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Introduction to Western Humanities - 4 - Classic Greece


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Fourth lecture for GNED 1202 (Texts and Ideas). It is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Intro to Western Civilization style course.

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Introduction to Western Humanities - 4 - Classic Greece

  2. 2. En route to theGreek classic age800 – 500 BCE
  3. 3. Evidence that the insularity of the GreekDark Ages began to change around 800 –750 BCE, with increasing evidence oftrade.
  4. 4.!/greek_colonies_550.jpg
  5. 5. Why trade and colonization?Greece is not a land rich in naturalresources. It has some lush valleys, butmuch of it seems only suited for growingrocks.
  6. 6. It does have some fertile valleys …
  7. 7. … but much of it seems only suited for growing rocks.
  8. 8. As a consequence, Greekemigration has been aconstant feature of Greeklife: Greek graffiti inMelbourne, Greektown inToronto
  9. 9. First Olympic Games in 776 BCE continued every four years for over 1000+ years! (776 BCE – 393 CE)The Olympic Games were a way for the Greeks to enact theindividualistic virtues of Homeric heroes. Competition (agon) was at theheart of Greek culture, and leads to both the best and worst in theirculture. On one hand there was a relentless striving to outdo one anotherin any thing you can think of, whether it be farming, invention, math,painting, sprinting, etc., which ultimately lead to a real flowering in thearts and sciences. But on the other hand, it also lead to a fixation onzero-sum games (if you gain something, that must mean I’m losingsomething) that was expressed in constant inter-Greek warfare andcompetition in politics.
  10. 10. Original Olympic Events: a variety of running races -- including the Hoplitodromos (sprint + hurdle in full armour) -- boxing, wrestling, a very bloody pankration (regulated full- contact fighting, similar to todays mixed martial arts), chariot racing, as well as a pentathlon, consisting of wrestling, sprinting, long jump, javelin throw, and discus throw.Pankration scene: thepankriatiast on the righttries to gouge hisopponents eye; the umpireis about to strike him forthis foul.
  11. 11. They even had a strangebeauty contest whichcombined physical lookswith dance and ability inmilitary drills. According tothe comedic Clouds ofAristophanes, thecompetitors were supposedto have “a glowing tan, amanly chest, broadshoulders, beefy buttocksand a dainty prick.”
  12. 12. In the 6th century BCE (599 to 500 BCE)there was a remarkabletransformation in Greek life.Art, politics, science, poetry,drama, architecture becomesstrikingly more realistic,innovative, …
  13. 13. Within a few generations, wesee, for instance, atransformation from thegeometric representations ofhorses to the realism of blackand red figure pottery.
  14. 14. Last quarter of 8th century BCE (775-800)
  15. 15. Geometric style, ca. 750 BCE
  16. 16. Second quarter of 7th century (625-650 BCE)
  17. 17. Second quarter of 7th century (625-650 BCE)
  18. 18. Black figure vase - blacksilhouettes painted onto coloredbackground. Lines on the blackwere then incised (with a pointedstick) into the paint before firing. 3rd quarter of 6th century (550-575 BCE)
  19. 19. Notice the complexity of the composition of the two wrestlers 1st quarter of 6th century (500-525 BCE)
  20. 20. mid 6th century (550 BCE)
  21. 21. 700 BCE 550 BCEWhile there doesn’tappear to have beenany changewhatsoever inmilitary technologyduring the 150 yearsbetween these twovases, a vast gulf inboth aesthetic tasteand skill separatesthem.
  22. 22. Red figure vase – Figure silhouettepainted in red then black linessketched or painted on. In the 5th century (499 – 400 BCE), the so-called classic age, Greek pottery (especially Athenian) begin to show more scenes of common life (in the above female slaves entertain male guests at a drinking party).
  23. 23. Drinking bowl, with the bottomcontaining this: a drunk menvomiting, while a young slave isholding is forehead.
  24. 24. The girl on the leftcarries a pair of writingtablets and a stylus. Sheis obviously reluctantbut we don’t know whyca. 460–450 B.C.
  25. 25. While the mythological past remained an important inspirationof Greek art, we find many example of mythological scenes with“lighter” less “heroic” subjects …
  26. 26. White ground Style – different colors drawn or painted onto white painted ca. 470 B.C.background. Because it was less hardy, typically used for funerary purposes. Many ofour examples show the deceased on the vessel.
  27. 27. The youth in the center, undoubtedly thedeceased, is seated on the steps of histombca. 420–400 B.C.
  28. 28. Warrior by a Grave(white-ground lekythos) c. 410 BCE
  29. 29. Many of these white figurepieces had naturalisticpainting “on top” of thedrafted lines. ca. 440 B.C.
  30. 30. Picasso, perhaps inspiredby the display of whiteground pottery after thewar, used a similartechnique during his so-called Classic Period.Picasso,Portrait of Olga1923
  31. 31. A similar aesthetic transformation infree-standing sculpture occurredfrom the 650 to 450 BCE.
  32. 32. This kouros is one of the earliest marble statues of ahuman figure carved in Attica. The statue marked thegrave of a young Athenian aristocrat.The rigid stance, with the left leg forward and arms atthe side, was derived from Egyptian art.The pose provided a clear, simple formula that was usedby Greek sculptors throughout the sixth century B.C. New York kouros, early 6th century (575-600 BCE)
  33. 33. When I took this photo in theMetropolitan Museum in NewYork, I was thrilled to seeafterwards that a tourist wasstanding beside it in thecontrasting constrappostostance of the later Classic-erasculpture.Photo: Randy Connolly
  34. 34. New York kouros, early 6th century (575-600BCE)
  35. 35. Why is the figure nude?The Greeks of the time most assuredly did not walkaround in public naked.
  36. 36. Greek statuary was inspired by Egyptian aesthetics, but unlike Egyptian sculpture, which is clothed and which celebrates a ruler, Greek statuary seems to celebrate an ideal.Egyptian statuary, early 6th century (575-600 BCE)
  37. 37. These kouroi are essentially an ordered simplification ofthe human form: suggesting a general statement ofGreek heroic excellence, and not necessarily a specificportrait.
  38. 38. Female sculpture (korai) about same time.
  39. 39. Modern reconstructionPeplos kore,, mid 6th century (550 BCE)
  40. 40. Anavyssos kourosmid 6th century (550 BCE)“Stand and have pity at thetomb of the dead Kroisos,whom raging Ares slew as hefought in the front line.”
  41. 41. “The statue … is a device for re-membering what isgone: frozen in time, Kroisos is always in that state ofperfect beauty he attained on the battlefield.” Richard T. Neer“In its own way, by the immutability of its material andshape, and by the continuity of its presence, thememorial conveys the paradox of the values of life,youth, and beauty which one can ensure for oneself onlyby losing them [by dying in battle].” Jean-Paul Vernant
  42. 42. kore 674around 510/500 BCE kore 670 520-510 BC
  43. 43. Kritios Kouros (480 BCE)
  44. 44. Original would have had bronze and marble eyes
  45. 45. With the Kritios, the Greek artist has mastered acomplete understanding of how the different parts of thebody act as a system (i.e., achieved naturalism).The statue supports the bodys weight on the left leg,while the right one is bent at the knee in a relaxingstate. This stance, known as contrapposto, forces achain of anatomical events: as the pelvis is pusheddiagonally upwards on the left side, the right buttockrelaxes, the spine acquires an "S" curve, and the shoulderline dips on the left to counteract the action of thepelvis.
  46. 46. Modern scholars point to three keychanges in the transition fromarchaic to classic Greek sculpture:
  47. 47. 1 pose There is a change of pose from 2D static to 3D open and active
  48. 48. 2 anatomy There is a change from relatively superficial marking of bones and muscles to the realistic evocation of hypodermal structures (that is, it looks like real muscles and bones are beneath the skin of marble).
  49. 49. Torso of Miletus, c. 480-470 B.C.E
  50. 50. Note: most classical-era Greek statuary were in factmade from bronze. Almost no bronze originals survivedantiquity (most were melted down).
  51. 51. Bronze Warrior from Riace, c. 450 BCEFound in a shipwreck of the Italian coast in 1972
  52. 52. The number of surviving original statuary from theclassical Greek period (500 – 400 BCE) is quite small.These works from the classical period are characterizedby a naturalism and elegant simplicity, which differsfrom the later Greek Hellenistic works, which tend toemphasize the technical virtuosity of the artist, andfrom the even later Roman works, which tend to eitherexaggerate the musculature or provide a hyper-realisticaccount of the face.Hellenistic Roman
  53. 53. Athena, Herakles and Atlas, theGolden Apples of the Hesperides,metope from the east side of thetemple of Zeus at Olympia.
  54. 54. Roman sculpture of Herakles
  55. 55. 3 psychology There is a change from smiling exteriority of archaic sculpture to the suggestion of an inner life in classical sculpture.
  56. 56. Unfortunately most of the “famous” examples of Greeksculpture are in fact Roman copies of Greek (Bronze andMarble) originals. Some were cheap knock-offs to sell toRoman tourists, others were replicas made for studentsto study from.
  57. 57. Discobolus (Discus Thrower).Reconstructed Roman copy of a bronzeGreek original of ca. 450 BCE
  58. 58. Doryphoros  (c. 450-440 BCE) original bronze no longer exists.Roman patinated bronze replica Roman Marble Copy
  59. 59. Classic sculpture of the female form took a somewhatdifferent development path. During the archaic andclassic period, there appears to be either a prohibitionor reluctance to display the naked female form.Artists initially thus had to use tight-fitting or wetclothes/draperies to show the underlying form.
  60. 60. Birth of Aphrodite, c. 460 B.C.E.
  61. 61. Pythocritos of Rhodes. Winged Nike (Winged Victory),from Samothrace, c. 190 BCE
  62. 62. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of KnidosRoman copy of Greek original ca. 350 BCEBut by the late classical / early Hellenisitic time, westart to see nude female figures as well.
  63. 63. Aphrodite of Melos (alsocalled Venus de Milo),c. 150 B.C.E.
  64. 64. Louvre Hermaphrodite (2nd century BCE).
  65. 65. Not all Greek sculpture was free-standing. Importantsculptural works were also integrated into architecture.
  66. 66. The caryatid porch of the Erechtheum,south side, Acropolis, Athens
  67. 67.
  68. 68. Kerameikos: cemetery in Athens.“Go to the Kerameikos to see the reliefs of those who were thecentre of a world and who tomorrow will be unknown and ignored.See the transition between when short life finishes and eternaldeath begins.”
  69. 69. Stele (i.e., grave monument) of Hegeso,a wealthy Athenian female (c. 410-400B.C.E.)For the Greeks, immortality lay in thecontinued remembrance of the dead bythe living.
  70. 70. Hegeso is looking at a piece ofjewellery and her pose and faceappear that she is saying goodbyeto worldly concerns and pleasures.
  71. 71. Here lies Aristylla, child ofAriston and Rhodilla; how goodyou were, dear daughter.
  72. 72. Seated woman leavingher newborn child to anurse (Athens, ca.425/400 BCE)
  73. 73. Young man killed in battle survived by hisfather and son. …It is shocking when an old man lies on the front line before a youth: an old warrior whose head is white and beard gray, exhaling his strong soul into the dust, clutching his bloody genitals in his hands: an abominable vision, foul to see: his flesh naked. But in a young man all is beautiful when he still possesses the shining flower of lovely youth. Alive he is adored by men, desired by women, and finest to look upon when he falls dead in the forward clash.... —Tyrtaios of Sparta, seventh-century BCE poet
  74. 74. “Stele and my Sirens andmournful pitcher that hold the littleash of Hades, tell those who passby my tomb to greet me, whethercitizens or from another town, andsay that I was buried here, still abride, and that my father calledme Baucis, that I was born inTenos, that they may know. Andtell them too that my companionErinna engraved this word uponmy tomb.”
  75. 75. The Greek world of the archaic and classic eras was organized politicallyinto different poleis (city states). Each polis had its own politicalorganization and competed and traded with other poleis. As well many ofthe larger poleis established colonies outside of Greece.
  76. 76. Acropolis of Athens
  77. 77. Acropolis of CorinthAkros (high/top/edge)Polis (city)
  78. 78. Acropolis of C
  79. 79. Acropolis of Athens
  80. 80. Almost every Greek polis shared similarfeatures:Self governanceThe idea of citizenshipSome type of legislative assembly, usually overseen by sometype of aristocratic council.Relatively broad dispersal of economic wealth due to thepredominance of many landholders owning small farms.An agora (social and financial marketplace).
  81. 81. Instead of a temple or a palace as the central feature of thecity, in the Greek Polis the central feature was an empty space,the agora, which means “gathering place”.Originally, the army would gather in the agora; later, it became the gathering place forcitizens to participate in the legislative assembly.
  82. 82. Agora of Ephesus Agora of ThessalonikiAgora of Xanthus Agora of Phillipi Agora of Tyre
  83. 83. As well, most poleis were organizedsocially around:aristoi Traditional rich warrior/leader class (aristocrats) ideologically united via myths of heroic individual conflict (such as in the Iliad).citizen Small landholders and merchants. Sometimes referred to as the hoplite class, because these people in late archaic and classical era, were expected to fight.landless/poor Wage earners. Were generally prohibited from serving in the military.slaves Perhaps 20% to 40% of population.
  84. 84. “peace is merely a name; yet in truth an undeclared war always exists by nature between every Greek polis” -- Plato, Laws
  85. 85. Most men were liable to be called up tofight every 2 out 3 summers from about 18to 60 years of age.
  86. 86. Some historians have argued that theunusual Greek polis developed as it did,due to the peculiar nature of Greekwarfare.Some historians argue the reverse, thatthe peculiar nature of Greek warfaredeveloped out of the unusual Greek polis.
  87. 87. HoplitesGreek panoply (helmet, greaves,armour, shield, weapons) weighedabout 70 lbs (average weight ofmales = 150 lbs)
  88. 88. A hoplite was a citizen-soldier ofthe Ancient Greek city-states. Hopliteswere primarily armed as spearmen andfought in a phalanx formation, arectangular formation of tightly packedarmored spearmen protected mainly byshields.
  89. 89. Mardonois (a Greek émigré) talking to the Persian Emperor:“these Greeks are accustomed to wage wars among each otherin the most senseless way. For as soon as they declare war oneach other, they seek out the fairest and most level ground, andthen go there to do battle on it. Consequently even the winnerssuffer as much as the losers.”He also told the Emperor that the Greeks want to kill “eye-to-eye” without heroics, tactics, or strategy and that the mainvirtue is “togetherness” not bravery or skill.
  90. 90. Sparta was one of the most important GreekPoleis.It was a rigidly hierarchical society focusedon the support and development of a smallcore of communalized military elites.
  91. 91. Edgar Degas, Spartan Girls Challenging Boys (1860)
  92. 92. Athens, by contrast, was a multi-ethnictrading city that eventually (508 BCE) wasrun by a direct (not representative)democracy. monarchy oligarchy tyrant democracy
  93. 93. Athens source of power was its navy
  94. 94. The city states of Greece eventually cameinto conflict with the great power of theFifth Century, the Persian Empire, whowere the heirs of the old Assyrian Empire.
  95. 95. Battle of Marathon (490 BCE)After the Athenians victory, the messenger Pheidippides ran the26 miles/ 40 kilometers to Athens to announce the victory,inspiring the modern athletic marathon.
  96. 96. Second Persian Invasion (480 BCE)
  97. 97. Naval battle of Salamis (victory mainly won by Athenians)
  98. 98. After the defeat of the Persians, Athens had its so-calledgolden age, funded by the money raised from its naval-based protection racket (The Athenian League).
  99. 99. The Persian invasion left Athenss acropolis in ruins. Therebuilding of the Acropolis was expensive and areflection of its confidence and power.The most famous of these building projects was theParthenon (completed in 438), a temple to Athens’spatron deity Athena, goddess of Wisdom.
  100. 100. As it appearsAs it is built,i.e, with optical corrections (much exaggerated)As it would have appeared,i.e, if it didn’t have optical corrections
  101. 101. It appears as well that the designof the Acropolis was based on so-called Golden Ratios. Biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, and even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics. -- Mario Livy, The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the Worlds Most Astonishing Number
  102. 102. The form of a Greek temple was not a spaceinviting entry, but rather a sort of abstractsculpture marking a place in the world.
  103. 103. The Acropolis was also a celebration ofcivic identity. The generation that foughtin the Persian Wars was also the samegeneration that experienced the transitionfrom tyrannical and/or oligarchic rule tomass participatory democracy.
  104. 104. Note: I don’texpect you toremember this: Ijust included it togive you sense ofthe participatorynature of Atheniandemocracy.
  105. 105. The sculpture on the Acropolis (now in British Museum),celebrated the defeat of monstrous invaders by the godsassociated with Athens.Three female figures form the right side of the east pediment of theParthenon.
  106. 106. Three Goddesses from east pediment of theParthenon, Athens, ca 437-432 BCE, with color added.
  107. 107. Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends (1868)by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
  108. 108. Parthenon Replica in Nashville, TN, the Athens of The South(build in 1897, then rebuilt 1931, rebuilt again in 1988)
  109. 109. Temple of Hera at Paestum, c. 560-550 B.C.E..
  110. 110. Peloponnesian WarWar fought between Athens andSparta from 341 – 404 BCE. Eventuallyinvolved all of Greece.Ended in Athens defeat, but both sides wereeconomically devastated and depopulated thatthe Greek world of the polis never regained itsprewar level of prosperity and power.As well, the limited and ritualized style ofGreek warfare was transformed into all-outtotal war that lead to large scale atrocities.
  111. 111. In Athens, public art celebrated the publicactivities of its citizens. Both architectureand theatre were state-sponsored andsupported.
  112. 112. Theatre of Dionysus, Athens
  113. 113. Theatre at Epidauros, c. 350 B.C.E.
  114. 114. Theatre at Delphi
  115. 115. atre at Herodes Atticus, Athens
  116. 116. Greek Theatre/DramaTwo main forms:Comedykomos – literally drunken dance/partyTragedytragoidos – literally goat song
  117. 117. Originally areligious/participatory/civic ritual.Tragedies were performedduring the Festival ofDionysus, god ofwine/madness/lust.Dionysus mask
  118. 118. The etymology of tragedy (goat song), perhapssuggests its basis in an archaic ritual involving thesacrifice of a goat (scapegoat).Such rituals appear to have once involved theexpulsion or even killing of a pharmakos, a cripple/beggar/criminal who was supported at the city’sexpense, but who would be sacrificed by the polisin response to a crisis.Perhaps the symbolic killing in drama of thepharmakos during the Festival of Dionysus is thebeginning of Greek drama.
  119. 119. Like most things in Greek life, the Festival was acompetition between multiple playwrights. Eachyear three playwrights would present threetragedies. One each day of the festival there wouldbe three tragedies, one comedy, and one satyrplay.Thespis (mid 550s BCE) is credited for theintroduction of an actor and changed the role ofthe chorus (a group of people who spoke together)so that it interacted with the actor.
  120. 120. The plays contain actors and the chorus (anywherefrom 12 to 50 members). Everyone would bewearing masks. The chorus typically represents thegeneral population of the city.In comedies and satyr plays, the actors might alsowear other props, such as enlarged private parts.
  121. 121. Of the more than 1000 known Greek tragedies,only 32 have survived antiquity.For some we have papyrus fragments; forothers we have quoted fragments, that is,other ancient authors quoting from a lost play(e.g., “As Sophocles said in his Professorikos,‘Students should listen carefully to theirprofessor and bring him a nice bottle of coldbeer to every class …’ ”).
  122. 122. The plots of these plays are almost alwaysfrom the heroic/mythological age. The plot isknown, but they comment on or are aboutcontemporary events.
  123. 123. The plots of these plays are also themselvescompetitions: between the protagonist andthe antagonist, which is sometimes anothercharacter, sometimes just fate.agon = competition/struggle
  124. 124. AeschylusAeschylus (525 – 455) is credited with the introduction ofa second actor. Only seven of his 70 to 90 plays survive.Three of these are part of our only surviving trilogy (theOresteia).
  125. 125. The death of Agamemnon, at the hands ofhis wife Clytemnestra, after his return fromthe Fall of Troy, because of his earliersacrifice of their daughterThe revenge killing of Clytemnestra by herson Orestes.The hounding of Orestes by the Furies, whoattempt to kill Orestes for murdering hismother. They are stopped by Athena, whosets up a law court ordered according to theprinciples of reason.The play ends with the democratic legalsystem of Athens being praised as a betterform of justice than the old tribal idea ofrevenge (eye for an eye).
  126. 126. SophoclesSophocles (497 – 406) introduced a third actor. He wrote123 plays, only seven of which survive.Most well known for his Oedipus the King and Antigone,two of the greatest works in western literature.
  127. 127. EuripidesEuripides (480 – 406) introduced an element ofpsychological realism to his plays. He wrote 92 plays, 18of which survive.Shocked his Athenian audience with his sympatheticportrayals of victims and the less powerful, especiallywomen and slaves.Sooner would I standThree times to face their battles, shield in hand,Than bear one child!-- from Medea
  128. 128. Other than in Sparta, the lives of women in Greek poleiaappears rather unenviable.They lacked political and economic status. Wives andunmarried daughters were expected to remain indoors insegregated women’s quarters. Unfortunately, we do nothave a lot of information about women’s lives in ancientGreece.From 4th century Athenian legal case:“We keep hetairai (mistresses) for the sake of pleasure, pallake(concubines) for the daily care of our bodies, but wives to bear uslegitimate children and be trustworthy guardians of our households.”
  129. 129. However, most Greek tragedies and comedies featurevery strong and independent female characters, so thereis some debate about what life was actually like forfemales in the Greek polis.
  130. 130. Oedipus the KingandAntigoneOn blackboard in class
  131. 131. Greek ComedyWas performed along with tragedies as part of theFestival of Dionysus.Developed out of Komos rituals, which were drunkendances/sex/revelry associated with the God Dionysus.
  132. 132. Komos jar
  133. 133. AristophanesAristophanes (446 – 386) wrote 40 comedies, 11 of whichsurvive.Focused on satirizing real personalities and localAthenian politics (which can make some of the humor hard tounderstand for us without footnotes). Lots of sexual orscatological humor.Lysistrata Females in Athens and Sparta go on sex strike in order to end thePeloponnesian War.Clouds Satire about Socrates and the professional sophists.The Frogs Slaves shown to be smarter, wiser, more rational than their masters and thegods.The Wasps Ridicules Athenians’ addiction to law courts and serving in juries.
  134. 134. “Man is the measure of all things”Opening fragment to Truth byProtagoras (490 – 420 BCE)What does this really mean?What are its consequences forphilosophy, politics, ethics?Vitruvian Manby Leonard do Vinci
  135. 135. Philosophy
  136. 136. Natural PhilosophyThinking about the natural world.Many of the most well known are sometimes called thepre-Socratics (before Socrates)Thales (623 – 547 BCE) - argued that everything in nature is explainable via knowableprinciples (that is, no need for gods/myths)Pythagoras (570 – 495) - Argued that mathematical relationships explain nature.Discovered Pythagorean Theory and codified our musical octave system.Hippocrates (460 – 370) - Creator of the first formal school of clinical medicine.Doctors today still swear the Hippocratic Oath.Democritus (460 – 370) - argued that everything in nature is composed of tinybuilding blocks called atoms.Heraclitus (535 – 475) - argued that all of nature is defined byflux/change/evolution.
  137. 137. SophistsFrom sophia = wisdom.Teachers who taught their students how to arguepersuasively (i.e., rhetoric).Tended to argue that one shouldn’t bother trying tofigure out truth; indeed one should be able to arguepersuasively from both sides of an argument.These were useful skills in the Athenian courts and thesophists became an important part of democratic life inthe Athens of the 5th century.Argued that religion/tradition/laws are just expressionsof human power (i.e., institutions created by individualsand social groups for their own benefit).
  138. 138. Protagoras (490-420)Influential Athenian sophist who Socrates considered adangerous relativist, who taught that good/evil,truth/falsehood, etc are matters of community andindividual judgment and not universals.
  139. 139. Socrates (469-399)Athenian thinker opposed to the Sophists.Strongly believed that there is a higher moral andintellectual truth that can be discovered by the correctform/methodology of thinking.His main concern is the perfection of human character(moral excellence), achievable when individuals regulatetheir life according to objective standards arrived at viarational reflection.His method is dialogue or logical discussion betweenindividuals. The aim is to examine one’s assumptions andconfront inconsistencies, opinions, illogical beliefs.
  140. 140. 1. What is courage? Socratic Dialectic at Work 2. Courage = brave in warSocrates Some Athenian Dude 3. Courage must be more than just a virtue for soldiers 4. Courage = endurance/steadfastness 5. Sometimes prudence tells us that we should retreat or withdrawal. 6. Courage = knowledge of future good/evil 7. Can pigs be courageous? 8. No 9. Then courage must be related to knowledge of virtue 10. Gosh, Socrates you’re right 11. I don’t know for sure, we all have so much to learn
  141. 141. Socrates was eventually condemned to death afterAthenss defeat in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta.He was accused of corrupting the youth, found guilty,and then poisoned.Socrates did not write. We know of him mainly via hisstudent Plato.
  142. 142. Plato (429 – 347 BCE) Continued Socrates focus on reason and dialectic method. Plato was from aristocratic class and was highly critical of democratic institutions, who felt that democracy is the rule of the mob, the rule of sweet- talking ignorant demagogues. Plato believed that a rational political order can be discovered. The community must be organized so that individuals can live the good and ethical life. Unlike Socrates, wrote dialogues. Founded The Academy, in Athens, sometimes thought of as the first university or school for young men/adults which lasted for almost 1000 years (385 BCE – 529 CE).1776 pages!
  143. 143. Plato is writing in the immediate aftermath of theAthenian defeat in the Peloponnesian War, during whichAthenian democracy was disgraced, replaced with aSpartan-supported oligarchy, and then restored, but in amuch weakened state.
  144. 144. Sparta’s (temporary) dominance over the Greek worldcame to an end when they were defeated by Thebes inthe Battle of Leuctra (371). The victorious Thebansfreed the Spartan helots, permanently ending Spartanpower in the Greek world.Thebes’ power was short-lived, however, as theindependence of the Greek polis was ended forever withthe rise of Macedon and the united Greeks defeat byPhilip II and his son Alexander the Great in 338 BCE.
  145. 145. In his most famous work, The Republic,Plato devise an ideal state in whichdifferent social classes/orders worktogether for the good of the whole polis.Each class performs its assigned taskaccording to how the soul of its individualsare organized.Argues that the soul has three capacities(reason, spiritedness, desire) and the threedifferent classes (rulers, soldiers,producers) are each ruled principally byone of these capacities. Rulers/Philosophers – ruled by reason Warriors – ruled by spirit Producers– ruled by desireRigorous education is required for eachindividual to learn their “place”.
  146. 146. Our reading from the Republic is perhaps its mostfamous section: the Simile of the Cave
  147. 147. Many movies have made use ofthe epistemological (study ofknowledge) doubt of the caveanalogy.
  148. 148. 1300 years later, French philosopher Rene Descartes revisitedPlato’s analogy in his Meditations on First Philosophy, in whichhe tried to lay a philosophical foundation of epistemologicalcertainty for future science.In the second meditation, Descartes casts doubt on thereliability of our senses, first in dreams, then in a thoughtexperiment: what if there is an “evil daemon,” “as clever anddeceitful as he is powerful, who has directed his entire effort tomisleading me,” and who is feeding him misleading sensorydata, giving him the illusion that he has a body that isexperiencing reality.
  149. 149. Aristotle (384 – 322 BCE)Student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.Writings covered an incredible wide range of topics,from zoology, poetry, ethics, politics, physics, andphilosophy.His views on the natural world were exceptionallyinfluential later in medieval scholarship.
  150. 150. Like Plato, wrote dialogues, but none have survived.Almost all of our writings by Aristotle are thought to beteaching notes, either written by Aristotle or taken downby his students.There are references in antiquity by other authors complimentingAristotle’s writing for its grace and beauty; nothing that we have appearsto be at all “elegant” or pleasant to read (presumably because they arejust “notes”).