Until now less than 1% of the total solid waste flow is actually being composted in Gaza.The output of this biological process is two valuable products: biogas which may be used for either heat or power generation; and compost that may be utilised as a soil fertiliser
Organic Waste Management in Gaza
“Organic Waste Management in the Gaza Strip, a Review & Strategy for the Future”SWEEP-Net’s 3rd RegionalForum, Cairo (Egypt)By: Ramy SalemdeebZero Waste MENAwww.zerowastemena.orgWednesday, May 15th
What is Zero Waste MENA?“Zero Waste MENA”, established in February 2013, is a regional initiativeto promote sustainable practices to create zero waste communities in theMiddle East & North Africa (MENA) Region.ZW MENA objectives:• Promote the concept of Zero Waste through awareness campaigns.• Design social programs to engage community and public to promote zero waste plans.• To promote and fund appropriate research for the public benefit, including education.• To promote the principles of waste avoidance and minimization, re-use, recyclingthrough sustainable resource management.www.zerowastemena.org
What we do?ZW MENA is established to help local authorities and municipalities to deliver theirtargets. Our team includes qualified professionals and experts from various disciplines.ZW MENA team is there to help you to achieve your goal. Our activities includes;• Research and publications• Training• Organize campaigns, conferences and workshops,• Lobbying,• Consultancy services, and• Strategy development and analysis.www.zerowastemena.org
“Organic Waste Management in the Gaza Strip, a Review & Strategy for the Future”Gaza Strip (Fact Sheet)Surface Area= 365 km2Population:1948 ---------- 100,000 pplNOW ---------- 1.6 million ppl2020 ---------- 2.1 million ppl2040 ---------- 3.1 million ppl• More than 70 per cent of the population thereis under the age of 30.• It indicated that future employment is clearlyone of the biggest concerns facing Palestinianyouth. In 2011, more than 53 per cent of youngwomen and 32.2 per cent of young men aged15 to 24 were unemployed,• In Gaza, the unemployment rate is three timesthe regional average. More than 80 per cent ofGaza’s 1.6 million residents are dependent oninternational aid, and over 40 per cent live inconditions of poverty.
Solid Waste Management (on-going challenges)Why is it a challenging issue ?• Absence of consistent national and local waste management legislation andaction Plans• Political and security constraints due to the Intifada and the Siege.• Limited finances of local governments and private households due toeconomic standstill and losses of income• Inefficient waste management structures and limited performance ofmunicipal services• Scarcity of land for waste management installations such as landfill sites andtransfer stations due to overpopulation and areas restricted by the Israelis(Buffer Zone).(Source: Int. Technologieberatung Dr. Vest, 2003)
Waste Quantities050010001500200025003000350040002005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045ton/dayyearsPer Capita Waste Generation (HH + littering)North GazaGaza CityDeir Al BeilahKhan YunisRafahGaza Strip(Adapted from: UNDP - PAPP/Feasibility Study and Detailed Design for Solid Waste Management, 2012)Summary for 2040:Agricultural Waste= 1200t/d (MoA, 2011)Household Waste= 3355 t/dOthers= 332 t/d---------------------Total= 4887 t/d
Why do we need to do something?“If you want to fight climate change, improve publichealth, find new sources of wealth for poor people and createnew entrepreneurs, the closest thing to a silver bullet in theworld in most countries is closing all the landfills in allthe cities.” ~Bill Clinton CGI2010
What can we do?• Landfilling: up to 70% of organic waste is not acceptable because itconsumes precious space at landfill sites, generate leachate and landfillgas and create handling costs and transport tat are no longer affordable.• Composting: in a process to treat organic waste providing valuablefertiliser as a final output.•Anaerobic Digestion: a HI-Tech technology which is used to treatfood waste producing two products; biogas and compost.
Composting “Current Projects”• Pilot composting plant in Rafah for Agricultural waste, run byPalestinian Environmental Friends Society.•Composting facility under Construction in Rafah for HouseholdWaste, run by Palestinian Environmental Friends Society.•Pilot composting initiative in Beit Lahia (North Gaza) by CRIC•Municipal Solid Waste sorting & composting facility in Gaza cityRun by the Municipality of Gaza. (under construction)•Composting facility in Deir El Balah run by the Ministry of Agriculture.•PADICO, a private Palestinian company, has developed plans to expandLahia pilot into a 3.5 ha recycling and composting plant.
Composting•Currently approximately 5,000 tons of compost is produced in Gaza (1%).•The compost is sold to FAO and other international financiers, who furtherdistribute the compost to farmers for free.•Attempts to have farmers directly pay for the compost have failed so far,due to questions about the compost quality and the poor economiccircumstances under which the farmers operate.
Suggestions for GazaLocal ConsiderationsTo introduce an effective composting strategy in the PalestinianTerritories, a number of obstacles must be overcome, including:• Legal instruments or incentives for source separation and recycling are not yet inplace• Arabic societies do not accept waste to be stored inside the house for longerperiods• Separate collection systems for different waste components are not yet in place•Potential recyclers need technical and economic advice and training• Markets for recycling goods are not yet developed in the Palestinian Territories• Access to outside markets is difficult due to the Israeli border blockade
Suggestions for Gaza“The main barriers for market development for organic “waste”-derivedcompost in Gaza are the low availability of high quality compost, limitedinformation on compost usage and its benefits and finally lack ofincentive to separate waste at source.” UNDP Report 2012(Gaza, 2012)
Suggestions for Gaza (cont.)Total surface areaof Agriculturalland in GazaStrip= 16,000 ha10 tons/ ha per yearSize of the local compost marketis 160,000 tons of compost per year
Suggestions for Gaza (cont.)Organic Waste1.3 M t/yGreen Waste440,000 t/yBased on 50% of the domestic waste amount calculated for 2040 , the potential compostproduction would be 200,000 tons/year excluding the compost( Excluding compost from Green Waste)•Export the compost to West Bank and Egypt: Currently infeasible e option due to- Political situation in the region.- Very competitive market .- The quality of compost is in questionOrganic Waste
Suggestions for Gaza (cont.)WasteAvoidable Waste Unavoidable Wastewaste hierarchy
Suggestions for Gaza (cont.)•Cover the compost market by composting agricultural organic waste (Unavoidable Waste)- reduce the cost of collection and landfilling.- Less contaminated by other waste (e.g. plastics, paper, etc.). Therefore, a cleanorganic product could be obtained easily.- Costs would be minimal.If half of this agricultural waste would be kept separate and composted this howeverwould result in 110,000 tons of compost/year.1. Focus on Green/Agricultural Waste for compost production.
Suggestions for Gaza (cont.)Pilot Projects to be considered:• Separation of organic waste at large vegetable markets in the Gaza Strip• Green waste collection from Parks and green areas
Suggestions for Gaza (cont.)•Design social programs and awareness campaign to prevent theproduction of food waste2. Prevent & Reduce Domestic Organic Waste arising by educating public.3. AD and other advanced technologies might be considered in the future togenerate electricity .