This Lesson is UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO
U-4205L Telephony Basics Part 1
Disclaimer <ul><li>The images and media associated with this presentation does not constitute endorsement by the United St...
Overview <ul><li>Telecommunication Switching </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication Signaling </li></ul>
Objectives and MSBs <ul><li>Comprehend telephone switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the function of a central office...
Objectives and MSBs <ul><li>Comprehend telephone switching (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the function of a tandem...
Objectives and MSBs <ul><li>Comprehend telephone signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define in band signaling </li></ul></ul><...
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) <ul><li>The worldwide collection of interconnected public telephone networks that...
Central Office (CO) <ul><li>A building in which the phone lines in a home or office terminate and connect to a much larger...
Telephone Switches <ul><li>Private Branch Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A private switching system normally used in the c...
Telephone Switches <ul><li>Primary Center Switch (Class 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes Calls being made beyond the lim...
Hierarchical Switching <ul><li>A group of interconnected sub-networks that control traffic through segmentation </li></ul>...
X939 X243 X757 X912 X210 X312 X556 X404 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 3g 2a 2b 2d 1a 2c 1b Class 1 Region Class 2 State...
Dynamic Non-Hierarchical Routing (DNHR) <ul><li>Implemented by AT&T after the divestiture </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent co...
939 243 656 712 T T Class 4 Class 5 404 CLEC Intelligent Network Uses Switching Points To Access The Signaling Network Dyn...
Telecommunication Signaling  In Band Signaling <ul><li>The exchange of signaling (call control) information between switch...
Telecommunication Signaling  Out of Band Signaling <ul><li>The exchange of information in order to control a telephone cal...
Multi-Frequency Signaling <ul><li>A method utilizing five or six tone frequencies, two at a time.  </li></ul><ul><li>Used ...
Inter-register 1(R1)  Signaling  USA 300 Hz 3400 Hz Voice Band 2600 Hz 2000 Hz In Band Signaling Frequency HZ 1 700 + 900 ...
Signaling System 5
300 Hz 3400 Hz Voice Band 2000 Hz 3825 Hz (CCITT) Inter-register 2 (R2)  Signaling  Asia/Europe Frequency HZ 1 700 + 900 2...
Intelligent Network Signaling Signaling System 7 <ul><li>Developed to meet the needs of an all digital network  </li></ul>...
Intelligent Signaling Signaling System 7 SS7 Network 939 939 T SSP SSP SSP 850-939-1122 850-939-3344 Service Switching Poi...
Associated Signaling SSP SSP T1 Circuit Signal
Non-associated Signaling SSP SSP T3 Circuit Signal T1
Non-associated Signaling SSP SSP T3 Circuit Signal STP STP
 
<ul><li>The North American Signaling Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>The North American signaling architecture defines a co...
 
SSP SSP SSP Central Office 850-939-XXXX LOCAL CALL Within an Area Code and LATA Central Office 850-243-XXXX TANDEM  Non-Toll
LOCAL CALL SSP SSP SSP STP SCP PSTN IN/SS7
Simplified SS7
This Lesson is UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO
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U 4215 L Switching Signaling1 2

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  • UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO U-4205L Telephony Basics Part I UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO UNDERGRADUATE NETWORK WARFARE TRAINING COURSE HURLBURT FIELD, FL PART II TEACHING PLAN
  • U 4215 L Switching Signaling1 2

    1. 1. This Lesson is UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO
    2. 2. U-4205L Telephony Basics Part 1
    3. 3. Disclaimer <ul><li>The images and media associated with this presentation does not constitute endorsement by the United States Air Force </li></ul>
    4. 4. Overview <ul><li>Telecommunication Switching </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication Signaling </li></ul>
    5. 5. Objectives and MSBs <ul><li>Comprehend telephone switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the function of a central office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the function of a end office switch </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Objectives and MSBs <ul><li>Comprehend telephone switching (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the function of a tandem switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe hiearchary switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe dynamic non-hiearchary switching </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Objectives and MSBs <ul><li>Comprehend telephone signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define in band signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define out of band signaling </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) <ul><li>The worldwide collection of interconnected public telephone networks that was designed primarily for voice traffic </li></ul>www.linfo.org PSTN
    9. 9. Central Office (CO) <ul><li>A building in which the phone lines in a home or office terminate and connect to a much larger switching system </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to a much broader switching system in which switching offices are interconnected with trunk lines </li></ul><ul><li>While the local loop is an analog circuit for voice calls, once a call gets to the CO, it is converted to a 64-Kbit/sec stream of digital data for routing through the switching system </li></ul>Sheldon
    10. 10. Telephone Switches <ul><li>Private Branch Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A private switching system normally used in the commercial sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End Office Switch (Class 5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A telephone central office switch that connects directly to the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tandem Switch (Class 4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network switch that serves in partnership with lesser switches (i.e. CO), and serves no end users directly </li></ul></ul>Horack
    11. 11. Telephone Switches <ul><li>Primary Center Switch (Class 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes Calls being made beyond the limits of a small geographical area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sectional Center (Class 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically connect to major toll centers within one or two states or provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Center (Class 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last resort&quot; for final setup of calls when routes between centers lower in the hierarchy were not available, serves as an international gateway </li></ul></ul>Freeman
    12. 12. Hierarchical Switching <ul><li>A group of interconnected sub-networks that control traffic through segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Provided simplified switch design </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit security </li></ul><ul><li>Outages </li></ul>
    13. 13. X939 X243 X757 X912 X210 X312 X556 X404 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 3g 2a 2b 2d 1a 2c 1b Class 1 Region Class 2 State Class 3 County Class 4 City Class 5 Local 850-939-1122 850-939-3344 850-243-5566 912-656-7788 210-756-1111 1c PBX 50 Users T1 24 Channels Company BGI HIEARCHARY SWITCHING International Gateway High Use Route High Use Route
    14. 14. Dynamic Non-Hierarchical Routing (DNHR) <ul><li>Implemented by AT&T after the divestiture </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent control and reporting of traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Integral for carriers to operate their networks at peak efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced flexibility into network traffic control </li></ul>
    15. 15. 939 243 656 712 T T Class 4 Class 5 404 CLEC Intelligent Network Uses Switching Points To Access The Signaling Network Dynamic Non-Hiearchical Routing T PBX 50 Users T1 24 Channels Company BGI 850-939-1122 850-939-3344 850-243-5566 912-656-7788 SSP SSP SSP SSP SSP SSP SSP T SSP SSP International Gateway
    16. 16. Telecommunication Signaling In Band Signaling <ul><li>The exchange of signaling (call control) information between switches on the same circuit the voice call rides on </li></ul>300 Hz 3400 Hz Voice Band 2600 Hz 2000 Hz
    17. 17. Telecommunication Signaling Out of Band Signaling <ul><li>The exchange of information in order to control a telephone call that is done on a channel that is dedicated for the control purpose and separate from the channels used for the telephone call </li></ul>300 Hz 3400 Hz Voice Band 3700 Hz USA 3825 Hz (CCITT) 2000 Hz
    18. 18. Multi-Frequency Signaling <ul><li>A method utilizing five or six tone frequencies, two at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for signaling between switches </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of multi-frequency signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Local Loop to the End Office Switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOCOTEL France and Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling System 5 (SS5) Country Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-register Signaling 1 (R1) USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-register Signaling 2 (R2) Europe/Asia </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Inter-register 1(R1) Signaling USA 300 Hz 3400 Hz Voice Band 2600 Hz 2000 Hz In Band Signaling Frequency HZ 1 700 + 900 2 700 + 1100 3 900 + 1100 4 700 + 1300 5 900 + 1300 6 1100 + 1300 7 700 + 1500 8 900 + 1500 9 1100 + 1500 10 (0) 1300 + 1500 Control Signal 1700 + 700 -1300 System Check 1900 Idle Line 2600
    20. 20. Signaling System 5
    21. 21. 300 Hz 3400 Hz Voice Band 2000 Hz 3825 Hz (CCITT) Inter-register 2 (R2) Signaling Asia/Europe Frequency HZ 1 700 + 900 2 700 + 1100 3 900 + 1100 4 700 + 1300 5 900 + 1300 6 1100 + 1300 7 700 + 1500 8 900 + 1500 9 1100 + 1500 10 (0) 1300 + 1500 Control Signal 1700 + 700 -1300 System Check 1900 Idle Line 2600
    22. 22. Intelligent Network Signaling Signaling System 7 <ul><li>Developed to meet the needs of an all digital network </li></ul><ul><li>Provides supervision of circuits, address signaling, call progress signals and alerting notification </li></ul><ul><li>Data network entirely dedicated to inter-switch signaling </li></ul>
    23. 23. Intelligent Signaling Signaling System 7 SS7 Network 939 939 T SSP SSP SSP 850-939-1122 850-939-3344 Service Switching Point (SSP) Service Transfer Point (STP) Service Control Point (SCP) STP STP
    24. 24. Associated Signaling SSP SSP T1 Circuit Signal
    25. 25. Non-associated Signaling SSP SSP T3 Circuit Signal T1
    26. 26. Non-associated Signaling SSP SSP T3 Circuit Signal STP STP
    27. 28. <ul><li>The North American Signaling Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>The North American signaling architecture defines a completely new and separate signaling network. The network is built out of the following three essential components, interconnected by signaling links: </li></ul><ul><li>signal switching points (SSPs) —SSPs are telephone switches (end offices or tandems) equipped with SS7-capable software and terminating signaling links. They generally originate, terminate, or switch calls. </li></ul><ul><li>signal transfer points (STPs) —STPs are the packet switches of the SS7 network. They receive and route incoming signaling messages towards the proper destination. They also perform specialized routing functions. </li></ul><ul><li>signal control points (SCPs) —SCPs are databases that provide information necessary for advanced call-processing capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Once deployed, the availability of SS7 network is critical to call processing. Unless SSPs can exchange signaling, they cannot complete any interswitch calls. For this reason, the SS7 network is built using a highly redundant architecture. Each individual element also must meet exacting requirements for availability. Finally, protocol has been defined between interconnected elements to facilitate the routing of signaling traffic around any difficulties that may arise in the signaling network. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable signaling network architectures to be easily communicated and understood, a standard set of symbols was adopted for depicting SS7 networks. Figure 2 shows the symbols that are used to depict these three key elements of any SS7 network. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 2. Signaling Network Elements </li></ul><ul><li>STPs and SCPs are customarily deployed in pairs. While elements of a pair are not generally co-located, they work redundantly to perform the same logical function. When drawing complex network diagrams, these pairs may be depicted as a single element for simplicity, as shown in Figure 3. </li></ul>http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/ss7/
    28. 30. SSP SSP SSP Central Office 850-939-XXXX LOCAL CALL Within an Area Code and LATA Central Office 850-243-XXXX TANDEM Non-Toll
    29. 31. LOCAL CALL SSP SSP SSP STP SCP PSTN IN/SS7
    30. 32. Simplified SS7
    31. 33. This Lesson is UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO

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