1BacteriaBacteriaStructure and FunctionStructure and Function
2Prokaryote &Prokaryote &EukaryoteEukaryoteEvolutionEvolution
3Cellular EvolutionCellular Evolution• Current evidenceCurrent evidenceindicates thatindicates that eukaryoteseukaryotesev...
4Infolding TheoryInfolding Theory• TheThe infolding of theinfolding of theprokaryotic plasmaprokaryotic plasmamembrane gav...
5Endosymbiotic TheoryEndosymbiotic Theory• Endosymbiosis refers toEndosymbiosis refers to oneonespecies living within anot...
6Prokaryotic &Prokaryotic &Eukaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells
7EarliestEarliestProkaryotesProkaryotes• Most numerousMost numerousorganisms onEarth• Include allbacteriabacteria• Earlies...
8ClassificationClassificationof Lifeof Life
9Three Domains ofThree Domains ofLifeLife• ArchaeaArchaea ––prokaryotes living inprokaryotes living inextreme habitatsextr...
10Kingdoms of BacteriaKingdoms of BacteriaArchaebacteria:Archaebacteria: Found inFound in harshharshenvironmentsenvironme...
11ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria
12Kingdoms of BacteriaKingdoms of BacteriaEubacteria:Eubacteria: Called theCalled the truetruebacteriabacteria Most bact...
13EubacteriaEubacteria
14CharacteristicsCharacteristicsof Bacteriaof Bacteria
15Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• MicroscopicMicroscopic prokaryotesprokaryotes• NoNo nucleus or membrane-nucleus ...
16Bacterial Cell
17ProtectionProtection• Cell Wall made ofCell Wall made ofPeptidoglycanPeptidoglycan• May have a stickyMay have a stickyco...
18Sticky BacterialSticky BacterialCapsuleCapsule
19BacterialBacterialStructureStructure• Have small rings ofHave small rings ofDNA calledDNA called PlasmidsPlasmids• Unice...
20
21Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• InfoldingsInfoldings of cellof cellmembrane carry onmembrane carry onphotosynthe...
22MesosomesMesosomesMESOSOME
23Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• Most grow best atMost grow best atpH of 6.5 to 7.0pH of 6.5 to 7.0• Many act asM...
24StaphylococcusStaphylococcusBacterialBacterial
25Useful BacteriaUseful Bacteria• SomeSomebacteriabacteriacancandegrade oildegrade oil• Used toUsed toclean upclean up oil...
26Useful BacteriaUseful Bacteria• Other usesOther usesfor bacteriafor bacteriaincludeincludemakingmakingyogurt,yogurt,chee...
27FlagellaFlagella• Bacteria thatBacteria thatareare motilemotile havehaveappendagesappendagescalledcalled flagellaflagell...
28
29FlagellaFlagella• Made ofMade of FlagellinFlagellin• Used forUsed for ClassificationClassification• Monotrichous:Monotri...
30Monotrichous LophotrichousAmphitrichous Peritrichous
31Question:Question:What is this type ofWhat is this type ofbacteria ?bacteria ?
32PiliPili• Short proteinShort protein appendagesappendages• SmallerSmaller than flagellathan flagella• AdhereAdhere bacte...
33Pili in ConjugationPili in Conjugation
34BacterialBacterialShapesShapes
35Shapes Are Used toShapes Are Used toClassifyClassify• Bacillus:Bacillus: Rod shapedRod shaped• Coccus:Coccus: Spherical ...
36
37Grouping of BacteriaGrouping of Bacteria• DiploDiplo- Groups of- Groups oftwotwo• StreptoStrepto- chains- chains• Staphy...
38
39
40DiplococcusDiplococcus
41Streptococcus CausesStreptococcus CausesStrep ThroatStrep Throat
42StaphylococcusStaphylococcus
43Bacillus -Bacillus - E. coliE. coli
44StreptobacilliStreptobacilli
45SpirillumSpirillum
46SpirochetesSpirochetes
47LeptospiraLeptospira
48
49BacterialBacterialKingdomsKingdoms
50ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Lack peptidoglycanLack peptidoglycan in cellin cellwallswalls• HaveHave different lipidsdi...
51ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Archaebacteria can live inArchaebacteria can live inextremely harshextremely harshenvironm...
52ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Subdivided into 3Subdivided into 3groups:groups:MethanogensMethanogensThermoacidophilesT...
53MethanogensMethanogens• Live inLive in anaerobicanaerobicenvironments (no oxygen)environments (no oxygen)• Get energy by...
54MethanogensMethanogens• Break downBreak downcellulose in acellulose in acow’scow’sstomachstomach• ProduceProducemarshmar...
55Extreme HalophilesExtreme Halophiles• Live in veryLive in verysalty watersalty water• UseUse salt tosalt togenerategener...
56Thermoacidophiles orThermoacidophiles orThermophilesThermophiles• Live inLive inextremely hotextremely hotenvironmentsen...
57KingdomKingdomEubacteriaEubacteriaTrue BacteriaTrue Bacteria
58CharacteristicsCharacteristics• 3 basic shapes3 basic shapes (coccus,(coccus,bacillus, spirilla)bacillus, spirilla)• Mos...
59Gram StainingGram Staining• Developed inDeveloped in 1884 by1884 byHans GramHans Gram• Bacteria treated withBacteria tre...
60Gram PositiveGram Positive• HaveHave thick layerthick layerof peptidoglycanof peptidoglycan(protein-sugar(protein-sugarc...
61Gram PositiveGram PositiveBacteriaBacteriaLactobacilliLactobacilli (makes yogurt &(makes yogurt &buttermilk)buttermilk)...
62Gram NegativeGram NegativeBacteriaBacteria• Thin layer of peptidoglycanThin layer of peptidoglycan inincell wallcell wal...
63Gram NegativeGram Negative• RhizobacteriaRhizobacteriagrow in rootgrow in rootnodules ofnodules oflegumeslegumes(soybean...
64Gram NegativeGram Negative• RickettsiaeRickettsiae areareparasiticparasiticbacteria carriedbacteria carriedby ticksby ti...
65CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria• GramGram negativenegative• PhotosyntheticPhotosynthetic• CalledCalled blue-green bacteriablu...
66CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria• May be red, yellow, brown, black,May be red, yellow, brown, black,or blue-greenor blue-green...
67CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria
68SpirochetesSpirochetes• GramGram positivepositive• Flagella at each endFlagella at each end• Move inMove in corkscrewcor...
69Enteric BacteriaEnteric Bacteria• GramGram negativenegative• Can live inCan live in aerobic &aerobic &anaerobicanaerobic...
70ChemoautotrophsChemoautotrophs• GramGram negativenegative• Obtain energy fromObtain energy fromminerals like ironmineral...
71Nutrition,Nutrition,Respiration,Respiration,andandReproductionReproduction
72Modes of NutritionModes of Nutrition• SaprobesSaprobes – feed on dead– feed on deadorganic matterorganic matter• Parasit...
73Methods of RespirationMethods of Respiration• Obligate AerobesObligate Aerobes – require O– require O22(tuberculosis bac...
74Bacterial RespirationBacterial Respiration• AnaerobesAnaerobescarry oncarry onfermentationfermentation• AerobesAerobesca...
75ReproductionReproduction• Bacteria reproduceBacteria reproduceasexually by binary fissionasexually by binary fission• Si...
76Cellular organism copies it’s genetic informationCellular organism copies it’s genetic informationthen splits into two i...
77Binary FissionBinary Fission E. coliE. coli
78ReproductionReproduction• Bacteria reproduceBacteria reproducesexually by Conjugationsexually by Conjugation• Form aForm...
79ConjugationConjugation
80Spore FormationSpore Formation• FormForm endosporeendosporewhenever whenwhenever whenhabitat conditionshabitat condition...
81Transduction &Transduction &TransformationTransformation• Genetically changeGenetically change bacteriabacteria• May bec...
82PathenogenicPathenogenicBacteriaBacteria
83PathogensPathogens• CalledCalled germs or microbesgerms or microbes• CauseCause diseasedisease• May produceMay produce p...
84
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Structure of bacteria1

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Structure of bacteria1

  1. 1. 1BacteriaBacteriaStructure and FunctionStructure and Function
  2. 2. 2Prokaryote &Prokaryote &EukaryoteEukaryoteEvolutionEvolution
  3. 3. 3Cellular EvolutionCellular Evolution• Current evidenceCurrent evidenceindicates thatindicates that eukaryoteseukaryotesevolved from prokaryotesevolved from prokaryotesbetween 1 and 1.5 billionbetween 1 and 1.5 billionyears agoyears ago• Two theories:Two theories:1.1. Infolding theoryInfolding theory2.2. Endosymbiotic theoryEndosymbiotic theory
  4. 4. 4Infolding TheoryInfolding Theory• TheThe infolding of theinfolding of theprokaryotic plasmaprokaryotic plasmamembrane gave rise tomembrane gave rise toeukaryotic organelles.eukaryotic organelles.infolding organelle
  5. 5. 5Endosymbiotic TheoryEndosymbiotic Theory• Endosymbiosis refers toEndosymbiosis refers to oneonespecies living within anotherspecies living within another(the(thehost)host)• Movement ofMovement of smallersmallerphotosyntheticphotosynthetic && heterotrophicheterotrophicprokaryotesprokaryotes into larger prokaryoticinto larger prokaryotichost cellshost cells• FormedFormed cell organellescell organelles chloroplastmitochondria
  6. 6. 6Prokaryotic &Prokaryotic &Eukaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells
  7. 7. 7EarliestEarliestProkaryotesProkaryotes• Most numerousMost numerousorganisms onEarth• Include allbacteriabacteria• Earliest fossilsEarliest fossilsdatedate 2.5 billionyears old
  8. 8. 8ClassificationClassificationof Lifeof Life
  9. 9. 9Three Domains ofThree Domains ofLifeLife• ArchaeaArchaea ––prokaryotes living inprokaryotes living inextreme habitatsextreme habitats• BacteriaBacteria--Cyanobacteria andCyanobacteria andeubacteriaeubacteria• EukaryaEukarya ––Protozoans, fungi,Protozoans, fungi,plants, & animalsplants, & animals
  10. 10. 10Kingdoms of BacteriaKingdoms of BacteriaArchaebacteria:Archaebacteria: Found inFound in harshharshenvironmentsenvironments UnderseaUndersea volcanic ventsvolcanic vents,,acidicacidic hot springshot springs,, saltysaltywaterwater
  11. 11. 11ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria
  12. 12. 12Kingdoms of BacteriaKingdoms of BacteriaEubacteria:Eubacteria: Called theCalled the truetruebacteriabacteria Most bacteriaMost bacteria are inare inthis groupthis group Include photosyntheticInclude photosyntheticCyanobacteriaCyanobacteria
  13. 13. 13EubacteriaEubacteria
  14. 14. 14CharacteristicsCharacteristicsof Bacteriaof Bacteria
  15. 15. 15Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• MicroscopicMicroscopic prokaryotesprokaryotes• NoNo nucleus or membrane-nucleus or membrane-bound organellesbound organelles• ContainContain ribosomesribosomes• Single, circularSingle, circularchromosome inchromosome in nucleoidnucleoidregionregion
  16. 16. 16Bacterial Cell
  17. 17. 17ProtectionProtection• Cell Wall made ofCell Wall made ofPeptidoglycanPeptidoglycan• May have a stickyMay have a stickycoating called thecoating called theCapsuleCapsule forforattachment to host orattachment to host orother bacteriaother bacteria
  18. 18. 18Sticky BacterialSticky BacterialCapsuleCapsule
  19. 19. 19BacterialBacterialStructureStructure• Have small rings ofHave small rings ofDNA calledDNA called PlasmidsPlasmids• UnicellularUnicellular• SmallSmall in size (0.5 toin size (0.5 to2μm)2μm)PLASMIDSPLASMIDS
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• InfoldingsInfoldings of cellof cellmembrane carry onmembrane carry onphotosynthesis &photosynthesis &cellular respirationcellular respiration• Infoldings calledInfoldings calledMesosomesMesosomes
  22. 22. 22MesosomesMesosomesMESOSOME
  23. 23. 23Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• Most grow best atMost grow best atpH of 6.5 to 7.0pH of 6.5 to 7.0• Many act asMany act asdecomposersdecomposers recyclingrecyclingnutrientsnutrients• Some causeSome cause diseasedisease
  24. 24. 24StaphylococcusStaphylococcusBacterialBacterial
  25. 25. 25Useful BacteriaUseful Bacteria• SomeSomebacteriabacteriacancandegrade oildegrade oil• Used toUsed toclean upclean up oiloilspillsspills
  26. 26. 26Useful BacteriaUseful Bacteria• Other usesOther usesfor bacteriafor bacteriaincludeincludemakingmakingyogurt,yogurt,cheese, andcheese, andbuttermilk.buttermilk.
  27. 27. 27FlagellaFlagella• Bacteria thatBacteria thatareare motilemotile havehaveappendagesappendagescalledcalled flagellaflagella• Attached byAttached byBasal BodyBasal Body• A bacteria canA bacteria canhavehave one orone ormanymany flagellaflagella
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29FlagellaFlagella• Made ofMade of FlagellinFlagellin• Used forUsed for ClassificationClassification• Monotrichous:Monotrichous: 1 flagella1 flagella• Lophotrichous:Lophotrichous: tuft attuft atone endone end• Amphitrichous:Amphitrichous: tuft attuft atboth endsboth ends• Peritrichous:Peritrichous: all aroundall aroundbacteriabacteria
  30. 30. 30Monotrichous LophotrichousAmphitrichous Peritrichous
  31. 31. 31Question:Question:What is this type ofWhat is this type ofbacteria ?bacteria ?
  32. 32. 32PiliPili• Short proteinShort protein appendagesappendages• SmallerSmaller than flagellathan flagella• AdhereAdhere bacteria tobacteria tosurfacessurfaces• Used inUsed in conjugationconjugation forforExchange of geneticExchange of geneticinformationinformation• AidAid FlotationFlotation bybyincreasing buoyancyincreasing buoyancy
  33. 33. 33Pili in ConjugationPili in Conjugation
  34. 34. 34BacterialBacterialShapesShapes
  35. 35. 35Shapes Are Used toShapes Are Used toClassifyClassify• Bacillus:Bacillus: Rod shapedRod shaped• Coccus:Coccus: Spherical (round)Spherical (round)• Vibrio:Vibrio: Comma shaped withComma shaped withflagellaflagella• Spirillum:Spirillum: Spiral shapeSpiral shape• Spirochete:Spirochete: wormlikewormlikespiral shapespiral shape
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37Grouping of BacteriaGrouping of Bacteria• DiploDiplo- Groups of- Groups oftwotwo• StreptoStrepto- chains- chains• StaphyloStaphylo- Grapelike- Grapelikeclustersclusters
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40DiplococcusDiplococcus
  41. 41. 41Streptococcus CausesStreptococcus CausesStrep ThroatStrep Throat
  42. 42. 42StaphylococcusStaphylococcus
  43. 43. 43Bacillus -Bacillus - E. coliE. coli
  44. 44. 44StreptobacilliStreptobacilli
  45. 45. 45SpirillumSpirillum
  46. 46. 46SpirochetesSpirochetes
  47. 47. 47LeptospiraLeptospira
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. 49BacterialBacterialKingdomsKingdoms
  50. 50. 50ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Lack peptidoglycanLack peptidoglycan in cellin cellwallswalls• HaveHave different lipidsdifferent lipids inintheir cell membranetheir cell membrane• Different types ofDifferent types ofribosomesribosomes• VeryVery different genedifferent genesequencessequences
  51. 51. 51ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Archaebacteria can live inArchaebacteria can live inextremely harshextremely harshenvironmentsenvironments• TheyThey do not require oxygendo not require oxygenand can live inand can live in extremelyextremelysaltysalty environments as well asenvironments as well asextremely hotextremely hot environmentsenvironments• Called theCalled the Ancient bacteriaAncient bacteria
  52. 52. 52ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Subdivided into 3Subdivided into 3groups:groups:MethanogensMethanogensThermoacidophilesThermoacidophilesExtreme HalophilesExtreme Halophiles
  53. 53. 53MethanogensMethanogens• Live inLive in anaerobicanaerobicenvironments (no oxygen)environments (no oxygen)• Get energy byGet energy by changing Hchanging H22& CO& CO22 into methane gasinto methane gas• Found inFound in swampsswamps,, sewagesewagetreatmenttreatment plants,plants, digestivedigestivetractstracts of animalsof animals
  54. 54. 54MethanogensMethanogens• Break downBreak downcellulose in acellulose in acow’scow’sstomachstomach• ProduceProducemarshmarsh(methane)(methane)gasgas
  55. 55. 55Extreme HalophilesExtreme Halophiles• Live in veryLive in verysalty watersalty water• UseUse salt tosalt togenerategenerateATPATP (energy)(energy)• Dead Sea,Dead Sea,Great SaltGreat SaltLakeLakeinhabitantsinhabitants
  56. 56. 56Thermoacidophiles orThermoacidophiles orThermophilesThermophiles• Live inLive inextremely hotextremely hotenvironmentsenvironments• Found inFound involcanicvolcanic vents,vents,hot springs,hot springs,cracks on oceancracks on oceanfloor that leakfloor that leakacidacid
  57. 57. 57KingdomKingdomEubacteriaEubacteriaTrue BacteriaTrue Bacteria
  58. 58. 58CharacteristicsCharacteristics• 3 basic shapes3 basic shapes (coccus,(coccus,bacillus, spirilla)bacillus, spirilla)• Most areMost are heterotrophicheterotrophic(can’t make their own food)(can’t make their own food)• May beMay be aerobic oraerobic oranaerobicanaerobic• Identified byIdentified by Gram stainingGram staining
  59. 59. 59Gram StainingGram Staining• Developed inDeveloped in 1884 by1884 byHans GramHans Gram• Bacteria treated withBacteria treated withpurple Crystal Violet & redpurple Crystal Violet & redSafranin stainsSafranin stains• Cell wallsCell walls either staineither stainpurple or reddish pinkpurple or reddish pink
  60. 60. 60Gram PositiveGram Positive• HaveHave thick layerthick layerof peptidoglycanof peptidoglycan(protein-sugar(protein-sugarcomplex)complex)• Single lipidSingle lipidlayerlayer• StainStain purplepurple• Can be treatedCan be treatedwithwith antibioticsantibiotics
  61. 61. 61Gram PositiveGram PositiveBacteriaBacteriaLactobacilliLactobacilli (makes yogurt &(makes yogurt &buttermilk)buttermilk)Actinomycetes (Actinomycetes (makemakeantibiotics)antibiotics)ClostridiumClostridium (lockjaw bacteria)(lockjaw bacteria)StreptococcusStreptococcus (strep throat)(strep throat)Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus (staphstaphinfections)infections)
  62. 62. 62Gram NegativeGram NegativeBacteriaBacteria• Thin layer of peptidoglycanThin layer of peptidoglycan inincell wallcell wall• ExtraExtra thick layer of lipidsthick layer of lipids• StainStain pink or reddishpink or reddish• Hard to treatHard to treat with antibioticswith antibiotics• SomeSome photosyntheticphotosynthetic butbutmake sulfur not oxygenmake sulfur not oxygen• SomeSome fix nitrogenfix nitrogen for plantsfor plants
  63. 63. 63Gram NegativeGram Negative• RhizobacteriaRhizobacteriagrow in rootgrow in rootnodules ofnodules oflegumeslegumes(soybeans,(soybeans,peanuts)peanuts)• Fix NFix N22 from airfrom airinto usableinto usableammoniaammonia
  64. 64. 64Gram NegativeGram Negative• RickettsiaeRickettsiae areareparasiticparasiticbacteria carriedbacteria carriedby ticksby ticks• CauseCause LymeLymedisease & Rockydisease & RockyMountainMountainSpotted FeverSpotted Fever
  65. 65. 65CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria• GramGram negativenegative• PhotosyntheticPhotosynthetic• CalledCalled blue-green bacteriablue-green bacteria• ContainContain phycocyaninphycocyanin (red-(red-blue) pigments &blue) pigments &chlorophyllchlorophyll
  66. 66. 66CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria• May be red, yellow, brown, black,May be red, yellow, brown, black,or blue-greenor blue-green• May grow inMay grow in chainschains ((OscillatoriaOscillatoria))• HaveHave HeterocystsHeterocysts to help fix Nto help fix N22• First to re-enterFirst to re-enter devastateddevastatedareasareas• Some causeSome cause EutrophicationEutrophication (use up(use upO2 when die & decompose inO2 when die & decompose inwater)water)
  67. 67. 67CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria
  68. 68. 68SpirochetesSpirochetes• GramGram positivepositive• Flagella at each endFlagella at each end• Move inMove in corkscrewcorkscrewmotionmotion• SomeSome aerobicaerobic;;othersothers anaerobicanaerobic• May beMay be free living,free living,parasitic, orparasitic, orsymbioticsymbiotic
  69. 69. 69Enteric BacteriaEnteric Bacteria• GramGram negativenegative• Can live inCan live in aerobic &aerobic &anaerobicanaerobic habitatshabitats• IncludesIncludes E. coliE. coli ininintestinesintestines• SalmonellaSalmonella –– causes foodcauses foodpoisoningpoisoning
  70. 70. 70ChemoautotrophsChemoautotrophs• GramGram negativenegative• Obtain energy fromObtain energy fromminerals like ironminerals like iron• Found inFound in freshwaterfreshwaterpondsponds
  71. 71. 71Nutrition,Nutrition,Respiration,Respiration,andandReproductionReproduction
  72. 72. 72Modes of NutritionModes of Nutrition• SaprobesSaprobes – feed on dead– feed on deadorganic matterorganic matter• ParasitesParasites – feed on a host– feed on a hostcellcell• PhotoautotrophPhotoautotroph – use– usesunlight to make foodsunlight to make food• ChemoautotrophChemoautotroph – oxidize– oxidizeinorganic matter such asinorganic matter such asiron or sulfur to make foodiron or sulfur to make food
  73. 73. 73Methods of RespirationMethods of Respiration• Obligate AerobesObligate Aerobes – require O– require O22(tuberculosis bacteria)(tuberculosis bacteria)• Obligate AnaerobesObligate Anaerobes – die if– die ifOO22 is present (tetanus)is present (tetanus)• Facultative AnaerobesFacultative Anaerobes – don’t– don’tneed Oneed O22, but aren’t killed by, but aren’t killed byit (it (E. coliE. coli))
  74. 74. 74Bacterial RespirationBacterial Respiration• AnaerobesAnaerobescarry oncarry onfermentationfermentation• AerobesAerobescarry oncarry oncellularcellularrespirationrespiration
  75. 75. 75ReproductionReproduction• Bacteria reproduceBacteria reproduceasexually by binary fissionasexually by binary fission• Single chromosomeSingle chromosomereplicatesreplicates & then cell& then celldividesdivides• RapidRapid• All new cellsAll new cells identicalidentical(clones)(clones)
  76. 76. 76Cellular organism copies it’s genetic informationCellular organism copies it’s genetic informationthen splits into two identical daughter cellsthen splits into two identical daughter cells
  77. 77. 77Binary FissionBinary Fission E. coliE. coli
  78. 78. 78ReproductionReproduction• Bacteria reproduceBacteria reproducesexually by Conjugationsexually by Conjugation• Form aForm a tube between 2tube between 2bacteriabacteria to exchangeto exchangegenetic materialgenetic material• Held together byHeld together by pilipili• New cellsNew cells NOT identicalNOT identical
  79. 79. 79ConjugationConjugation
  80. 80. 80Spore FormationSpore Formation• FormForm endosporeendosporewhenever whenwhenever whenhabitat conditionshabitat conditionsbecomebecome harshharsh(little food)(little food)• Able toAble to survive forsurvive forlong periods oflong periods oftimetime as endospermas endosperm• Difficult toDifficult todestroy (heatdestroy (heatresistant)resistant)
  81. 81. 81Transduction &Transduction &TransformationTransformation• Genetically changeGenetically change bacteriabacteria• May becomeMay become antibiotic resistantantibiotic resistant• Transformed bacteriaTransformed bacteria pick uppick uppieces of DNA from deadpieces of DNA from deadbacterial cellsbacterial cells• TransductionTransduction – viruses carry– viruses carryforeign DNA to bacteria;foreign DNA to bacteria; usedusedto make insulinto make insulin
  82. 82. 82PathenogenicPathenogenicBacteriaBacteria
  83. 83. 83PathogensPathogens• CalledCalled germs or microbesgerms or microbes• CauseCause diseasedisease• May produceMay produce poisons orpoisons ortoxinstoxins• EndotoxinsEndotoxins released afterreleased afterbacteria die (bacteria die (E. coliE. coli))• ExotoxinsExotoxins released by Gramreleased by Gram+ bacteria (+ bacteria (C. tetaniC. tetani))
  84. 84. 84

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