OpenStack Architected Like AWS (and GCP)


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A description of how we built Open Cloud System (OCS), an OpenStack-powered complete cloud operating system. With a focus on AWS and GCE interoperability, we describe why hybrid cloud interoperability matters and how we got there. Anyone can do it and we think you should too.

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OpenStack Architected Like AWS (and GCP)

  1. 1. CCA - NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License - Usage OK, no modifications, full attribution*! * All unlicensed or borrowed works retain their original licenses OpenStack Architected 
 Like AWS (and GCP) Randy Bias, Founder & CEO! OpenStack Juno Design Summit! May 14th, 2014 @randybias OpenStack’s future is hybrid to public clouds!
  2. 2. Who OpenStack Foundation Board of Directors! ! Scale Builder:! 100k+ sq ft datacenters @ 14MW! 1000s of servers, 100s of switches! ! Prod. OpenStack pioneer, Cloudscaling:! Part of OpenStack community since July 2010 (launch)! Firsts:! OpenStack Public Compute Cloud in U.S., Public Storage Cloud in U.S. and KR! ! Top 10 Cloud Computing Pioneer 2
  3. 3. A Leader in Production Deployments* 3 * e.g. Currently actively supported clouds; legacy clouds from PS days are not included (multiply by 2-3x if you care) supported clouds total cores total storage 10+ 8,000+ ~8.5PB total servers ~600 # of Fortune 15? 2
  4. 4. Today’s Goals Why an AWS-like “elastic” cloud?! Hybrid Cloud Interoperability! AWS Flavored OpenStack! Bring It Home 4 1 2 3 4
  5. 5. Why Elastic Cloud?
  6. 6. Top Clouds Are Elastic 6
  7. 7. Epitomized by AWS/GCE! Scale-out model over scale-up model! Small failure domains! Foundation for Cloud Native Apps! Apps that “route around failure”! Manage own data replication/redundancy! Automated deployments! Economics are King! Open source software! Vanity-free commodity hardware! Low-cost, scale-out networking 7 What is an Elastic Cloud? For more information see the Chicago DevOps presentation at!
  8. 8. Elastic Cloud is a Mindset Change 8 Attribution: Bill Baker, Distinguished Engineer, Microsoft (pets) (cattle) Cloud is the era of the disposable server vs.
  9. 9. Elastic Clouds Host Cloud Native Apps 9 Legacy Enterprise Model! (inelastic) Cloud Enterprise Model! (elastic) 99.9%! Applications 99.999%! Infrastructure! ($$$$) 99.999% Applications 99% Infrastructure! ($$) Responsibility! Shift
  10. 10. Cloud Native Apps Drive Agility 10 Traditional Applications 2012 89M 2015 139M +56% New Scale-Out Applications 2012 5M 2015 32M +540% Source: IDC & Gartner via EMC @
  11. 11. Jevon’s Paradox Accelerates Innovation 11 * SOURCE: ** SOURCE: As the cost of compute approaches zero…
 ➡ cost of experimentation and agility drives innovation As cost ➡… consumption
  12. 12. Why Should the Enterprise Care? “Seventy percent of the companies that were on the Fortune 1000 list a mere 
 10 years ago have now vanished – 
 unable to adapt to change … ”! ! ! — Forrester analyst Craig Le Clair* 12 * SOURCE:
  13. 13. OpenStack: For ALL Clouds 13 Although … the best fit is elastic cloud Metering / Billing Platform Elastic Private / Public Cloud PaaS Platform Storage Platform OpenStack! Components Cloud App Mgt Framework
  14. 14. Hybrid Cloud Enables Biz Agility Top public clouds are elastic! Elastic clouds have similar attributes! essentially they share a “reference architecture”! Agility is primary value for enterprise! Cloud native apps + DevOps drive agility! they “route around failures”! Elastic cloud is ideal platform for these apps! doesn’t matter if it’s private or public! Businesses need choice -> hybrid cloud 14 1 2 3 4 5 6
  15. 15. Hybrid Cloud Interoperability
  16. 16. Hybrid Cloud Value Proposition 16 Application Portability ~ Independence! Move apps between clouds with impunity! Advanced capabilities such as Cloud-bursting/bridging! Future-proofing and reduction of vendor lock-in! Pick the right cloud for the job!! Portability Requires Interoperability! API compatibility is a subset of what is required!! Interoperability Is NOT Easy! (details to follow)
  17. 17. Pub Cloud Interop Matters 17 Private Clouds Must be Interoperable with Public Cloud Leaders OpenStack’s Future is Hybrid
  18. 18. API Compatibility is Not Enough 18 Mac TruckInfiniti G37! 330 HP! 270 lb ft torque! 5 Second 0-60 600 HP! 2,100 lb ft torque! 60 Second 0-60 Different Behavior Semantics 
 & Architecture Engine Transmission Braking Suspension Lighting Same API
  19. 19. 19 Hybrid Cloud Interop Requirements 1 2 3 4 5 6 Matching SLAs & Availability Performance & QoS Guarantees Infrastructure Feature Parity Similar TCO / Economies of Scale API Compatibility Behavioral Compatibility
  20. 20. Hybrid Cloud Interop Requirements 20 Shared Requirement Public / Private Cloud Interoperability Detail Matching SLAs 
 and Availability Guarantees VM uptime (hypervisor availability) API endpoint availability Storage system availability Performance & 
 QoS Guarantees VM vCPU, networking & local storage performance Block storage system performance matching Object storage aggregate throughput Infrastructure 
 Feature Parity Must have a majority of same primary features AWS -> EC2, S3, EBS, VPC, ELB GCP -> VMs, persistent block/object, virt. networks, etc. Similar Cost Economics & Economies of Scale Within ½-2x of wholesale costs/pricing TCO must be similar, particularly for operational costs API Compatibility Support for public cloud APIs At the least: AWS, GCE, Azure, and OpenStack Behavioral Compatibility Implied, non-API behavior is same or similar example 1: VMs start in <30 mins example 2: floating/elastic IP auto-assignment 1 2 3 4 5 6
  21. 21. Enable a Hybrid-first Cloud Strategy 21 HYBRID CLOUD PUBLIC CLOUDPRIVATE CLOUD Interoperability means ! APIs, QoS, SLAs, TCO, Feature Parity & Same Behavior
  22. 22. AWS Flavored! OpenStack
  23. 23. AWS Interoperable OpenStack 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 Matching SLAs & Availability Performance & QoS Guarantees Infrastructure Feature Parity Similar TCO / Economies of Scale API Compatibility Behavioral Compatibility
  24. 24. Matching SLAs & Availability Guarantees 24 1 HA Pair Failover 
 / Master Election Service Service vs. Load Balancing Service1 Service2 Service3 ServiceN ... Active Passive Active Active Active Active With Load Balancing, the control plane scales as the cloud grows Delivers a 99.999% Uptime APIs & Control Plane on 99.5% Hardware
  25. 25. 25 Performance & QoS Guarantees Spread First Scheduling
 m3.2xl c3.xl r3.xl c3.mm1.l Gaps = Wasted I/O & 
 Hardware Resources t1 t1 t1m1.m Bin Packing Scheduler
 1) fixed proportions of resources! 2) all resources allocated 
 3) manage oversubscription rates! 4) ensures Quality of Service (QoS)! 5) easy to do w/ filters & host-aggregates 2 AWS/GCP-Style Instance Sizing & Scheduling Bin Packing Scheduling
 (by Instance Family)
 m3.xl m3.2xl m3.xl m3.2xl m3.2xl
  26. 26. Matching Infrastructure Feature Parity 26 3 Infrastructure
 Application! Services PaaS / ! Orchestration Route53 Applications WorkSpacesApp Marketplace CloudFront RDS DynamoDB ElastiCache Redshift SimpleDB EMR Kinesis Data Pipeline Elastic Beanstalk CloudFormation OpsWorks AppStream CloudSearch SWFSQS SESSNS Elastic Transcoder Core
 Services EC2 EBS S3VM Import/Export Auto Scaling CloudWatchClassic Networking VPC Networking Mgt Console IAMCLI ELB
  27. 27. Matching Infrastructure Feature Parity 27 3 Core Infrastructure Services EC2 EBS S3 IAM Auto Scaling CloudWatch Classic Networking VPC Networking Mgt Console CLI ELB Nova Swift Heat Auto Scaling LBaaS L2/L3 Nova Networking Neutron SDN Plugin Horizon Cinder Keystone CLI Heat Monitoring VM Import/Export Glance
  28. 28. #1 Cost = Servers! #2 Cost = Power! #3 Cost = Network! ! ! ! ! Use industry standard servers & build a cattle cloud 
 (one NIC, one switch, one PSU, etc) 
 reduces costs significantly! Similar TCO & Economies of Scale 28 4 What is required to meet Amazon’s cost structure? * SOURCE: Servers Power Network Other Power Dist &
  29. 29. Similar TCO & Economies of Scale 29 4 Time Public Cloud
 @ 20% Annual Growth" ($14.2m over 5 Years) Yr1 Yr2 Yr3 Yr4 Yr5 $1m $2m Cost / Yr $3m $4m Private Cloud
 @ 20% Annual Growth" ($9.2m over 5 Years) 1.9 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.9 2.6 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.1 OpenStack Elastic Cloud TCO 35% savings over AWS over 3-5 years 2384 cores" 100TB object storage" 50TB block storage
  30. 30. API Compatibility 30 OpenStack “Core” Services 5 OpenStack already has multiple APIs Native APIs GCE APIsAWS APIs
  31. 31. Behavioral Compatibility Testing Implicit non-API behavior crucial to test! We have already been testing it w/ Tempest! Tempest has a pretty sweet set of AWS tests (see next)! Some of them are turned off by default! OpenStack default settings don’t pass it seems! Cloudscaling has created more! Ultimately we need exhaustive Tempest AWS behavioral test suite! Then GCP, then Azure 31 6
  32. 32. Tempest Tests for AWS Behavior 32 AWS OCS OpenStack 6
  33. 33. Cloudscaling Tempest Tests for AWS Behavior* 33 | AWS Compat File Edit View Insert Format Data Tools Add-ons Help View only tempest.cloudscaling.thirdparty.aws_compat.test_ec2_instance_mysql.InstanceMySQLTest Comments randyb@cloudscal Count: 37Sheet1 AWS OCS OpenStack 6 * In process of upstreaming now! * Plan to work with RefStack on “AWS” flavored reference stack for OpenStack
  34. 34. How Do You Know You’re Done? 34 1 2 3 4 5 6 Same Availability Same Performance Similar Services Equivalent TCO Same APIs Behaves Identically
  35. 35. Open Cloud System (OCS) Architecture 35 Available. Performant. Interoperable. Hybrid Cloud Operating System Hardware Compute Network Storage 100% OpenStack Distro L3! Networking VPC EBS AWS API OpenStack API GCE API HA Control Plane Cloud
 Operator Console Metrics Analytics Logs Management Cloud Orchestration
  36. 36. Agility, DevOps, & AWS + OpenStack
  37. 37. Bringing It Home 37 Business Agility CloudNative Apps DevOps
 enablem ent Elastic Cloud Architecture HybridtoPublic OpenStack provides ideal platform for a hybrid cloud operating system designed in the elastic cloud model
  38. 38. Questions? 38 @randybias