Vitamin E is naturally occuring anti-
It is known as “anti-sterility vitamin”
because it helps in normal reproduction
in many animals.
Vitamin E is a Fat soluble vitamin.
Also known a beauty vitamin
1922: Evans and Bishop, described Vitamin E
1936: Evans et al, Isolated α-tocopherol
1960s: Vitamin E deficiency was described in
children with fat mal absorption syndromes.
1980s: Major symptom of vitamin E
deficiency in Human was a peripheral
Vitamin E is the name given to a group
of toco pherols and tocotrienols.
Till now 8 tocopherols have been
identified alpha ,beta,
Among this alpha tocopherol is active.
Tocopherols are derivatives of 6-hydroxy
The anti –oxidant property is due to
Dietary tocopherol is dissolved in fats.
Absorbed in cell membrane ---distributed
to peripheral tissue------cell membrane
remant----liver----transported in VLDL-------
---------STORED IN ADIPOSE TISSUE.
1.Vitamin E is essential for the membrane
structure and integrity of the cell ,hence it is
regarded as a membrane antioxidant.
2.It prevents the peroxidation of PUFA in
various tissues and membranes .it prevents
RBC from hemolysis by oxidizing agents eg..
3.It is closely associated with reproductive
functions and prevents sterility. vit.E
preserves and maintains germinal
epithelium of gonads for proper
4.Vitamin E protects liver from being
damaged by toxic compounds such as
5.It works in association with vitamin A,C
and beta carotene to delay the onset of
6.RECENT studies have shown that high
intake of vitamin E protects against the
development of heart diseases.It is
believed that vit E prevents oxidation of
LDL. The oxidised LDL Have been
implicated to promote heart diseases .
Vitamin E also inhibits the conversion of
nitrites in the stomach to nitrosamines, which
are cancer promoters.
A daily consumption of 10 mg (15 IU) of
alpha tocopherol for man.
8mg 12 IU for woman is recommended
1mg of alpha tocopherol =1.5 IU.
Vitamin E supplement is advised for
pregnant and lactating women.
Ref:horwitt m.k, critique of the req.for vit
• Nuts, such as almonds
• Spinach and other green leafy vegetables
• Unheated vegetable oils
• Wheat germ
• Wholegrain foods
• Ref:harper’s biochemistry
• People more than 55 years of age
• Very low birth weight infants
• Those who abuse alcohol and other drugs
• Those with:
o cystic fibrosis
o celiac disease
o liver, gallbladder, or pancreatic disease
o Ref: harper’s biochemistry..
A severe ,progressive neurological disorder.
Loss of deep tendon reflexes
Positive romberg test
Edema in premature infant and hemolysis
Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects
cells in the body from the damaging
effects of unstable molecules called free
radicals. Lack of vitamin E causes
neurological problems, such as difficulty
coordinating movements (ataxia) and
speech (dysarthria), loss of reflexes in the
legs , and a loss of sensation in the
extremities (peripheral neuropathy).
Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is a rare
condition; however, its prevalence is
Mutations in the T T PA gene cause
ataxia with vitamin E deficency.
The TTPA gene provides instructions for
making the α-tocopherol transfer protein
(αTTP), which is found in the liver and
This protein controls the distribution of
vitamin E obtained from the diet (also
called α-tocopherol) to cells and tissues
throughout the body.
Cells neutralize free radicals with the aid
of vitamin E, which prevents damage to
the cell. Mutations in the TTPA gene
impair the activity of the αTTP protein,
resulting in an inability to retain and use
dietary vitamin E. This deficiency leads to
accumulation of free radicals within
Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) has been credited with
a variety of beneficial effects in
the premature newborn infant.
It has been thought that deficiency of vitamin E is
at least partly responsible for the anemia which
often occurs 4 to 6 wk after premature birth, and
routine dietary supplementation with vitamin E is
In NEWBORN vitamin E acts free radical
scavenger and natural anti-oxidant that
Protects the cell membranes against lipid
REQUIRED FOR PREMATURE BABY:
Because there is a significant transfer of
vitamin E during the last trimester of
pregnancy.so , vitamin E is required for
preventing haemolysis ,edema and
Serum vit E LEVEL increases in presences
of high serum lipid levels
Ratio <.8mg/g is abnormal
Premature infants with hemolysis due to
vit e def.have elevated platelet counts
Ref:nelson vol 1 .18 th ed ,chp 49 pg263.
In neonates dose 25-50 units/day for
NO TOXIC EFFECT HAS BEEN REPORTED .
Heart Disease: Mixed results
Cancer: Promising but not conclusive
› Breast cancer: two opposing studies
› Colon and G.I. cancer: probably no benefit
› Prostate and bladder cancer: possible
Alzheimer’s: theoretical but not well
1998: “Antioxidant vitamins and nuclear
opacities: the longitudinal study of
Cataract risk reduced by ½ in Vit
E supplement users
764 participant observational
study (low significance)