Introduction to Western Humanities - 3 - Homer and the Bronze Age

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Third lecture for GNED 1202 (Texts and Ideas). It is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Intro to Western Civilization style course.

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  • It appears that Minoan economy was based on the creation and trade of luxury goods: fine pots, ornamental bronze jewelry, clothes, dyes, paintings.
  • This charmless creature is a Cretan Murex, a mollusk that feeds off decomposing flesh. It has a horrible odor, but from it, the Minoans extracted something known as Purple. It was a dye that was exceedingly rare and expensive, and throughout most of history, purple is the color of royalty, because only they could afford it. Discoveries of these bronze-age murex have these holes, which are evidence that the murex were feeding on each other. That is, the Minoans factory farmed them for their purple. "Twelve thousand snails of murex yield no more than 1.4 g of pure dye, enough to color only the trim of a single garment."
  • Temple / Palace of Knossos
  • Arthur Evans uncovered the Palace of Knossos in the early years of the the 20 th century and then “restored” certain sections.
  • 1300+ rooms, running fresh water, flush toilets, heated bathtubs, and many beautiful colorful frescos
  • Europe’s first paved road, several miles long, was flanked by houses, and led from the town to the palace.
  • Central court – 54m x 27 m – the size of four tennis courts. What was it used for?
  • Late Bronze Age (LBA), Neo-Palatial Knossos, Crete, Greece. Fragments of this fresco (painted plaster) were discovered in the East Wing of the Palace of Knossos in the Courtyard of the Stone Spout during the excavations conducted by Arthur Evans between 1900 and 1904. The restored fresco is on display in Greece at the Heraklion Archaeological Museum in Heraklion, Crete. It is 78.2 cm (30.8 inches) high and 104.5 cm (41.1 inches) wide. It has been dated from the Middle Minoan (MM) III through to the Late Minioan IB period or perhaps later. It depicts what is thought to be a male acrobat vaulting over the back of an aggressive charging bull accompanied by two female attendants positioned at the front and back of the bull. The attendant in front of the bull has its horns in her grasp and the one at the rear appears to be preparing to catch the leaper at the end of his vault. 
  • Aurochs – 6’ tall at the shoulder. Aurochs have been extinct for nearly 400 years. It’s hoof-prints were the size of a man’s head. (comparison modern bulls – about 20% - 25% smaller)
  • So-called throne room at Knossos. But is it actually a throne? Most of the art in these so-called a palaces, unlike palaces everywhere else in the Bronze Age, don’t seem to show or express power, and certainly don’t appear to display kings or queens.
  • In addition to running water and flush toilets, the ancient Minoans had also mastered cloning …
  • Late Bronze Age (LBA), Neo-Palatial Knossos, Crete, Greece. Pieces of this fresco were found during Evan's excavation in the west wing of the Palace of Knossos and was later restored by Emile Gilliéron. His original restoration is in the Heraklion Archaeological Museum in Heraklion, Crete. The three white-skinned female figures with narrow waists and beautifully coiled hairstyles in this fresco are wearing form-fitting dresses with bare breasts. They are elaborately adorned with delicate necklaces, bracelets, and hair ornaments in a display of the great wealth of the Minoan court. 
  • From Thera
  • From Thera, girl picking saffron
  • Minoan "Flotilla" Fresco Late Minoan I period, Akrotiri, Santorini (Thera), Greece. This exquisite fresco was found during the excavations conducted by Spyridon Marinatos from 1967 to 1974 at Akrotiri on the southern coast of the ringed islands of Santorini (the Pompeii of the Aegean) which was covered by thick deposits of ash and pumice from the great Bronze Age eruption of the Santorini marine volcano that occurred between 1627 and 1600 BC. It was discovered on the south wall of room 5 in the West House and is 3.90 meters (12.8 feet) wide and 0.43 meters (16.9 inches) high. This fabulous fresco is on display at the P. M. Nomikos Exhibition Center's Thera Wallpainting Exhibition Hall in the town of Fira which houses all of the restored frescoes found during the excavations at Akrotiri. It is considered the single most valuable source for information on the life and technology of the Bronze Age Aegean ever found. 
  • The Minoans were strongly connected to the sea. They appear to have been _the_ traders of the Bronze age, servicing the larger civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
  • The Minoans seemed to love their colors. For instance, the so-called Blue Monkey Throne Room.
  • Various other Minoan blue monkey rooms
  • So were the Minoans just makers of luxury good and the hosts for the bronze age spring break parties?
  • Shrine at Anemospilia (the cave of the winds). In the 1970s a discovery was made here which found a skeleton, wearing expensive rings, that appears to have been crushed by the stone blocks of the walls or ceiling dating from about 1700 BCE.
  • Under its body was another skeleton, this one of a teenager, lying on an alter, its limbs still bound up. On its chest was a dagger. The priest appears to have been making a sacrifice as the walls came tumbling down. In the modern world we take for granted its stability . But prior to the later 19 th century, in almost the entire world, it took just two bad harvests to wipe out the food supply. Much of the religious practices of the far past seemed to have been oriented towards placating gods/spirits of the earth. Minoans seemed quite exposed at times. In 1700s BCE, Crete was ravaged by earthquakes. But worse was yet to come.
  • Greek island of Santorini (modern name) or Thera (ancient name)
  • Santorini is built on a remains of a volcano
  • Around 1530 BCE the island was rocked by severe earthquakes; a few months later the volcano erupted. Ten times stronger than the eruption of Vesuvius that buried Pompeii, and four times stronger than Krakatau (the most powerful volcanic eruption of the past several hundred years and which killed 40000). 1/3 of the island land mass disappeared. 40 meters deep layer of ash on the remaining part of the island. Crete only 70 miles away and was hit with a gigantic tsunami, that destroyed the Minoan naval fleet. Crete was also buried it in ash, which would have caused famine conditions for many years.
  • Excavated Minoan houses on Thera.
  • A recent discovery dating from a few decades after the eruption found near the palace of Knossos. It contained a jumble of children’s bones found in a cooking pot along with edible snails. The flesh from the bones has been stripped away with a knife. Clear evidence of cannibalism. Other interesting evidence from same time. Several of these prototypical earth goddess statues, which are extremely common in Minoan sites, perhaps like crucifixes are now, were found purposefully broken, sealed in jars, and then buried. One archeologist called it “paying back the vengeful gods” or “disposing of it as if it was nuclear waste.” When times are tough, even the most pleasure-loving, cosmopolitan, outward-looking, trade-oriented culture can turn in on itself and seemingly self-destruct.
  • A recent discovery dating from a few decades after the eruption found near the palace of Knossos. It contained a jumble of children’s bones found in a cooking pot along with edible snails. The flesh from the bones has been stripped away with a knife. Clear evidence of cannibalism. Other interesting evidence from same time. Several of these prototypical earth goddess statues, which are extremely common in Minoan sites, perhaps like crucifixes are now, were found purposefully broken, sealed in jars, and then buried. One archeologist called it “paying back the vengeful gods” or “disposing of it as if it was nuclear waste.” When times are tough, even the most pleasure-loving, cosmopolitan, outward-looking, trade-oriented culture can turn in on itself and seemingly self-destruct.
  • Sometime around 1450 BCE, most Minoan cities and palaces appear to have gone up in flames. For instance, at one site, a room presumably filled with pithoi, large 40 gallon containers holding olive oil. The heat was so intense the stone floor was turned into glass. These fires were not accidents. At one site, the pithoi’s necks have been sawed off, presumably to make the oil burn easier. In other sites, building doors were blocked in before the fire was set. What happened? Invaders? Or religious civil war?
  • Linear A is the earliest writing on Crete and is still un-deciphered. Linear B, which don’t appear until about 1400-1500 BCE, was deciphered by Michael Ventris in the early 1950s who discovered it was an archaic form of Greek. Linear A appears to be the earlier, lost Minoan language. Thus, the Mycenaean Greeks may have conquered the island or perhaps just stepped into a power vacuum. They rebuilt part of the island and
  • Typical Mycenaean fresco from Tiryns (or Pylos, not sure). Heavily restored
  • Ruins at Tiryns
  • Different theories about the collapse of Mycenaean civilization (and other nearby bronze-age cultures): foreign invaders (dorians), slave revolts, plague. But all over the bronze age world, we see evidence of 2000 long years of bronze age cultures being replaced by a layer of ash. There are also interesting written records talking of a nameless threat from the sea. “The enemy advances against us and they are unlimited in number.”
  • Other bronze age cultures collapsed or suffered burn events at same time (1250-1150): hittites, phoenica, palestine, egypt, northern mesopotamia. Egyptian and Hittite sources talk not just of warriors but also of women and children, i.e., mass migrations.
  • During this time, Mycenaean culture disappears, most of the centers are destroyed, and the few remnants (like pottery) are found at the very top of remote mountains. No ecstatic bull jumpers, topless maidens, laughing monkeys, or even grand bronze weapons, just some crude huts with a few treasured items, and plenty of time to watch the fog, the vultures circling, and scanning for whatever it is they are trying to flee from. Over a hundred years before evidence that these people returned to lower-lying areas. In many areas, writing disappears, agricultural production plummets, population declines radically, art and pottery becomes very crude
  • Hyde Park Achilles statue built in 1822 to honour Wellington after the Peninsular Wars against the French. Money raised entirely by patriotic British ladies during the war; fig leaf added just before unveiling!
  • Iliad, Book IX, lines
  • Iliad, Book 4, lines 59-62
  • 1914 xmas day truce – all truces are bittersweet: in every truce floats the specter of an opportunity (usually lost) for peace.
  • Theatre at Delphi
  • penelope
  • https://sites.google.com/site/2011theodyssey7th/home/aiolus-aeolus
  • Circe Offering the Cup to Odysseus (1891) John William Waterhouse
  • Ulysses and the Sirens (1891) John William Waterhouse
  • Scylla + Charybdis
  • Introduction to Western Humanities - 3 - Homer and the Bronze Age

    1. 1. Lecture 3HOMER + BRONZE AGEINTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
    2. 2. Homer is the attributed author of the epics The Iliad and The Odyssey, the first cultural texts of Greek civilization. Were written in the 8th century BCE (700-750), soon after the rediscovery of writing in the Greek area. Most scholars believe they are the written culmination of a much older oral compositional tradition. The epics recount events about the Trojan War that occurred about 400 years earlier (traditional date 1184 BCE).http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Homer_British_Museum.jpg
    3. 3. Homer is, in one tradition, blind.Even in antiquity, there wereconcerns/doubts about Homer.Thus we have the so-called HomericQuestions:Who was Homer?Were the epics written by one ormany authors?How were they composed (writtenor oral)? William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) - Homer and his Guide (1874).jpg
    4. 4. After studying and recording non-literate oral bards in Yugoslavia inthe 1920s, Milman Parry arguedpervasively that the two Homericepics are grounded in oralcomposition.He demonstrated that within oralcultures, long stories are“chunked” into more manageableand memorizable sections by theuse of common, repeatedformulaic epithets that are used tofit into a rhythm scheme.(e.g., Achilles is brilliant, godlike, or swift-footed; the Greek’s ships are black, round,hollow, or swift).In this theory, the written storiesare just a snapshot in time of theoral tradition.
    5. 5. Today most Classicists agree that, whetheror not there was ever a composer namedHomer, the poems attributed to him are tosome degree dependent on an oraltradition, a generations-old technique thatwas the collective inheritance of manysinger-poets (also called bards)
    6. 6. Bardhttp://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/chapters/03EPIC.htm
    7. 7. The epics recount events about the Trojan War thatoccurred about 400 years prior to Homer.The Iliad covers a period of about 14 days during theten-year long siege of Troy.The Odyssey recounts one of the main characters fromthe Iliad (Odysseus) efforts to return to his home, whichtakes him an additional ten years.Both epics are reflections on a lost world (the highBronze Age cultures of the Hittites, Mycenae and Minoa)as well as reflections on a new emerging Greek moralcode and way of life.
    8. 8. Historical Context –Bronze Age in theNear East andMediterranean Area
    9. 9. Bronze age civilizations weretightly connected via trade.The Minoans, based in Crete,played a vital role in thistrade system for over a 1000years (2700 – 1400).
    10. 10. Crete has a stunningdiversity ofgeographical features.
    11. 11. It appears that Minoaneconomy was based on thecreation and trade ofluxury goods: fine pots,ornamental bronze jewelry,clothes, dyes, paintings.
    12. 12. This charmless creature is a Cretan Murex, a mollusk that feeds off decomposing flesh. It has a horrible odor, but from it, the Minoans extracted something known as Purple. It was a dye that was exceedingly rare and expensive, and throughout most of history, purple is the color of royalty, because only they could afford it.Discoveries of these bronze-agemurex have these holes, which areevidence that the murex werefeeding on each other. That is, theMinoans factory farmed them fortheir purple. "Twelve thousandsnails of murex yield no more than1.4 g of pure dye, enough to coloronly the trim of a single garment."
    13. 13. http://www.minoanatlantis.com/pix/Knossos_Palace_Reconstruction_1.jpg
    14. 14. The British archeologist Arthur Evansuncovered the Palace of Knossos inthe early years of the 20th centuryand then “restored” certainsections.
    15. 15. The palace complex had 1300+ rooms,running fresh water, flush toilets,heated bathtubs, and many beautifulcolorful frescos.
    16. 16. It had Europe’s first pavedroad (several miles long),and was flanked byhouses, led from the townto the palace.
    17. 17. Central court – 54m x 27 m –the size of four tennis courts.What was it used for?
    18. 18. McGraw-Hill ImageVault
    19. 19. The animals in the Minoanfrescoes are Aurochs which havebeen extinct for nearly 400 years.Aurochs were about 25% largerthan today’s bulls. It’s hoof-prints were the size of a man’shead
    20. 20. So-called throne room at Knossos. But is it actually a throne?Most of the art in these so-called palaces, unlike palaceseverywhere else in the Bronze Age, don’t seem to show orexpress power, and certainly don’t appear to display kings orqueens.
    21. 21. There is no evidence of walls or any other militaryarchitecture at any of the ancient Minoan townsand palaces.Similarly, there is little evidence of weapons ormilitary art.
    22. 22. http://www.reclusiveleftist.com/wp-content/Minoan_palace_scene_enlarged.jpg
    23. 23. http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-2275364354-image.jpg
    24. 24. McGraw-Hill ImageVault
    25. 25. The Minoans seemed to lovetheir colors. For instance, theso-called Blue Monkey ThroneRoom.So how does this compare tothe throne/palace rooms ofthe Minoan’s Bronze Agecompatriots?
    26. 26. So were the Minoans just makers of luxurygoods and the hosts for the Bronze Age-eraspring break parties?
    27. 27. Shrine at Anemospilia (the cave of the winds). Inthe 1970s a discovery was made here which founda skeleton, wearing expensive rings, that appearsto have been crushed by the stone blocks of thewalls or ceiling dating from about 1700 BCE.
    28. 28. Under its body was another skeleton, this oneof a teenager, lying on an alter, its limbs stillbound up. On its chest was a dagger. The priestappears to have been making a sacrifice as thewalls came tumbling down.In the modern world we take for granted itsstability . But prior to the later 19th century, inalmost the entire world, it took just two badharvests to wipe out the food supply. Much ofthe religious practices of the far past seemedto have been oriented towards placatinggods/spirits of the earth.Minoans seemed quite exposed at times. In1700s BCE, Crete was ravaged by earthquakes.But worse was yet to come.
    29. 29. Greek island of Santorini (modern name)or Thera (ancient name)
    30. 30. Santorini is built on the remains of a volcano
    31. 31. Around 1530 BCE the island was rocked by severe earthquakes; afew months later the volcano erupted.Ten times stronger than the eruption of Vesuvius that buriedPompeii, and four times stronger than Krakatau (the mostpowerful volcanic eruption of the past several hundred years andwhich killed 40000).1/3 of the island land mass disappeared. 40 meters deep layer ofash on the remaining part of the island.Crete only 70 miles away and was hit with a gigantic tsunami, thatdestroyed the Minoan naval fleet. Crete was also buried it in ash,which would have caused famine conditions for many years.
    32. 32. Excavated Minoan houses on Thera.http://www.flickr.com/photos/christopherholland/524632200/sizes/o/
    33. 33. A recent discovery dating from a few decadesafter the eruption found near the palace ofKnossos. It contained a jumble of children’sbones found in a cooking pot along with ediblesnails. The flesh from the bones has beenstripped away with a knife. Clear evidence ofcannibalism.
    34. 34. Other interesting evidence from the same post-volcano time.Several of these prototypical earth goddessstatues, which are extremely common inMinoan sites (perhaps like crucifixes are now) werefound purposefully broken, sealed in jars, andthen buried. One archeologist called it “payingback the vengeful gods” or “disposing of it as ifit was nuclear waste.”When times are tough, even the most pleasure-loving, cosmopolitan, outward-looking, trade-oriented culture can turn in on itself andseemingly self-destruct
    35. 35. Sometime around 1450 BCE, mostMinoan cities and palaces appearto have gone up in flames.For instance, at one site, in aroom presumably filled with pithoi(large 40 gallon containers holdingolive oil), the heat was so intensethe stone floor was turned intoglass.These fires were not accidents. Atone site, the pithoi’s necks havebeen sawed off, presumably tomake the oil burn easier. In othersites, building doors were blockedin before the fire was set.What happened? Invaders? Orreligious civil war?
    36. 36. Linear A is the earliest writing on Crete and is still un-deciphered. Linear A appears to be the earlier, lost Minoan language.Linear B, which don’t appear until about1400-1500 BCE, was deciphered byMichael Ventris in the early 1950s whodiscovered it was an archaic form ofGreek. The Mycenaean Greeks may haveconquered the island or perhaps juststepped into a power vacuum
    37. 37. The Mycenaeans appear to have made use of Minoanartists, but there were no blue monkey rooms in thethrone rooms of the Mycenaeans …
    38. 38. The Lion’s Gate and the walls of Mycenae
    39. 39. Ruins at Tiryns
    40. 40. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/e/eb/20071005Ruins at Mycenae showing grave circle 170649%21Mycenae_walls_interior.JPG
    41. 41. Mycenaehttp://www.shunya.net/Pictures/Greece/Mycenae/Mycenae-citadel-reconstructed.jpg
    42. 42. Who were the Mycenaeans?
    43. 43. Unlike the trade-oriented Minoans, theMycenaeans were a war-like people.They appear to be focused around thechieftain/king and his retainers/warriorsliving in heavily-fortified palaces.
    44. 44. Unlike the Minoans, much of thearcheological record for the Mycenaeansconsists of chariots, spears, bronze armour,swords, and boar tusk helmets.
    45. 45. http://i84.photobucket.com/albums/k1/JPVieira_2006/myceaneancharriot.jpg
    46. 46. http://www.larp.com/hoplite/Walpole.jpg
    47. 47. The Mycenaeans appear to have been the Vikings of the Bronze Age. Odysseus, “sacker of cities”: “The wind drove me out of Ilium on to Ismarus, … There I sacked the city, killed the men, but as for the wives and plunder, That rich haul we dragged away from the place” Odyssey, 9.42Nestor:“we headstrong fighting forces of Achaea—so manyraids from shipboard down the foggy sea,cruising for plunder, wherever Achilles led theway” Odyssey, 3.102 http://www.ushistoryimages.com http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec124/viking.jpg
    48. 48. We have many Mycenaean Linear B tablets (which we can read).They are without exception lists: of tributes, taxes, militaryequipment, and the booty from raids.There are no diplomatic or personal letters, no poetry, history,prayers, epics. Only lists of possessions.
    49. 49. The Greek forces in the Iliad (actuallycalled Achaeans in the text) were thesame people that modern archeologistscall Mycenaens.Agamemnon, the leader of the Greek forces in the Iliad,is the king of Mycenae.
    50. 50. The subtext of the Iliad is that the worldof the Mycenaeans collapsed (as did those ofother near east bronze age cultures) soon after thesack of Troy.That is, there is a recognition in Homer that the “glory” of theGreek victory came at a tremendously high price.
    51. 51. http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/mapsandcharts/map3big.gif
    52. 52. Different theories about the collapse ofMycenaean civilization (and other nearbybronze-age cultures):• foreign invaders armed with iron• slave revolts,• plague,• environmental crises,• general systems collapse.
    53. 53. All over the bronze age world, we seeevidence of 2000 long years of bronze agecultures being replaced by a layer of ash.There are also interesting written recordstalking of a nameless threat from the sea.“The enemy advances against us and theyare unlimited in number.”
    54. 54. Other bronze age cultures collapsed or suffered burnevents at same time (1250-1150): Hittites, Phoenicia,Palestine, Egypt, northern Mesopotamia.Egyptian and Hittite sources talk not just of warriors but also of womenand children, i.e., mass migrations.
    55. 55. “Altogether the end of the Bronze Age wasarguably the worst disaster in ancient history, evenmore calamitous than the collapse of the westernRoman Empire.”
    56. 56. During this time, Mycenaean culturedisappears, most of its populationcenters are destroyed, and the fewremnants (like pottery) are found at thevery top of remote mountains.No ecstatic bull jumpers, toplessmaidens, laughing monkeys, or evengrand bronze weapons, just some crudehuts with a few treasured items, andplenty of time to watch the fog, thevultures circling, and scanning forwhatever it is they are trying to fleefrom.It is over a hundred years before we seeevidence that these people returned tolower-lying areas. In many areas,writing disappears, agriculturalproduction plummets, populationdeclines radically, art and potterybecomes very crude.
    57. 57. What follows is referred to as the Greek Dark Ages(1200 – 800 BCE).Compare the simplicity of the art work after the collapse to thelavish beauty of the Minoan Bronze Age frescoes.
    58. 58. The world of the Illiad
    59. 59. Troy’s location was the key to its wealth. Due to thestrong sea currents of the Dardanelles, if the winds wereblowing in the wrong direction, Black Sea bound shipswould stop at Troy and wait for the winds to change. t en rr Cu a SeWhile the reason for the war in the Iliad is the recovery of Helen, itdoesn’t take a great deal of political imagination to recognize that theTrojan War was all about the sea- and booty-oriented Mycenaean’sdesire to seize and control a lucrative centre of trade.
    60. 60. Archeologists have discovered the site has hosted a variety ofsettlements from 3000 BCE up to 100 BCE, and have given thevarious settlements names Troy I, Troy II, etcThe Troy of the Iliad is identifiedwith Troy 7a, in which there isevidence of widespread destruction(though we can’t tell whether it isfrom earthquake or from a violentsacking).No “Achilles Was Here” graffiti has beenfound … http://www.uoregon.edu/~klio/maps/gr/bronze/TroylayersredVI.jpg
    61. 61. Heinrich Schliemann was a successful internationalbusinessman with a love of languages (he was fluent in 13and wrote his daily diary and letters in the language of the countryhe was visiting).He became rich by opening a bank in Californiaduring the California Gold Rush of 1849, sold it,moved to Russia, married a Russian princess,cornered the indigo market, and then just before theCrimean war, monopolized the markets in salt peterand sulphur (necessary for gunpowder).He retired in 1858 at age 36 wealthy enough topursue his archaeological dream to find Troy.
    62. 62. In 1868-9, his great year, he:3.Wrote his book in German about Troy4.Wrote his PhD in Greek about Troy5.Became a temporary citizen of Indiana so hecould6.Legally divorce his wife7.Moved to Greece8.Advertised in Greek paper for a Greek wife9.Got married to 17 year old Sophia10.Started searching for Troy
    63. 63. Sophia was his collaborator throughout hisexcavations at Troy, which began in 1871. Hewas in such a hurry to find treasure that hisexcavations ended up destroying most of Troy’swalls.In 1873, Schliemann saw gold glinting in the dirt, sohe sent his workers home for the day, and he andSophia secretly excavated what he called “Priam’sTreasure” and then snuck out of the country with theloot. The Ottoman Empire demanded the return ofthe treasure and banned him from returning.
    64. 64. Sophia Schliemann: Priam’s Treasure
    65. 65. Most of Priam’s Treasure was eventually sold tothe Imperial Museum of Berlin, where it wasdisplayed until WW2, when it was moved to aprotective bunker under the zoo.The treasure disappeared from public knowledgeuntil 1994, when thanks to investigations by twoRussian journalists, it was revealed that:The treasure was taken by Red Army soldiers in 1945and then secretly moved to the Pushkin Museum inMoscow.
    66. 66. When this news was revealed, the Germangovernment demanded their return, as did thegovernment of Turkey and the descendants ofthe Schliemann family.In October 2009, the items moved to the brand newNeues Museum in Berlin.
    67. 67. Remains of the walls of Troy
    68. 68. Iliad Plot SummaryOn blackboard in class
    69. 69. The Iliad – A celebration of warrior culture?
    70. 70. There are certainly indications that inantiquity, many readers valued the Iliad’sseeming celebration of heroic warfare.
    71. 71. Greek vase, 4th century BCE Roman sarcophagus, 1st century CE
    72. 72. Ambrosian Iliad, 5th century CE
    73. 73. Indeed, one can find up to this day ampleevidence of the Iliad’s continuing allure tothose attracted to the idea of heroic warfare.
    74. 74. Late 19th century engraving of Achilles after the death of Hector
    75. 75. Early 20th century children’s bookidealizing Achilles.Notice that Hector has evidently died from abad scrap on his knee… http://www.heritage-history.com/books/langjean/iliad/zpage116.gif
    76. 76. Howard David Johnson, “Achilles Triumphant” 2006Evidently there are people who buy thismodern-day oil painting/reproduction anddisplay it in their living rooms.
    77. 77. MARK CHURMS, “ACHILLES VERSUS HECTOR” 2007And this one as well.
    78. 78. Achilles in Hyde Park Achilles in TexasHyde Park Achilles statue built in 1822 to honourWellington after the Peninsular Wars against the French. Money raised entirely by patriotic British ladies duringthe war; fig leaf added just before unveiling!
    79. 79. Patriotic statues of warriors, fictional or real,continue to be a popular way of expressingadmiration for supposed heroic ideals.
    80. 80. What are the Trojan warriorsfighting for?They are clearly fighting to protect their cityand their families
    81. 81. What are the Homeric Greekwarriors fighting for?Honour (timê)Glory/Fame (kleos)
    82. 82. Glory/Fame (kleos)What others say about you.
    83. 83. Glory (kleos) is the only immortalityavailable to a Homeric warrior. It is wonthrough what one accomplishes. Thoseaccomplishments are manifested by theprizes (geras) you win.Agamemnon not only dishonors Achilles bytaking away his prize (Briseis), he is in away affecting his immortality (i.e., hisfame).
    84. 84. So now the heart of Sarpedon stalwart as a god impelled him to charge the wall and break it down. He quickly called Hoppolochus’s son: “Glaucus, why do they hold us both in honor, first by farSarpedon (a Trojan) asks hisfellow prince why do they have with pride of place, choice meats and brimming cups,wealth and comfortable lives as in Lycia where all our people look on us like gods?aristocrats Why make us lords of estates along the Xanthus’ banks, rich in vineyards and plowland rolling wheat? So that now the duty’s ours –The answer, he says, is because we are the ones to head our Lycian front,they are at forefront of any fighting brace and fling ourselves in the blaze of war, so a comrade strapped in combat gear may say, ‘Not without fame, the men who rule in Lycia, these kings of ours who eat fat cuts of lambAnd by being leaders in war, theirretainers will think that they deserve and drink sweet wine, the finest stock we have.their easier lives. But they owe it all to their own fighting strength, our great men of war, they lead our way in battle!’ Ah my friend, if you and I could escape this frayIf they were gods who could liveforever, then there would be no and live forever, never a trace of age, immortal,need to fight. I would never fight on the front lines again or command you to the field where men win fame. But now, as it is, the fates of death await us,But because we can die, then wemust fight. (That is, the only thousands poised to strike, and not a man aliveimmortality available is glory gained can flee them or escape – so in we go for attack!from heroic feats on the battlefield) Give our enemy glory or win it for ourselves!” Glaucus did not turn back or shun that call – on they charged, leading the Lycians’ main mass.
    85. 85. Ah my friend, if you and I could escape this frayand live forever, never a trace of age, immortal, Thus, because the gods lack human vulnerabilitiesI would never fight on the front lines againor command you to the field where men win fame. (death, aging, injuries, grief) they lack anyBut now, as it is, the fates of death await us,thousands poised to strike, and not a man alive capacity for nobility (courage, bravery, sacrifice,can flee them or escape – so in we go for attack!Give our enemy glory or win it for ourselves! glory, honor). For these Homeric warriors, the gods are akin to being eternally stuck playing a video game with an invulnerability cheat turned on. The gods know that no harm can ever come to them and are thus endlessly bored. They envy humans for their vulnerability and the achievements that that vulnerability makes possible.
    86. 86. Gods in the IliadThey are not good, evil, just, merciful,omniscient, omnipotent, nor is their relationshipwith humans based on mutual love.The gods in Homer’s works personify forces ofnature but are anthropomorphic.And Hera the Queen [of the gods], her eyes wide, answered,“Excellent! The three cities that I love best of allare Argos and Sparta, Mycenae with streets as broad as Troy’s.Raze them – whenever they stir the hatred in your [Zeus’] heart.My cities … I will never rise in their defenseIliad, Book 4, lines 59-62Then Zeus, looking down from Mount Ida, intensifiedthe slaughter, and the two sides kept killing each other.Iliad, Book 11, lines 317-19
    87. 87. The human characters in the Iliad are, by andlarge, reverent and respectful towards the gods intheir speeches. The gods are dangerous andunpredictable forces to the humans.But Homer, when he is speaking as the narrator,tends to portray the gods as being petty, childish,or figures of comic relief.For instance, see Book 14, lines 375-412
    88. 88. Death in the IliadThe Iliad has been called the poem ofdeath for good reason. The deaths ofsome 250 warriors are recorded.These fall into two categories:•death of “significant” hero• death of “common” warriors
    89. 89. Death of HeroesMajor heroes in the Iliad will only die to another, greateror equal hero. These battles between equals are morelike ritualized duels.Before they fight, the heroes tell each other about theirbackground, heroic deeds, and important ancestors(see battle between Diomedes and Glaucus, Book 6, lines 120-217).Diomedes and Glaucus in fact do not fight but exchange gifts becausetheir parents were xenos (guest-friends).
    90. 90. The heroes in the Iliad compete endlessly, not only withthe enemy, but with other heroes fighting on the sameside.They compete to prove their arete (virtue/excellence).Different heroes claim that they are the best in strength,skill, cleverness, fleetness of foot, cunning, strategy,ambushes, archery, spear throwing, weight lifting,chariot driving, etc.No surprise that it was the Greeks that created theOlympic Games in 776 BCE about the same time asHomer was writing the Iliad.
    91. 91. When heroes do fight each other, one will usually die.But before the hero dies, he has his “moment in thesun,” his aresteia, a period in which he displays hisfighting prowess.For some heroes, this will only be for a few paragraphs.For others, their aresteia lasts for dozens of pages.Though Achilles does not die in the Iliad, his aresteia isterrifying, long (Books 19-22), and almost inhuman andrevolting.
    92. 92. Death of CommonersAnd Meriones killed Phereclus, Harmonides son--the father a craftsman whose hands were skilled in creatingall kinds of beatuiful things, since Athena loved him....Meriones ran him down, and as he drew closehe hit him in the right buttock, and the bronze spear pointpushed up under the pubic bone into his bladderand he fell to his knees, screaming, and death embraced him.And Meges cut down Pedaeus, Antenors son--a bastard son, but Theano had brought him upas one of her own, so much did she love her husband.Meges spear hit the back of his neck, then cutright through his jaw, and sliced off his tongue at the root.He fell in the dirt, and his teeth closed around the cold bronze.
    93. 93. Is the Iliad the 800 BCE version of this?
    94. 94. Death is narrated by Homer graphically andrealistically.Violence is a permanent factor in human life. It is unsentimentalto pretend violence is not ugly but also that it has a strange andcompelling fatal beauty.
    95. 95. Yet Homer does something special with the deathsof the commoners/non-heroes. They are not redshirts or mooks …
    96. 96. So which of these four isn’t going to return to the spaceship?tvtropes.org calls these types of “good” characters the Red Shirt. Theirpurpose is almost exclusively to give the writers someone to kill who isnt amain character.They are used to show how the monster or villain works, and demonstratethat it is indeed a deadly menace, without having to loseanyone important. Expect someone to say “Hes dead, Jim” andthen promptly forget him.
    97. 97. The Bad Guy equivalent are Mooks: faceless, nameless cannonfodder for The Hero.“Nameless, faceless, horribly awful shots, incompetent, unwilling toretreat, and completely disposable: they provide a chance for thecharacters to show off their flashy fighting skills and can be shotwithout guilt. The hero might find it in his heart to Save the Villain, butthe guys whose only crime is not finding a better employer will beshown no mercy.” tvtropes.org“They may be called the Palace Guard, the City Guard, or the patrol. Whateverthe name, their purpose in any work of heroic fantasy is identical: it is, roundabout Chapter Three (or ten minutes into the film) to rush into the room, attackthe hero one at a time, and be slaughtered. No one ever asks them if theywanted to.” Terry Pratchett, Guards! Guards!
    98. 98. And Meriones killed Phereclus, Harmonides son--the father a craftsman whose hands were skilled By describing the civic and/or family life of thein creating all kinds of beautiful things... warrior falling to the hero, the audience/reader’sThe two good sons of Merops, who had refused tolet his two boys march to war, this man-killing emotional attention is diverted to the fallen foe. Itwar, but the young ones fought him all the way …and Diomedes destroyed them both. ensures that each death in the Iliad is perceived, if...Diomedes cut down Axylos, Teuthras’ son, who only fleetingly, as regrettable.had been a dweller in strong-founded Arisbe, aman rich in substance and a friend to all humanitysince in his house by the wayside he entertainedall comers. “in the Iliad glory is usurped by sympathy for the human being, possessed of a family and life story, who has been extinguished.” Caroline Alexander, The War That Killed Achilles
    99. 99. “This remarkable point is worth emphasizing:subtly, but with unflagging consistency, the Iliadensures that the enemy is humanized and that thedeaths of enemy Trojans are depicted aslamentable.”Caroline Alexander, The War That Killed Achilles
    100. 100. “the Iliad is ever mindful that war is about menkilling or men killed. In the entire epic, no warrior,whether hero or obscure man of the ranks, dieshappily or well. No reward awaits the soldier’svalor; no heaven will receive him. The Iliad’swords and phrases for the process of death make itclear that this is something baneful. … Again andagain, relentlessly, the Iliad hammers this fact: …death is tragic and full of horror.”Caroline Alexander, The War That Killed Achilles
    101. 101. In Book 11 of the Odyssey, Odysseus visitsHades, the land of the dead, a place oftotal baneful unpleasantness.“I [Odysseus] reassured the ghost, but he [Achilles]broke out, protesting,‘No winning words about death to me, shiningOdysseus!By god, I’d rather slave on earth for another man —some dirt-poor farmer who scrapes to keep alive —than rule down here over all the breathless dead.’”
    102. 102. Embassy to Achilles (Book 9)After the war turns against the Greeks,Agamemnon relents, and Odysseus (guileand reason), Phoenix (surrogate father)and Ajax (fellow warrior) visit Achilles andtry to convince him to rejoin the war.They tell Achilles of Agamemnon’s offer of Briseis,many other gifts, first pickings of loot/prizes aftertroy is conquered, plus one of his daughters inmarriage (i.e., political power).
    103. 103. Achilles brutally rejects (lines 311-441) notonly the offer but he rejects all the valuesof their warrior culture as well. He says:1. Why should warriors put their lives at risks for a king who gains all the prizes at little danger to himself?• What is the point of plunder as marks of honor or fame if they can be taken away? Thus since tîme can be taken away at the leader’s whim, it ultimately has no value.1. Finally, is plunder really worth dying for?
    104. 104. Of course every warrior knows that dyingis a possibility. However, Achilles, isdifferent.His mother, the goddess Thetis, has toldhim that he has two possible fates: winimperishable glory by dying at Troy, or livea long, happy, but unremarkable life byreturning home and living in peace.He tells them that he now intends tochoose the latter and sail home.
    105. 105. HectorUnlike, Achilles, who is isolated from hisfellow warriors and who is ½ divine,Hector is fully realized human being andintegrated completely into his community.He is the only character who is shown in everyconceivable human relationship: brother,father, husband, son, general, prince, warrior.He accepts his responsibility as a prince tofight to protect his city, but his own wish is forpeace. That is, he fights for the good of hispeople, not for his own personal glory.
    106. 106. “Yes Andromache, I [Hector] worry about this myself,But my shame before the Trojans and their wives,With their long robes trailing, would be too terribleIf I hung back from battle like a coward.”Iliad, Book 6
    107. 107. Death of HectorAfter Hector kills Achilles’ companionPatroclus, Achilles rejoins the war,knowing that it will bring on his owndeath.Achilles in almost a berserker rage, has along and terrifying aresteia, in which hekills effortlessly with no mercy, with noHeroic Duel rituals, and even battles gods.
    108. 108. “I just went crazy. I pulled him out into the paddy andcarved him up with my knife. When I was done withhim, he looked like a rag doll that a dog had beenplaying with … I lost all my mercy. I felt a drasticchange after that … I couldn’t do enough damage … forevery one that I killed I felt better … Every time youlost a friend it seemed like a part of you was gone… Igot very hard, cold, merciless. I lost all my mercy.” From Achilles in Vietnam
    109. 109. Kiev- 1944 Mai Lai - 1968 Haditha - 2005
    110. 110. Tom Lea“Two-Thousand-Yard Stare”
    111. 111. Hector, not wanting to fight Achilles,nonetheless, leaves the city to face Achilles.Hector, before the fight, tries to convinceAchilles to follow the ethic of war (the winnerwill let the loser’s family bury the fallen), butAchilles refuses.
    112. 112. After killing Hector, Achilles desecrates Hector’scorpse.Achilles finds that his rage and grief does not endwith Hector’s death, nor with abusing Hector’sbody.
    113. 113. Priam and AchillesPriam and Achilles meet in the twilight of theirlives. They both will soon be dead and theyappear to know it.They mutually assert non-military, non-competitive moral virtues (hospitality andcompassion).
    114. 114. Achilles returns Hector’s body to Priam andagree to a 12 day truce.All truces are bittersweet: in every truce floatsthe specter of an opportunity (usually lost) forpeace.
    115. 115. 1914 Xmas Day Truceon the Western Front
    116. 116. Ending of the Iliad – Hector’s BurialThe epic ends with the sadness of the death ofHector. It made the enemy of the Greeks thetrue tragic hero of its greatest epic.
    117. 117. The Greeks after Homer recognized the Iliad as adark portrayal of the true costs of war: thedestruction of a community, rape and slavery, andvictors brutalized as much as the victims.The Greeks of the later classic era were crazyabout fighting, and most men fought in warsalmost every summer.Interestingly, however, perhaps because of theinfluence of the Iliad, they ritualized and limitedit, thereby making war somewhat less devastatingand total.
    118. 118. Odyessy
    119. 119. Whenever they’d drink the deep-red mellow vintage,twenty cups of water he’d stir in one of wineand what an aroma wafted from the bowl—what magic, what a godsend—no joy in holding back when that was poured! Homer, The Odyssey 9 l. 231The peoples of the Mediterranean began to emergefrom barbarism when they learned to cultivate the oliveand the vine. Thucydides One bowl [of wine] for ruddy health, then one for getting happy. The third brings sleep. … The fourth’s for pride and the fifth for lots of noise, The sixth for mindless f _ _ _ing, and the seventh is followed by black eyes. The eighth brings the police, The ninth’s for throwing up, And the tenth’s for trashing everything before passing out. Eubulus, 4thC BCE Athenian politician
    120. 120. The Odyssey is an epic of return, an epicthat focuses less on warfare and its ethicand more on how a human needs tobehave in the everyday world of emergingGreek civilization.Odysseus (and not Achilles) ends up beingthe cultural hero of the Greeks of theemerging classical age.
    121. 121. Odysseus is renowned for his cunning, forthinking through problems, for knowinghow to act, for having both brains andbrawn.
    122. 122. Odysseus was seen by later Greek cultureto be the epitome of the moral (andaesthetic) ideal of sophrosyne.Sophrosyne seems to have referred to theideal of living life to its fullest but to do sowith moderation, common sense, and inthe light of self-knowledge.
    123. 123. The Sophrosyne ideal was latter enshrinedat Delphi, the Classic Greek religiouscentre, in a variety of sayings carved intothe temples.
    124. 124. γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi seautón = "know thyself")
    125. 125. μηδέν άγαν (mēdén ágan = "nothing in excess")
    126. 126. Cahill, in his 2003 book claimedthat this ideal of sophrosynegave the Greeks insight into thefive key areas of human life,which are nicely captured by his chapter titles:
    127. 127. Odyssey Plot SummaryOn blackboard in class
    128. 128. The Odyssey begins, notwith Odysseus, but withhis home, with his sonand wife, who are besetby ill-behaved suitorshoping to marryPenelope (sinceOdysseus has been awayfor 20 years) andpresumably becomeking.
    129. 129. Penelope & the SuitorsJ. W. Waterhouse
    130. 130. XeniaIs the Greek word for a very complicatedconcept/ideal that is at the heart of the Odyssey’smoral vision. We don’t really have an English wordthat corresponds to it.It means guest, stranger, friend, foreigner.Our English word xenophobia (fear of foreigners) comes from the Greekword.
    131. 131. PhiloxeniaOften translated as hospitality or guest-friendship.It proscribed a set of norms that governed how ahost should behave to a guest, and how a guestshould behave to a host.In a world without inns or hotels, philoxenia was avital part of surviving when travelling.
    132. 132. At the beginning of the Odyssey, the suitors are notfollowing the guest protocols of philoxenia, bynever leaving Telemachus’s house, eating all hisfood, constantly wooing Penelope, and sleepingwith the servants.Calypso is not following the host protocol since sherefuses to let Odysseus leave her island.
    133. 133. Telemachus in contrast shows proper philoxenia.Straight to the porch he went, mortifiedthat a guest [xenos] might still be standing at the doors.Pausing beside her there, he clasped her right handand relieving her at once of her long bronze spear,met her with winged words: “Greetings, stranger! [xenia]Here in our house you’ll find a royal welcome.Have supper first, then tell us what you need.”
    134. 134. Telemachus then goes to visit some other veteransof the Trojan war, looking for word of his father.He too is treated with proper xenia.As soon as they saw the strangers, all came crowding down,waving them on in welcome, urging them to sit.Nestor’s son Pisistratus, first to reach them,grasped their hands and sat them down at the feast.…Once they’d put aside desire for food and drink,old Nestor the noble charioteer began, at last:“Now’s the time, now they’ve enjoyed their meal,to probe our guests and find out who they are.Strangers-Friends, who are you?”
    135. 135. Meanwhile, Odysseus, thanks to the gods’intervention, is freed from Caylpso’s island and isgiven a raft … which is promptly sunk by a still-angry Poseidon.He washes up on the island of the Phaeacians.
    136. 136. He is meet by Nausicaa, a Phaeacian princess, who iswashing clothes on the shore. She clothes him and takeshim to met her parents, the king and queen.
    137. 137. The king rose in his place, and said: "This stranger has come to my hall. I do not know who he is, or whence he comes, whether from the east or the west. And he begs us to convey him safely to his home. Now this, as you know, is a thing that we have been used from old time to do for strangers. Go, then, and choose out a ship Let it be new—one that never has been on the sea before. And pick out fifty and two rowers. Let them be the best and strongest that there are in the country. When you have done this, come to my hall and feast. And let the minstrel come also, for the godsOdysseus among the Phaeacians have given him the gift of song, and there is nothing better than song to make glad the hearts of men." So the chiefs of the people went and did as the king commanded. … When the people were ready to begin, there came two servants of the king leading the singer by the hand, for he was blind. They made him sit down in a silver chair in the middle of the hall; they hung his harp on a rail that there was above his head where he could easily reach it. And by his side they put a table, and on the table a basket full of good things, and a cup of wine so that he might drink when he pleased. Then the people began to eat and drink, and when they had had enough, the singer sang. 
    138. 138. Odysseus tells of all his adventures afterleaving Troy to the Phaeacians.
    139. 139. The Cyclops Polyphemus
    140. 140. The Cyclopedes have no concept of xenia;instead of giving gifts and food, theCyclopes eats his guests.
    141. 141. After his cunning escape fromthe Cyclops, Odysseus and hiscrew sail away and soon findthemselves on Aiolia Island,the domain of the wind godAeolus who provides Odysseuswith enough supplies to returnhome including a bag whichcontained all the winds exceptthe ones Odysseus needed toreturn home to Ithaca.
    142. 142. Circe Offering the Cup to OdysseusJohn William Waterhouse (1891)
    143. 143. Odysseus visits Hades, the land of thedead, in order to get instructions on howto return home.
    144. 144. Ulysses and the Sirens (1891)John William Waterhouse
    145. 145. Scylla and Charybdishttp://stevesomersart.blogspot.com/2011/05/caught-between-scylla-and-charybdis.html
    146. 146. Thanks to the PhaeaciansOdysseus reaches home. Butinstead of quickly announcinghis presence, wily Odysseusdisguises himself as a beggarso he can performreconnaissance and preparefor the inevitable showdown.
    147. 147. Odysseus and Telemachus end up killing all 124 suitors.

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