Lect 09 processing and memory dr (1)

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Lect 09 processing and memory dr (1)

  1. 1. Arab Academy for Science &Technology & Maritime Transport 2College of Computing and Information Technology Computer Science Department
  2. 2. 1.  Understand  how  data  and  programs  are  represented  to  a   computer  and  be  able  to  iden7fy  a  few  of  the  coding   systems  used  to  accomplish  this.  2.  Explain  the  func7ons  of  the  hardware  components   commonly  found  inside  the  system  unit,  such  as  the  CPU,   memory,  buses,  and  expansion  cards.  3.  Describe  how  new  peripheral  devices  or  other  hardware   can  be  added  to  a  computer.  4.  Understand  how  the  computer  system’s  CPU  and   memory  components  process  program  instruc7ons  and   data.  5.  Name  and  evaluate  several  strategies  that  can  be  used   today  for  speeding  up  the  opera7ons  of  a  computer.   3
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  24. 24. • Many  desktop  computers  come  with  a  variety  of  ports  on   the  front  of  the  system  unit  for  easy  access  • A  wired  or  wireless  hub  can  connect  many  devices  to  a   single  USB  or  FireWire  port   26
  25. 25. • Notebook  and  netbook  computers  have  ports  similar  to   desktop  computers,  but  oNen  not  as  many  • UMPCs  and  mobile  devices  typically  have  less  ports   • An  SD  slot  is  common  for  both  memory  cards     and  to  connect  peripheral  devices   27
  26. 26. 1.  Which  type  of  memory  is  erased  when  the  power  goes   out?   a.  ROM     b.  RAM     c.  flash  memory  2.  True  or  False:  The  CPU  can  also  be  called  the   motherboard.    3.  A(n)  electronic  path  within  a  computer  over  which  data   travels  is  called  a(n)  _____________.    Answers:    1)  b;  2)  False;  3)  bus   28
  27. 27. • CPU:  Consists  of  a  variety  of  circuitry  and  components   packaged  together   • Transistor:  Key  element  of  the  microprocessor   • Made  of  semi-­‐conductor  material  that  acts  like  a   switch  controlling  the  flow  of  electrons  inside  a  chip  • Today’s  CPUs  contain  hundreds  of  millions  of  transistors;   the  number  doubles  about  every  18  months  (Moore’s   Law)   29
  28. 28. • Improving  performance  today   • Add  more  memory   • Perform  system  maintenance   • Uninstall  programs  properly   • Consider  placing  large  files  on  external  storage  devices   • Delete  temporary  files   • Error  check  and  defragment   • Scan  for  viruses  and  spyware   • Clean  out  dust  once  or  twice  a  year   • Buy  a  larger  or  second  hard  drive   • Upgrade  your  Internet  connec7on   • Upgrade  your  video  graphics  card   30
  29. 29. • Strategies  for  faster  and  be_er   computers   • Improved  architecture:  Smaller   components,  faster  bus  speeds,   mul7ple  CPU  cores,  etc.   • Improved  materials:  New  backing   materials,  flexible  circuits,  etc.   • Pipelining:  Allows  mul7ple   instruc7ons  to  be  processed  at  one   7me   • Mul7processing  and  parallel   processing:  Use  mul7ple   processors  to  speed  up  processing   31
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