistic and secular orientation of classical civilization and a new- found concern for religious and other-worldly ideals. Personal religious experiences and salvation via a compassionate god became increasingly important.
  • 121. Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus (late 4th c)
  • 122. Not the Virgin Mary with the Christ child, but Hermes holding the infant Dionysus with nimbus (halo). These mosaics are from the 4th century AD from Nea Paphos, Cyprus
  • 123. Ceiling from Constantine palace in Trier. Circles of light indicate regal importance
  • 124. Christianity, which was a very minor religious movement in the Empire, became a bit more widespread (but still a minority religion, perhaps no more than 10% of population). Similar developments can be traced in philosophy, where Plotinus (205-270) emphasized man's striving for union with god and made Neoplatonism the dominant intellectual force among the educated.
  • 125. Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E. When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305) assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, he did so with the realization that the empire, with all it's far-flung provinces, was far too vast to be ruled effectively by one man. Accordingly, he formed a system of governing known as the "Tetrarchy", or the rule of Four.
  • 126. The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empire would be divided into four quadrants, which were to be ruled over by two Augustii, who would be assisted by two Caesars, or "junior emperors". This system was intended to provide an orderly and smooth answer to the question of succession. The two Augustii would be training the two Caesars as their eventual replacements. Upon the retirement of the Augustii, the two Caesars would be elevated to the position of Augustii, and would then pick two new Caesars.
  • 127. Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system which had become wildly destabilized during the troubles of the third century. These included price controls, job classifications, new coinage, broader taxation, etc, which had mixed results.
  • 128. Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain essentially intact for another hundred years despite having seemed near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. He more or less changed the ideological basis of the Empire from a pseudo-Republic in which the emperor, army, and senate shared power to a full autocratic system with the Emperor in complete control. He also tried to institute a new official monotheistic State religion (worship of the Sun).
  • 129. Constantine the Great (ruled as part of Tetrarchy from 306 to 312; as sole Emperor from about 312 to 337). Following Diocletian’s retirement, there was not the orderly power transition as imagined by the Diocletian Tetrarchy. Instead, there was another series of brutal civil wars followed by the victory of Constantine.
  • 130. Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor (though he also had his wife and eldest son executed). Emphasized religious uniformity of belief and engaged in dramatic church building program. The official Christian Bible and doctrine of the Catholic Church were codified during Constantine’s reign. Added Christian belief requirements to army and government positions.
  • 131. Under Constantine, Rome was divided administratively into western and eastern halves, each with their own capital. The western half’s capital was Rome. The richer eastern half’s capital was the old small Greek city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople, and then massively upgraded and improved. Constantinople grew in power and became the center of the Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire, which lasted until 1423.
  • 132.
  • 133. Constantinople lies in a very favorable location that separates Europe from Asia, the Mediterranean from the Black Sea. Surrounded by water on three sides, it is also quite defensible. Huge walls allowed the Eastern Roman Empire to survive for over 1000 years.
  • 134.
  • 135. Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by the Ottoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls were impregnable.
  • 136. After Constantine’s death in 337, there were the usual civil wars [337-353], followed by Julian (last of the pagan emperors), Valens, and Theodosius. Theodosius (379-395) made paganism and other non- Christian religions illegal. At the same time, Rome was subjected to significant waves of barbarian invasions, which ultimately over-ran most of the Roman Empire, especially in the West.
  • 137.
  • 138. It is believed that these barbarian movements were caused by the movement of Huns and other steppe people from the grasslands of Central Asia. These nomadic raiders relied on their horse mobility and the power of the composite bow (which can be shot from horseback, unlike a normal bow).
  • 139. These steppe people appear to have played the key role in fatally destabilizing not only the Roman Empire, but similar unified empires in China, India, and Persia. http://www.flickr.com/photos/todorkamenov/209397447/sizes/o/
  • 140.
  • 141. Rome was sacked first in 410 by the Goths (and then repeatidly over the next 50 years by others). Eventually, the Western part of the Empire was replaced with various “Barbarian Kingdoms”. The prosperous and stable world of antiquity was gone. http://explorethemed.com/FallRome.asp?c=1

Editor's Notes

  1. Alexander the Great
  2. Note: Should say 4 th Century BCE not 5 th Century
  3. Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus Macadeonian phalangite with sarissa (over 6m/19ft).
  4. Macadeonian phalanx required level ground but was very effective. The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that when he first saw the phalanx, it was the most terrifying thing he had ever seen.
  5. Alexander’s conquests spread greek culture throughout the near eastern world. After his death, the so-called Successor kingdoms were ruled by a variety of Greek rulers. Shown here are the great library and lighthouse at Alexandria (near modern day Cairo).
  6. Roman legions used a flexible checkerboard-type system. After mid first century BCE, all legionnaires were outfitted the same.
  7. The greek successor kingdoms were eventually displaced by Rome (214 to 148 BCE). The Macedonian phalanx required level ground. In the uneven terrain of Italy, Rome used a more flexible legion system (along with short stabbing swords) that was ideal for defeating the phalanx. This image is a recreation of the Battle of Pydna, in which the Macedonians lost some 25,000 men while the Romans lost about 1000.
  8. Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul (modern-day France), was a wonderful Latin stylist, a skilled politician, and one of history’s greatest generals. “ Veni, vidi, vici” (I came, I saw, I conquered) is his summation of one of his many successful campaigns. Painting is "Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar", 1899, by  Lionel Noel Royer . Vercingetorix was the leader of the unified Gauls in their attempt to throw off the Roman shackles. The highpoint of the campaign was the Seige of Alesia, in which the Roman army besieging Vercingetorix at Alesia, was beseiged in turn by a huge force of Gauls. Caesar had the Romans build a wooden wall around his forces. Ultimately, the Roman army of about 50000 defeated the 300,000 army of the Gauls.
  9. Caesar’s conquests in Gaul were deemed to be illegal by the Senate. Rather than surrender his command of the army, he crossed the Rubicon River into Italy and became dictator of Rome after a prolonged civil war in which he defeated his great rival, Pompey the Great. Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BCE in the Senate led by his friend Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius and 60 other co-conspiritators. Caesar had been warned by a seer to fear the Ides of March. On that day, on the way to the senate, Caesar saw the seer and told him “The Ideas of March have come and I’m still alive.” The seer responded, “They have come but not gone.”
  10. Roman forces loyal to Caesar, led by Mark Antony and Caesar’s young nephew Octavian defeated the Brutus and Cassius-led senatorial forces at the Battle of Philippi. Antony and Octavian ultimately engaged in another civil war, with Octavian defeating Antony (and his wife Cleopatra’s forces) at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE). After the defeat of Antony, Octavian has sole power in Rome – a Rome that had been decimated by forty years of constant civil wars. Octavian in power became Augustus Caesar, the first Roman Emperor. Thus began the Principate, or the time known as the Roman Empire. Augustus was a canny politician. Knowing that Romans would not accept a king, he referred to himself as Primus inter pares (first among equals). Subsequent emperors became known as Caesars. Painting is The Death of Cleopatra by Jean Andre Rixens (1874) – she supposed committed suicide through the bite of an asp (poisonous snake).
  11. Augustus did not have a son. So he adopted Tiberius, his wife’s son (from an earlier marriage). Tiberius had two sons, both of whom died before him. Germanicus was an adopted son, but was suspected of treason and killed. Drusus was Tiberius’s natural son. Drusus died, poisoned by his own wife and her lover Sejanus, the captain of the Praetorian Guards (the only soldiers allowed in city of Rome). Caligula, son of Germanicus, is often portrayed as cruel, extravagant, sexually perverse, and an insane tyrant. Among other things, he was accused of incest with his sister, of trying to make his horse a Consul (chief Senator), and killing Senators for amusement. He was assassinated by the Praetorians. Claudius, nephew to Caligula, was an effective and scholarly emperor. He was eventually murdered at the behest of his last wife so that her son Nero (not fathered by Claudius) could rule. Nero was accused of being more interested in acting than ruling, and of being another ruthless tyrant. Was assassinated. Followed by the year of four emperors and plenty of civil wars.
  12. For a 3D virtual tour through ancient Rome, see http://www.romereborn.virginia.edu/gallery-current.php
  13. Roman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals. Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
  14. Many Roman sculptures have youthful Greek-inspired bodies with stern and aged heads.
  15. So-called Tivoli General. Notice as well no Greek-style nudity for Roman patricians!
  16. Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
  17. Bust of Flavian Woman.
  18. Not every Roman matron looked good in the newest Flavian hairstyle!
  19. Arial view and location of Pompeii, buried in 79 CE.
  20. Very little of Herculaneum has been uncovered. Herculaneum was buried under 20m of ash!
  21. Villa of Livia
  22. A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
  23. Cave Canem - Beware of Dog - mosaics, Pompeii
  24. Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century – typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
  25. http://www.gadarg.org.uk/frocester.htm
  26. Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
  27. Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters an underground passage just to the left. Romans constructed elaborate water systems for their cities and generally had a constant gradient drop of 15 to 30 cm every 100 meters. Most were underground and were about 1m wide by 2m high. Only when they needed to cross a valley or river was an aqueduct constructed.
  28. Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
  29. Bikini Girls from the Piazza Armerina
  30. Mystery religions were not in opposition to the state religion. Rather they provided a
  31. Statues of Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus – notice the regal, imperial calm of the portraits
  32. Roman portrait of the second-century emperor Commodus in the Vatican Museums. A.D. 180-192. Commodus as Herules.
  33. After the assassination of Commodus, there followed a year of civil wars in which the general Septimius Severus emerged victorious. His second wife Julia Domna was highly learned in philosophy.
  34. The panel depicts the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus with his family: to the left his wife Julia Domna, in front of them their sons Geta and Caracalla. 
  35. Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered his brother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years, killed by his soldiers while urinating). Caracella made a number of vital changes to the empire. In 212 all free men within the Roman Empire became full Roman citizens. He also increased the size of the army by 25% and doubled their pay. He also created an incentive structure (bonus pay to the soldiers who supported him on his ascension to the throne) that was going to help fuel the Third Century Crisis.
  36. For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid a bonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new emperor would need to buy your loyalty to stay in power. Rinse and repeat.
  37. Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14 at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Was assassinated.
  38. Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by his soldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of female fashion, and his harem of “husbands” who were expected to dress in female clothes and wigs. The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
  39. Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from 222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus who also had a rule cut short by assassination.
  40. Crisis of the Third Century (235–284 AD) was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression. The Crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Alexander Severus at the hands of his own troops, initiating a fifty-year period in which 20–25 claimants to the title of Emperor, mostly prominent Roman Army generals, assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. Nonstop civil wars encouraged barbarian invasions. Smallpox plague in 251-270 also greatly reduced the population of the Empire. Over 5000 people a day supposedly died in Rome itself during its height.
  41. By 258–260, the Empire split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire, including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and Hispania; the Palmyrene Empire, including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus; and the Italian-centered and independent Roman Empire, proper, between them.
  42. At the same time, the Empire was challenged by the rise of a competing superpower, the Sassanid Empire.
  43. Victory of Sapor (over Emperor Valerian) in 260 CE
  44. There were no budget deficits back then. Since coinage was based on gold and silver, the only way to control the economy was to spend less, tax more, find new gold or silver, or put less gold and silver in the coinage. Because there wasn’t an effective taxation system, the massive cost of the army came through devaluing the currency, which eventually led to rampant inflation. During the Crisis of the Third Century Rome’s vast internal trade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able to successfully export their crops over long distances, began producing food for subsistence and local barter.  The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, began to move out into the countryside in search of food and better protection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many of these former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, were forced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order to receive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, they became a half-free class of Roman citizen known as  coloni . They were tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status was made hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom, which would form the basis of medieval feudal society and the medieval peasantry. Rome’s relative large and prosperous middle class more or less disappeared for good. Wealth appears to have become concentrated into the hands of a very few rich families. Roman cities themselves began to change in character. The large, open cities of Classical antiquity slowly gave way to the smaller, walled cities 
  45. Emperor Maximinus (first barbarian emperor, assinated Caracella, ruled for 3 years, murdered); Emperor Gordian I (ruled at same time, dead within 20 some days)
  46. Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate, tried to bring order, murdered by soldiers within a few months). Emperor Gordian III, 13 year old orphan, murdered after defeating the Persians
  47. Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by his troops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths. Emperor Gallienus, ruled 15 years (a record!), inflicted massive defeats on Persians, recaptured Antioch, won two gigantic victories against invading gothic armies in Greece, defeated the Alemmani who had invaded Italy, murdered by his own bodyguard while fighting breakaway Roman Gallic Empire.
  48. Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finest generals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting the Empire. Murdered by his soldiers. By late 274, the Roman Empire was reunited into a single entity, and the frontier troops were back in place. More than a century passed before Rome again lost military ascendancy over its external enemies. However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially in the Western Empire, had been ruined, their populations dispersed and, with the breakdown of the economic system, could not be rebuilt. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many now surrounded themselves with thick walls.
  49. Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus (late 4 th c)
  50. Not the Virgin Mary with the Christ child, but Hermes holding the infant Dionysus with nimbus (halo). These mosaics are from the 4th century AD from Nea Paphos, Cyprus http://www.flickr.com/photos/7549203@N04/3328213281/in/set-72157615992433806/
  51. Ceiling from Constantinine palace in Trier. Circles of light indicate regal importance
  52. Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E. When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305) assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, he did so with the realization that the empire, with all it's far-flung provinces, was far too vast to be ruled effectively by one man. Accordingly, he formed a system of governing known as the "Tetrarchy", or the rule of Four. The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empire would be divided into four quadrants, which were to be ruled over by two Augustii, who would be assisted by two Caesars, or "junior emperors". This system was intended to provide an orderly and smooth answer to the question of succession. The two Augustii would be training the two Caesars as their eventual replacements. Upon the retirement of the Augustii, the two Caesars would be elevated to the position of Augustii, and would then pick two new Caesars. Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system which had become wildly destabilized during the troubles of the third century. These included price controls, job classifications, new coinage, broader taxation, etc, which had mixed results. Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain essentially intact for another hundred years despite having seemed near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. He more or less changed the ideological basis of the Empire from a pseudo-Republic in which the emperor, army, and senate shared power to a full autocratic system with the Emperor in complete control.
  53. Constantine the Great (ruled as part of Tetrarchy from 306 to 312; as sole Emperor from about 312 to 337) . Following Diocletian’s retirement, there was not the orderly power transition as imagined by the Diocletian Tetrarchy. Instead, another series of brutal civil wars followed by the victory of Constantine . Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor (though he also had his wife and eldest son executed). Emphasized religious uniformity of belief and engaged in dramatic church building program.
  54. Under Constantine, Rome was divided administratively into western and eastern halves, each with their own capital. The western half’s capital was Rome. The richer eastern half’s capital was the old small Greek city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople, and then massively upgraded and improved. Constantinople grew in power and became the center of the Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire, which lasted until 1423.
  55. Constantinople lies in a very favorable location that separates Europe from Asia, the Mediterranean from the Black Sea. Surrounded by water on three sides, it is also quite defensible. Huge walls allowed the Eastern Roman Empire to survive for over 1000 years.
  56. Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by the Ottoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls were impregnable.
  57. So while the rest of the Roman Empire was wracked by a series of barbarian invasions in the 400s, Constantinople was untouched.
  58. It is believed that these barbarian movements were caused by the movement of Huns and other steppe people from the grasslands of Central Asia. These nomadic raiders relied on their horse mobility and the power of the composite bow (which can be shot from horseback, unlike a normal bow).
  59. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/rome/210reasons.html