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James Joyce


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James Joyce

  1. 1. James Joyce Raffaele Nardella
  2. 2. James Joyce Impersonality of the Artist Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Influence from Baudelaire, Flaubert </li></ul><ul><li>Artist’s task: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describing life objectively -> True image -> Detachment from society -> No writer’s point of view (p.o.v.) -> Different p.o.v. and narrative techniques for the characters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. James Joyce Impersonality of the Artist Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Style – Technique – Language </li></ul><ul><li>realism and disciplined prose </li></ul><ul><li>exploration of characters’ impressions and p.o.v. </li></ul><ul><li>free direct speech and epiphany </li></ul><ul><li>interior monologue with 2 levels of narration </li></ul><ul><li>succession of words with no punctuation, grammar rules </li></ul>
  4. 4. James Joyce Subjective perception of Time Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>modernist writer </li></ul><ul><li>narrative more important than themes </li></ul><ul><li>different p.o.v. simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>no omniscent narrator </li></ul><ul><li>geographical and sociological details </li></ul><ul><li>impressions and thoughts caused by an outer event </li></ul><ul><li>opening “in media res” </li></ul><ul><li>introspection rather than description </li></ul><ul><li>time as subjective </li></ul>
  5. 5. James Joyce Ulysses - Plot Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>On Thursday June 16, 1904 (18 hours) -> fist date with Nora </li></ul><ul><li>3 characters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopold Bloom: Jew adv canvasser, alienated common man, in the streets, funeral, meeting Dedalus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Dedalus: alienated artist, saved from a brothel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molly Bloom: Leopold’s wife, singer, adultery </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. James Joyce Ulysses - Odyssey Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Odyssey as structural framework for “Ulysses”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopold as Ulysses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen as Telemachus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molly as Penepole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Ulysses” in 3 parts (as in the Odyssey) – 18 episodes: </li></ul><ul><li>Telemachiad (ch. 1-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Odyssey (ch. 4-15) </li></ul><ul><li>Nostos (ch. 15-18) </li></ul><ul><li>Homeric parallels -> important structural devices in the novel </li></ul><ul><li>Episodes -> hour, colour, organ of the body, sense, symbol </li></ul>
  7. 7. James Joyce Ulysses - Setting Raffaele Nardella Climax of creativity Detailed account of ordinary life Like a play of chess Dublin as a character of the novel
  8. 8. James Joyce Ulysses – Mythical Method Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Prose based on mythical method: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnology </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel with the Odyssey: symbolic meaning - another dimension - universal in the particular </li></ul><ul><li>Modern epic in prose -> a new form of realism </li></ul>
  9. 9. James Joyce Ulysses – Human Nature Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Leopold, Molly, Stephen -> 2 aspects of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen : intellect, young looking for maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Molly : flesh, sensual nature, fecundity </li></ul><ul><li>Leopold : everybody, uniting the extremes </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Theme (quest/journey) -> human life: </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Struggling to rise </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for good </li></ul>
  10. 10. James Joyce Ulysses – Prose Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Revolutionary Prose -> several methods for lots of matters: </li></ul><ul><li>Stream of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematic technique </li></ul><ul><li>Question and answer </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Juxtaposition of events -> collage technique (cubist artists – a scene from all perspectives) </li></ul><ul><li>Interior monologue -> 2 levels of narrration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External to character’s mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal to character’s mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language: puns, images, contrasts, paradoxes, false clues, symbols, slang, nicknames, slogans, foreign words, literary quotations </li></ul>
  11. 11. James Joyce The Interior Monologue Raffaele Nardella William James -> stream of consciousness – inner process Introspection in the 18th century novels (Defoe) 20th century fiction -> subjective consciousness – difficulty to reproduce the human mind through traditional techniques – interior monologue to represent the unspoken activity of the mind Interior Monologue: verbal expression of a psychic phenomenon Stream of consciousness: psychic phenomenon
  12. 12. James Joyce The Interior Monologue Raffaele Nardella <ul><li>Main features: </li></ul><ul><li>verbal expression of a psychic phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>immediate </li></ul><ul><li>free from introductory expressions </li></ul><ul><li>2 levels of narration (external – internal) </li></ul><ul><li>no chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>subjective time </li></ul><ul><li>no rules of punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>no formal logical order </li></ul>