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State of the Stack April 2013

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A comprehensive review of OpenStack then and now, each project's architecture, and hard data on why the race for open cloud is over. (First edition delivered April 2013 at OpenStack Summit. This version is from SPDEcon on June 10, 2013.)

A comprehensive review of OpenStack then and now, each project's architecture, and hard data on why the race for open cloud is over. (First edition delivered April 2013 at OpenStack Summit. This version is from SPDEcon on June 10, 2013.)

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State of the Stack April 2013

  1. 1. CCA - NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License - Usage OK, no modifications, full attribution* * All unlicensed or borrowed works retain their original licenses State of the Stack - 2013 Game. Over. OpenStack is The Stack. June 10th, 2013 - SNIA SPDEcon (first edition delivered at OpenStack Summit, April 2013) @randybias
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Who 3 OpenStack FoundationBoard of Directors Prod. OpenStack pioneer, Cloudscaling: Wins: KT, Internap, LivingSocial, Seagate (EVault), IBS Datafort, major U.S. carriers, & others Part of OpenStack community since July 2010 (launch) Top 10 Cloud Computing Pioneer
  4. 4. I run an OpenStack product company I believe the pioneers to emulate are: I have run big data centers 100K+ sq ft, 1,000s of physical servers, 100s of switches My Bias 4
  5. 5. 5 1 What is OpenStack? 3 History & Momentum 4 Stackology - a stack taxonomy 5 Stacking it Up - a dive into the projects 6 Stack Gaps - what’s missing? 7 Stack Politics - who’s playing? 9 Summary 2 Why the Success? 8 Who’s using it and how?
  6. 6. What is OpenStack?
  7. 7. OpenStack From 10km 7 Networking OPENSTACK CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEM Standard Hardware Compute Storage Your Applications OpenStack Dashboard OpenStack Shared Services APIs
  8. 8. OpenStack Mission 8 "To produce the ubiquitous Open Source cloud computing platform that will meet the needs of public and private cloud providers regardless of size, by being simple to implement and massively scalable." Code Community
  9. 9. OpenStack Foundation Mission 9 The OpenStack Foundation is an independent body providing shared resources to help achieve the OpenStack Mission by Protecting, Empowering, and Promoting OpenStack software and the community around it, including users, developers and the entire ecosystem. The ubiquitous cloud computing platform
  10. 10. What it is Some say ... ... it’s an Infra-as-a-Service (IaaS) ... it’s a cloud operating system ... it’s a tool for building private clouds We say it’s “The Stack” ... think Linux ... think Java ... think ubiquitous open source cloud toolkit ... think Game Changer 10
  11. 11. The Battle is Over (open src) 11 OpenStack Launch OpenStack CloudStack Eucalyptus OpenNebula Source: trends.google.com
  12. 12. Battle is Nearly Over (closed src) 12 OpenStack vSphere vCloud Source: trends.google.com
  13. 13. Linux 2000 vs. Linux 2009 13 Is this OpenStack’s Trajectory? Operating system family market share 2000 2009 Unix Linux Linux Unix Source: Linux Magazine http://www.linux-mag.com/id/7749/ Linux UNIX BSD Windows/Other Mixed
  14. 14. Fastest Growing Global Open Source Community 14 COMPANIES TOTAL DEVELOPERS AVERAGE MONTHLY CONTRIBUTORS CODE CONTRIBUTIONS 929 245 3,241 189 TOP 10 COUNTRIES 9,000+ INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS “OpenStack appears to be a more advanced or more modern open source project than some of its predecessors because it's a highly coordinated effort.” – Charlie Babcock Information Week COUNTRIES 100 United States, China, India, Great Britain, Australia, France, Russia, Canada, Ireland, Germany
  15. 15. 15 Grizzly Stats CONTRIBUTORS PATCHES / DEV NEW DRIVERS TEST CLOUDS DEPLOYED DAILY ~14 15 700 517 (+56%) TOP 10 CONTRIBUTING COMPANIES 7,620 PATCHES SUBMITTED “OpenStack appears to be a more advanced or more modern open source project than some of its predecessors because it's a highly coordinated effort.” – Charlie Babcock Information Week NEW FEATURES 230 Red Hat, Rackspace, IBM, HP, Nebula, Intel, eNovance, VMware, Cloudscaling, DreamHost
  16. 16. Why the Success?
  17. 17. Who or What Should We Thank? Rackspace for Letting Go OpenStack Foundation & Community Particularly, all of the companies who realized this could be big Hype Curve The OpenStack Infrastructure Team Oslo Project (openstack-common) A thankless job allowing shared code & cleaner projects The Big Enterprises for Driving Interest PTL Generational Shift 17
  18. 18. Infrastructure Team Massive Effort -> Improved Quality Gated Commits All Code Has to Jump Through Gates Tempest Test Framework Code Reviews & Continuous Integration Jenkins, Gerrit At scale: jenkins.openstack.org 18 1/4 pages
  19. 19. History & Momentum
  20. 20. Jul Inaugural Design Summit in Austin 2010 20 OpenStack launches with 25+ partners First ‘Austin’ code release with 35+ partners Oct Nov First public Design Summit in San Antonio Austin OpenStack Object Storage prod OpenStack Compute dev preview Launch! 2010 - The Launch Year Source: Too many to list; blame me for inaccuracies
  21. 21. 2011 - Growing Pains & Early Adopters Feb 2nd Summit 21 Rackspace announces plans to launch independent Foundation in 2012 OctApr 3rd Summit (Santa Clara) adds Conference Governance moves forward with project technical leads (PTL), policy board elections (PPB) Jul First Anniversary Bexar OpenStack Compute for mid-size prod OpenStack Image Service added to core Cactus OpenStack Compute for larger- scale prod Sep Diablo Major stability release First 6-mo cycle release 2011 Decision to shift from 3-mo to 6-mo dev cycle Jan 1st Swift Public Cloud Internap w/ Cloudscaling Happy Birthday! 1st Nova Public Cloud Internap w/ Cloudscaling
  22. 22. Created framework for Foundation as a community Feb Apr Aug 19 companies announce public support for Foundation Framework & documents ratified by community 22 Drafting committee formed – creating legal documents OpenStack Foundation “officially” launches Sep Essex OpenStack Identity in core OpenStack Dashboard in core Folsom OpenStack Block Storage in core OpenStack Networking in core 2012 May HP Cloud Launch (Beta) Citrix Bails (how’s that going for ya?) Jan AT&T Joins OpenStack Internal production (private) Oct Gartner Report (teeth gnashing followed) Inaugural OpenStack Foundation Board meeting VMware, Intel, & NEC accepted as Gold members Board Elections 2012 - Rise of the Foundation & Prod Deployments
  23. 23. 2013/2014 - Breakout Growth Years Apr Oct 23 Q1 Havana OpenStack Metering in integration OpenStack Orchestration in integration LBaaS? “I” Release 2014 Grizzly OpenStack Metering in incubation OpenStack Orchestration in incubation 2013 First Summit 100% run and funded by Foundation First International Summit (APAC?)
  24. 24. In every single category, the top 3 vendors support OpenStack Incredible Industry Support 24 top 3 switch vendors top 3 storage vendors top 3 hypervisors top 3 router vendors top 3 blade vendors top 3 linux vendors top 3 x86 vendors
  25. 25. Developer Growth 25 Contributors per month (ohloh)
  26. 26. Developer Growth Comparison Contributors per month (ohloh) 26
  27. 27. Dev Growth by Git Contributors Qingye Jiang (John) - Open Source IaaS Community Analysis CY13 - Q1 http://www.qyjohn.net/?p=3120 27
  28. 28. Accumulated Community Qingye Jiang (John) - Open Source IaaS Community Analysis CY13 - Q1 http://www.qyjohn.net/?p=3120 28
  29. 29. Growth by Domain (company - roughly) Qingye Jiang (John) - Open Source IaaS Community Analysis CY13 - Q1 http://www.qyjohn.net/?p=3120 29 For the CloudStack projects, influence from Citrix is quite obvious, over 45% of github.com commits come from accounts belonging to citrix.com and cloud.com.
  30. 30. 0 750 1500 2250 3000 Austin Santa Clara San Francisco Portland Summit Growth 30
  31. 31. Established Marketing Reach OpenStack.org 241k/visits month: Software: 300K downloads Membership: 9000+, Over 90% subscribe to newsletter Relationships with Tier 1 publications and analysts 31 17,693 Followers (+50% from 8/12)
  32. 32. Stackology
  33. 33. OpenStack From 10km 33 Networking OPENSTACK CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEM Standard Hardware Compute Storage Your Applications OpenStack Dashboard OpenStack Shared Services APIs
  34. 34. CLI toolsDashboard Other tools ComputeNetworkingOrchestration Hypervisor(s) Queuing Database / KVS / Cache External Block Provider Physical Network Provider Provisioning Log Aggregation Health Monitoring etc. REST Meter Data REST SQL, etc. Varies Varies Varies AMQP/0MQ Topology & Metadata Metering REST REST REST DNS Image Management Identity Management REST Block Storage Object Storage OpenStack (m)Architecture Slide 34 UI Layer Elastic Services Layer Otherstuff,youprobablyneed/want Data & Resource Layer Shared Services Layer
  35. 35. Project Name Description Layer AWS Equivalent Codename Dashboard Self-service, role-based web interface for users and administrators UI Console Horizon Compute Provision and manage large pools of on-demand computing resources Elastic Service EC2 Nova Block Storage Volumes on commodity storage gear, and drivers for turn-key block storage solutions Elastic Service EBS Cinder Object Storage Petabytes of reliable storage on standard gear Elastic Service S3 Swift Networking L2-focused on-demand networking with some L3 capabilities Elastic Service VPC Quantum Orchestration Application orchestration layer that runs on top of and manages OpenStack Compute Elastic Service CloudFormation, CloudWatch Heat Metering Centralized metering data for all services for integration to external billing Shared Service N/A Ceilometer Identity Multi-tenant authentication system that ties to existing stores (e.g. LDAP) and Image Service Shared Service None Keystone Image Management Upload, download, and manage VM images for the compute service Shared Service VM Import/ Export Glance 35
  36. 36. 6 month integrated release cycle Every 6 months, we coordinate and integrate: Thousands of patches & commits Across hundreds of developers And 9 “integrated” or “core” projects Completely impossible without: The OpenStack infrastructure team (CI, etc.) Dedicated PTLs and individual developers No other similar project does this 36
  37. 37. OpenStack is Well Organized Qingye Jiang (John) - Open Source IaaS Community Analysis CY13 - Q1 http://www.qyjohn.net/?p=3120 37 “[the coordinated releases are] an indicator that the OpenStack project is well organized in terms of sub-project management.”
  38. 38. Stacking It Up
  39. 39. A Quick Note of Thanks 39 These diagrams would not have been possible without the prior work of: Ken Pepple, Solinea (@ken_pepple) Dina Belova, Mirantis ... and the help of several Cloudscalers: Eric Windisch (@ewindisch) Joe Gordon (http://github.com/jogo) Matt Joyce (@openfly, http://www.music-piracy.com) Dan Sneddon (@dxs) Joseph Glanville (@jpgvm)
  40. 40. Caveat Emptor 40 The focus for these diagrams was ease of reading, not accuracy. See Ken Pepple’s originals or the code if you need truth. That being said, our team tried really hard for accuracy. Blame me for any errors.
  41. 41. Architecture Diagrams Legend 41
  42. 42. OpenStack RPC 42 { 'oslo.version': '2', 'oslo.message': json ( { 'method': 'method_name', 'args': { 'keyword': 'value' } } ) } nova-api nova-scheduler Remote Procedure Call (invoked via (a)synchronous message passing)
  43. 43. OpenStack Compute (Nova) 43
  44. 44. Compute Thoughts 44 Nova still runs best w/ KVM Do we need another hypervisor? What’s the biz case? Multiple Availability Zones still not solved Cells are for making one AZ bigger complex, tight-coupling We need a clean sharding mechanism for AZes also what about Cinder and Quantum? Integ. to Cinder & Quantum needs rethink More information needs to be able to be passed back
  45. 45. Compute (Networking) Thoughts 45 nova-network still required Quantum has been L2 focused & L3 gap still exists centralized nova-networking is #fail decentralized is more #fail nova-conductor security for hypervisor obviated nova-metadata-api & nova-network on every hypervisor? security implications reconciling Quantum and nova-network? Quantum needs more L3 capability, but ...
  46. 46. OpenStack Block Storage (Cinder) 46
  47. 47. Block Storage Thoughts 47 Default “nova-volume” func. is too minimal When people think Block Storage service they assume: Persistent, Network-based, & Performant - it isn’t Cinder scheduler needs info from Nova Assuming you want to do anything interesting Point of lock-in since default isn’t useful You have to place a bet on a block storage solution These are expensive, experimental or proprietary
  48. 48. OpenStack Networking (Quantum) 48
  49. 49. Networking Thoughts 49 Default networking functionality is minimal The APIs have been L2-centric L3 functionality is same as existed with nova-network Same architecture, same basic layout, with all of the downsides Needs a Quantum plugin for full func. Can’t run more than one plugin at a time per function Only truly baked plugin is probably Nicira? Others in process, but it’s not clear how many production deployments there are Good news is that this area is hot So hopefully this is unstuck soon
  50. 50. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) 50
  51. 51. Object Storage Thoughts 51 Swift has continued to lag OpenStack dev 3 yrs on, auditor is slow & does not prioritize replication Container replication is a bad hack Ugly stepchild of OpenStack Keystone authentication woes (integration, performance) Isn’t universally loved like Nova Sad, since it was the more mature of the two projects at launch in 2010 Good news: this area has new players EVault, Seagate, SwiftStack
  52. 52. OpenStack Image Mgmt (Glance) 52
  53. 53. Image Mgmt Thoughts 53 Still not clear why this is standalone project Really a sub-function of Compute Semi-pluggable (but not really) Uses different backends for image storage To be really useful it needs more features: P2V, V2V, and other image conversion Ability to slipstream PV drivers into images Convert from popular formats: OVF, AMI, etc.
  54. 54. OpenStack Identity (Keystone) 54
  55. 55. Identity Mgmt Thoughts 55 Mixed identity / schizophrenia Verifies identity, authorization, AND service registry Service registry is one of many Nova, Cinder, et al have their own internal registries Slows everything down See LivingSocial preso from Folsom Summit See caching tricks with memcache some projects use OpenStack needed to reinvent wheel here? This could have just been LDAP with a schema + caching
  56. 56. OpenStack Dashboard (Horizon) 56 Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model–view–controller)
  57. 57. Dashboard Thoughts 57 It’s gotten a lot better Same UI for end-user and admin is bad idea CloudStack did this and it was a mess The workflows and views are too different Security considerations exist General lag: many things aren’t accessible e.g. Heat Need better docs on extending, w/o harm Customers, product companies, SPs all want to modify Allow for customizations, while supporting upgrades, etc.
  58. 58. OpenStack Metering (Ceilometer) 58
  59. 59. Metering Thoughts 59 Metering systems are hard Bad or incomplete data for SPs is existential Metering system should be *very* baked (is 1yr enough?) No tokenized meter data Instance hours not enough How do you bill for Windows, Oracle, RHEL licenses? Tokens stack: size of instance, OS and app licenses, etc. Needs to get flow data from edge switches Netflow and/or Sflow support for physical switches Data from the vSwitches is not the best source in the real world
  60. 60. OpenStack Orchestration (Heat)* 60 * Source: http://www.slideshare.net/dbelova/openstack-heat-slides
  61. 61. Orchestration Thoughts 61 Huge potential Adds additional AWS func: CloudWatch, CloudFormation Provides clean templates for stacks, which means: OpenStack on OpenStack (OoO) for testing, etc. First primary project that rides “on top” Clear differentiator over other projects Initiative: Heat templates for Ref Arch Vendors, customers, etc. could feed to prov systems: Crowbar, Piston, Cloudscaling, etc.
  62. 62. Strengths: De facto winner Incredible community Unstoppable velocity Clear innovation curve SWOT: OpenStack 62 Opportunities: Build an SQL92 base for cloud compute (see Threats) Public cloud compatibility as first order initiative vCloud private cloud compatibility as first order initiative Weaknesses: No benevolent dictator Lack of IaaS experience for many developers Interoperability will be difficult Not impossible, *difficult* Threats: Splintering, fragmentation, and customization Forking or ivory tower thinking
  63. 63. Stack Gaps
  64. 64. What’s In a Complete Cloud OS? 64 OpenStack Relationship Who? OpenStack Score Ecosystem Score Vendor Target* User Interface(s) Horizon, CLI, ... OpenStack, Vendor, Ecosystem 4 2 4 Elastic Resource Management Nova, Swift, Quantum, Cinder, ... OpenStack, Vendor, Ecosystem 4 1 4 Service Discovery Scattered: Nova, Keystone, ... OpenStack, Vendor 2 0 4 Authentication, Authorization, and Access Controls (AAA) Keystone (authen/ author), various projects (ACLs) OpenStack 2 0 4 HW/SW Life Cycle Management N/A Vendor, Ecosystem 1 2 4 Service Management N/A Vendor 0 1 4 Health & Logging N/A Vendor, Ecosystem 0 0 4 Topology & Inventory N/A Vendor 0 0 4 Hardware Certifications N/A OpenStack, Vendor, Ecosystem 1 1 2** * We’re all _trying_ to close this gap ** It’s a hard problem no one will solve individually
  65. 65. Your Basic Choices Download OpenStack and DIY OpenStack Distributions Turn-key Systems powered by OpenStack 65 1 2 3
  66. 66. Stack Politiks
  67. 67. Types of OpenStack Players 67 Type Description Example Hardware Vendor Selling hardware that integrates or supports OpenStack Juniper, NetApp, Cisco, EMC Component Vendor Point solution, usually software, that provides subset of OpenStack functionality or supports it Midokura, Nexenta Distribution / Packager Basic packaging, some installation/setup, etc. RedHat, SUSE, Canonical Turn-key System Complete, integrated, OpenStack solution, with value adds Cloudscaling, Nebula, Piston Service Companies Professional or managed services to customize or operate OpenStack Mirantis, Metacloud, Rackspace Private Public Clouds Public IaaS HP, Rackspace Public PaaS / ISVs Value add on top of OpenStack deployments Scalr, ActiveState (Stackato), CloudFoundry Private Clouds Users Wikimedia, AT&T, Yahoo!
  68. 68. components - compute components - storage systems Linux distros public clouds private clouds PaaS / layered ISVsservice companies components - networkhardware Who’s Playing the OpenStack Game? 68
  69. 69. components - compute components - storage systems Linux distros public clouds private clouds PaaS / layered ISVsservice companies components - networkhardware Player Motivations 69 Sell Hardware Sell SDN Software Sell Storage Software Sell HV Software & Support Sell Turn-key Systems & Support Sell Labor (T&M), Monthly Management, etc, Sell Software on Top of IaaS Sell Support via “owning” the community Sell Online Cloud Resources Use OpenStack for Business Leverage
  70. 70. Who’s Using It?
  71. 71. First OpenStack Survey 71 414#survey#responses# 16% 7% 8% 4% 11% 17% 37% More#than#10,000#employees# 5,001#to#10,000#employees# 1,001#to#5,000#employees# 501#to#1,000#employees# 101#to#500#employees# 217100#employees# 1720#employees# Company Size Information Technology 60%# Academic / Research 15%# Telecommunication 10%# Industries Government / Defense 3%# CC Icons http://vathanx.deviantart.com/ 175 29 28 23 18 56countries Country 124$ 100$ 77$ 151$ Service Provider Ecosystem Vendor Cloud Consumer Cloud Operator Type of Involvement
  72. 72. Deployments at a Glance Type 35# Hosted# Private# 15# Hybrid# # 37# Public# 106# On#Premise# Private# Trunk& 8%& Grizzly& 15%& Folsom& 47%& Essex& 25%& Diablo& 5%& Version 84 92 94 Production Proof of Concept Dev/QA Stage 134# 94# 94# 89# 66# 46# Dashboard Object Storage Snapshotting to new images Live Migration EC2 Compatibility API S3 Compatibility API Features 181# 171# 169# 153# 147# 121# 103# 20# 16# Nova Glance Keystone Horizon Quantum Cinder Swift Ceilometer Heat Components 197&Deployments&
  73. 73. Size of 98 Production Compute Systems 73 1"100$$ 52%$ 101"500$ 18%$ 501"1,000$$ 8%$ 1,001"5,000$$ 8%$ 5,000"10,000$$3%$ >$10,000$$6%$ Unspecified$5%$ Other$ 30%$ Instances 1"50$$ 71%$ 51"100$$ 8%$ 101"500$$ 9%$ 501"1,000$$2%$ >1,000$$4%$ unspecified$ 6%$ Other$ 29%$ Nodes 1"100$$ 51%$ 101"500$$ 21%$ 501"1,000$$ 4%$ 1,001"5,000$$ 12%$ 5,001"10,000$ 3%$ >10,000$$ 4%$ unspecified$ 5%$ Other$ 16%$ Cores
  74. 74. Usage: KVM, LVM, OVS & SQL 74 KVM$ 71%$ ESX$ 8%$ Xen$ 8%$ Xenserver$ 5%$ Lxc$5%$ Hyperv$3%$ Other$ 29%$ Hypervisors LVM$ 36%$ NFS$ 19%$ Ceph$RBD$ 13%$ Netapp$ 10%$ GlusterFS$ 8%$ SAN/HP$5%$ Windows$4%$ EMC$3%$ Solidfire$2%$ Other$ 32%$ Open$ Vswitch$ 39%$ Linux$ Bridge$ 31%$ Cisco$ 11%$ HyperUv$ 5%$ Nicira$ 5%$ Brocade$3%$ Ryu$2%$ big$switch$2%$ NEC$2%$ Other$ 19%$ Storage Drivers Network Drivers SQL$ 55%$ LDAP$ 34%$ PAM$ 8%$ KVS$ 3%$ Other$11%$ Identity Drivers 150$ 62$ 33$ JSON$ XML$ Both$ API Format
  75. 75. Summary
  76. 76. OpenStack by TKO? OH: “Finish him!” We still have work to do Your participation matters Regardless of whether you: build, develop, or operate Get involved http://is.gd/openstack 76
  77. 77. Q & A http://simplicityscales.com/ engineering blog 77 Randy Bias CTO & Co-founder, Cloudscaling Director, OpenStack Foundation @randybias Original Summit Slides are at: http://engineering.cloudscaling.com/portland13

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