Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
More with
By Ram Srinivasan, CST
Certified LeSS Practitioner and Agile Transformation Coach
http://linkedin.com/in/ramvasa...
Scaling Agile...
LeSS: YAGNI
The earliest large-scale software
intensive product development was
the Semi-Automatic Ground
Environment (SAG...
“Scaling Agile methods is the last
thing you should do”
...I'm not saying that you shouldn't do large
projects, I'm saying...
The Story we Believe...
We are a BIG
organization
and/or our
product is BIG,
so we need a
BIG framework
Agile Manifesto: Simplicity....is Essential
Leaders who try to impose order in a complex
context will fail, but those who set the stage,
step back a bit, allow patter...
Build processes up, don’t tear it down
Prescriptiveness of Frameworks
Less Prescriptive More Prescriptive
None – just soft
principles
Hard for novice
organizatio...
“Battle tested” scaling framework
“Since 2005, we've worked with clients to apply the LeSS
(Large-Scale Scrum) framework f...
LeSS is About Refactoring the Organization
LeSS, like Scrum is a (meta-process)
framework for organizational design.
LeSS,...
Large Scale Scrum (LeSS)
Source: http://less.works
LeSS Principles – Heart of LeSS
Source: http://less.works
Ram’s Bad Metaphor: Systems Thinking –
Coronary Artery of the Heart (LeSS principles)
Systems Thinking: Operation Cat Drop
Peter Senge’s 11 Laws of Systems Thinking
1. Today’s problems come from yesterday’s solutions.
2. The harder you push, the...
Larman’s Laws (observations) of
Organizational Behavior
1. Organizations are implicitly optimized to avoid changing the st...
Seeing What is Below the Surface
Seeing Structures Using Casual Loop Diagrams
Mental Models
“The image of the world around us, which we carry in
our head, is just a model. Nobody in his head imagines
...
Seeing What is Below the Surface
12 Leverage Points to Intervene in Systems
12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as metrics, standards, KPIs)
11. The s...
Whole Product Focus
More with LeSS
More with LeSS
• From Empirical Process Control: more
learning and adaption with less defined
processes, prescriptions, an...
Queueing Theory
The Frameworks - LeSS
Applicable from 2 to “8 “teams
Image Source: http://less.works
The term “LeSS” is over-loaded
LeSS : Principles + Framework + Guides + Experiments
“Basic” LeSS
framework
(formerly
Frame...
The Frameworks – LeSS Huge
Applicable to “8+” teams
Requirement
Area
Product Owner, Product Backlog, and Increment
Product
Backlog
Product
Owner
Increment
Our Focus: LeSS, not LeSS Huge
Sprint Planning, Review and Retrospective synchronized
Product Backlog Refinement is coordi...
Just One Product Owner? Yes !!!
• LeSS Principle: Customer centric, “Whole Product” focus
• Prioritization (Ordering) over...
Pick the Right Product Owner
(Product Development)
Image Source: http://less.works
Pick the Right Product Owner
(Internal (Product) Development)
Business Development/ Technology/ IT
Image Source: http://le...
Pick the Right Product Owner
(Project Development / Client- Vendor Scenario)
Company receiving the system Development Comp...
LeSS Structure: Feature Team
• Each team is self-managed, cross-functional, co-
located, and long-lived (even if multiple ...
LeSS Structure: Feature Team
Hint: Continuous attention to technical excellence
and good design enhances agility
Image Sou...
Component Teams to Feature Teams
Specification
team
System
Engineering
team
Component 1
team
Firmware team
Testing/
Verifi...
Specification
team
System
Engineering
team
Component 1
team
Self Designing
Teams
Firmware team
Testing/
Verification
Team
...
How will ex-functional
managers, ex-component
managers, and specialists
react to this change?
What will their new role
be?...
Scrum Guide: ...no title other
than (Product) Development
Team Member regardless of
the work being performed....
No except...
How will ex-functional
managers, ex-component
managers, and specialists
react to this change?
What will their new role
be?...
Lean Principle –
Respect for People
Job safety and salary
safety but no role safety
Scrum Master is a Full-Time role
(One Scrum Master can serve 1-3 teams)
Focus
Time
Organization
Development Practices
Team...
LeSS Guide for Scrum Master
• Don’t be the teams’ personal assistant
• Enable co-ordination between teams
• Have teams’ ta...
LeSS Meetings: Sprint Planning
(2 week Sprint)
Image Source: http://less.works
LeSS Meetings: Sprint Planning 1
• Product Owner brings the ordered Product Backlog
• PO / SMEs clarify Product Backlog It...
LeSS Meetings: Sprint Planning 2
• Teams decide “How”
• One room, multiple teams
• Shared design
• Each team creates their...
LeSS Meetings: Daily Scrum
• ... is no different from a single-team Scrum
• ... can be used for coordination between teams...
Coordination during the Sprint
Just Talk !!!
Coordination during the Sprint
<html>
<body>
#include <stdio.h>
Select id, name
from <table>
Communicate in Code
Barriers ...
Use CommunitiesAvoid Branching
Coordination during the Sprint
Coordination during the Sprint
Decentralized (preferred)
• Send the Ambassador (to other teams’ Daily Scrum)
• Travellers
...
Product Backlog Refinement in LeSS
Image Source: http://less.works
LeSS Meetings: Sprint Review
For larger teams, use
Diverge-Merge techniques
LeSS Meetings: Sprint RetrospectiveIndividualTeam
Retrospectives
Overall
Retrospective
1.5 hours
per 2 week
sprint
Image S...
How are you implementing some
of these practices currently?
ONE Definition of Done for the Product
• Not one DoD per team, but Teams can extend the “base” version of DoD
• Must be cr...
If you can, get a perfect DoD before Sprint 1
If you end up having “Undone” work....
Image Source: http://less.works
If you end up having “Undone” work....
Image Source: http://less.works
LeSS Organizational Structure
Goes away
(integrated into
teams) as
teams get
better. Is not
architecture,
DBA or testing
W...
Management
Image Source: http://less.works
Organizational Agility is
constrained by Technical Agility
Image Source: http://less.works
Adopting LeSS
Image Source: http://less.works
Adoption: Three Principles
Deep and narrow over broad and shallow
Adoption: Three Principles
Bottom-up and Top-Down
Adoption: Three Principles
Use Volunteering
Coaching
• Internal vs External coaching
• Three levels of Coaching
• Organizational Coach
• Team level (or LeSS coach)
• ...
Feature Team Adoption Map
Image Source: http://less.works
Getting Started
1. Educate everyone
2. Define ‘product’
3. Define ‘done’
4. Have appropriately-structured teams
5. Only th...
Seeing What is Below the Surface
One More Exercise...
More with LeSS
Change your mental models
Thank You
Connect with him in LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/ramvasan
(please mention this session and your email)...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Large Scale Scrum: More with LeSS

1,845 views

Published on

Presentation on scaling scrum

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

Large Scale Scrum: More with LeSS

  1. 1. More with By Ram Srinivasan, CST Certified LeSS Practitioner and Agile Transformation Coach http://linkedin.com/in/ramvasan @ramvasan Session Handout available at http://j.mp/MoreWithLeSS (case sensitive) Disclaimer 1: You Ain't Going to Need It (YAGNI) Disclaimer 2: This session is not about “new practices” or “techniques” for scaling, it is about changing the way we think about scaling
  2. 2. Scaling Agile...
  3. 3. LeSS: YAGNI The earliest large-scale software intensive product development was the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system. Created in the 1950s, it involved hundreds of people. One of the directors of SAGE was discussing why the programming had gotten out of hand. He was then asked, “If you had it to do all over again, what would you do differently? His answer was to “find the ten best people and write the entire thing themselves” - [Horowitz74]
  4. 4. “Scaling Agile methods is the last thing you should do” ...I'm not saying that you shouldn't do large projects, I'm saying that trying to scale agile techniques up to big projects, while often necessary, shouldn't be your first choice. A better approach is to try to scale down your project. ...Large teams carry a big overhead in communication and management. Using smaller teams staffed with more able people is usually faster and cheaper, even if the everyone is more individually expensive. Martin Fowler
  5. 5. The Story we Believe... We are a BIG organization and/or our product is BIG, so we need a BIG framework
  6. 6. Agile Manifesto: Simplicity....is Essential
  7. 7. Leaders who try to impose order in a complex context will fail, but those who set the stage, step back a bit, allow patterns to emerge, and determine which ones are desirable will succeed - David J. Snowden & Mary E. Boone Simple, clear purpose and principles give rise to complex and intelligent behaviour. Complex rules and regulations give rise to simple and stupid behaviour. – Dee Hock Agile Manifesto: Simplicity....is Essential
  8. 8. Build processes up, don’t tear it down
  9. 9. Prescriptiveness of Frameworks Less Prescriptive More Prescriptive None – just soft principles Hard for novice organizations to start, easy to “fake change” Many roles, rules, processes, techniques, ... Not contextual enough, inhibits maximizing learning through empiricism & experiments LeSS - some rules guided by principles, many experiments, no false dichotomies
  10. 10. “Battle tested” scaling framework “Since 2005, we've worked with clients to apply the LeSS (Large-Scale Scrum) framework for scaling Scrum, lean and agile development to big product groups. We share that experience and knowledge through LeSS so that you too can succeed when scaling.” - Craig Larman and Bas Vodde
  11. 11. LeSS is About Refactoring the Organization LeSS, like Scrum is a (meta-process) framework for organizational design. LeSS, like any other debugging tool, will expose the defects and wastes existing in the organization (but in a painful way) LeSS simplifies scaling up Scrum by descaling (unwanted) complexity • Descaling roles and organizational hierarchy • Descaling organizational structures, policies, etc. • Descaling architectural complexity
  12. 12. Large Scale Scrum (LeSS) Source: http://less.works
  13. 13. LeSS Principles – Heart of LeSS Source: http://less.works
  14. 14. Ram’s Bad Metaphor: Systems Thinking – Coronary Artery of the Heart (LeSS principles)
  15. 15. Systems Thinking: Operation Cat Drop
  16. 16. Peter Senge’s 11 Laws of Systems Thinking 1. Today’s problems come from yesterday’s solutions. 2. The harder you push, the harder the system pushes back - compensating feedback 3. Behavior grows better before it grows worse. 4. The easy way out usually leads back in. 5. The cure can be worse than the disease 6. Faster is slower 7. Cause and effect are not closely related in time and space. 8. Small changes can produce big results – but the areas of highest leverage are often the least obvious. 9. You can have your cake and eat it too – but not at once. 10. Dividing an elephant in half does not produce two small elephants. 11. There is no blame.
  17. 17. Larman’s Laws (observations) of Organizational Behavior 1. Organizations are implicitly optimized to avoid changing the status quo middle- and first-level manager and “specialist” positions & power structures. 2. As a corollary to (1), any change initiative will be reduced to redefining or overloading the new terminology to mean basically the same as status quo. 3. As a corollary to (1), any change initiative will be derided as “purist”, “theoretical”, “revolutionary”, "religion", and “needing pragmatic customization for local concerns” -- which deflects from addressing weaknesses and manager/specialist status quo. 4. Culture follows structure. “Attempting to change an organization’s culture is a folly, it always fails. Peoples’ behavior (the culture) is a product of the system; when you change the system peoples’ behavior changes” - John Seddon
  18. 18. Seeing What is Below the Surface
  19. 19. Seeing Structures Using Casual Loop Diagrams
  20. 20. Mental Models “The image of the world around us, which we carry in our head, is just a model. Nobody in his head imagines all the world, government or country. He has only selected concepts, and relationships between them, and uses those to represent the real system.” - Jay Wright Forrester “Although people do not [always] behave congruently with their espoused theories [what they say] they do behave congruently with their theories-in-use[their mental models]” - Chris Argyris
  21. 21. Seeing What is Below the Surface
  22. 22. 12 Leverage Points to Intervene in Systems 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as metrics, standards, KPIs) 11. The size of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows 10. Structure of stocks and flow (example – value streams, functional silos) 9. Length of delays, relative to the rate of system changes 8. Strength of balancing feedback loops, relative to the effect they are trying to correct against 7. Gain around driving reinforcing feedback loops 6. Structure of information flow (who does and does not have access to what kinds of information) 5. Rules of the system (such as incentives, punishment, constraints) 4. Power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure 3. Goal of the system 2. Mind-set or paradigm that the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises from 1. Power to transcend paradigms
  23. 23. Whole Product Focus
  24. 24. More with LeSS
  25. 25. More with LeSS • From Empirical Process Control: more learning and adaption with less defined processes, prescriptions, and formulas. More based on principles, less based on detailed practices. • From Scaling: compared to many traditional and alternative approaches to scaling, less roles, less artifacts, less single-specialist groups, less overhead, less handoff and information scatter, less indirection between developers and customers. • From Agile Values: more organizational agility (flexibility) with less complexity. • From Lean Thinking: more value with less waste and overhead. • From Impact Mapping and Value-Driven Development: more outcome with less outputs
  26. 26. Queueing Theory
  27. 27. The Frameworks - LeSS Applicable from 2 to “8 “teams Image Source: http://less.works
  28. 28. The term “LeSS” is over-loaded LeSS : Principles + Framework + Guides + Experiments “Basic” LeSS framework (formerly Framework 1) Image Source: http://less.works
  29. 29. The Frameworks – LeSS Huge Applicable to “8+” teams Requirement Area
  30. 30. Product Owner, Product Backlog, and Increment Product Backlog Product Owner Increment
  31. 31. Our Focus: LeSS, not LeSS Huge Sprint Planning, Review and Retrospective synchronized Product Backlog Refinement is coordinated between the teams Source: http://less.works
  32. 32. Just One Product Owner? Yes !!! • LeSS Principle: Customer centric, “Whole Product” focus • Prioritization (Ordering) over clarification • Avoid burnouts • Product Owner as a connector, not a bottleneck in communication • Teams can and should directly work with stakeholders and other teams • Focus on • Direction, prioritization, politics, market dynamics • Watch out for • “more details”, administrativia, co-ordination, market study • Delegate (to teams) • Managing dependencies and inter-team coordination, challenging estimates, relaying information
  33. 33. Pick the Right Product Owner (Product Development) Image Source: http://less.works
  34. 34. Pick the Right Product Owner (Internal (Product) Development) Business Development/ Technology/ IT Image Source: http://less.works
  35. 35. Pick the Right Product Owner (Project Development / Client- Vendor Scenario) Company receiving the system Development Company Image Source: http://less.works
  36. 36. LeSS Structure: Feature Team • Each team is self-managed, cross-functional, co- located, and long-lived (even if multiple teams are spread across geography) • Majority of the teams are customer-focused teams • Specialize in “customer dimension” (billing, payments instead of iOS team, android team) • Give work to teams, don’t create teams for work • Team members are “multi-learners” (technical, domain, etc) Image Source: http://less.works
  37. 37. LeSS Structure: Feature Team Hint: Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility Image Source: http://less.works
  38. 38. Component Teams to Feature Teams Specification team System Engineering team Component 1 team Firmware team Testing/ Verification Team Documentation Team Component 2 team Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Scrum is NOT for these disassociated groups PMO with Program/Portfolio Managers
  39. 39. Specification team System Engineering team Component 1 team Self Designing Teams Firmware team Testing/ Verification Team Documentation Team Component 2 team Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Feature Team Alpha Feature Team Wen Feature Team “The Beer Drinkers” Feature Team “The A- Team” Component Teams to Feature Teams
  40. 40. How will ex-functional managers, ex-component managers, and specialists react to this change? What will their new role be? Right Discussion: Change Implication of Component Teams to Feature Teams
  41. 41. Scrum Guide: ...no title other than (Product) Development Team Member regardless of the work being performed.... No exception to this rule What are the implication of this on performance reviews, HR policies and processes? Left Discussion: Change Implication of Component Teams to Feature Teams
  42. 42. How will ex-functional managers, ex-component managers, and specialists react to this change? What will their new role be? LeftRight Scrum Guide: ...no title other than (Product) Development Team Member regardless of the work being performed.... No exception to this rule What are the implication of this on performance reviews, HR policies and processes? Discussion: Change Implication of Component Teams to Feature Teams
  43. 43. Lean Principle – Respect for People Job safety and salary safety but no role safety
  44. 44. Scrum Master is a Full-Time role (One Scrum Master can serve 1-3 teams) Focus Time Organization Development Practices Team Product Owner Image Source: http://less.works
  45. 45. LeSS Guide for Scrum Master • Don’t be the teams’ personal assistant • Enable co-ordination between teams • Have teams’ take more ownership • Avoid being an “anti-Scrum Master” • Promote multi-learning • Create LeSS Community • Create Scrum Master Community • Learn large-group facilitation techniques • Survive (and thrive) in the organization • Patience, low expectation, courage, persistence, open and humble, sense of humor • Partner with Managers and executives
  46. 46. LeSS Meetings: Sprint Planning (2 week Sprint) Image Source: http://less.works
  47. 47. LeSS Meetings: Sprint Planning 1 • Product Owner brings the ordered Product Backlog • PO / SMEs clarify Product Backlog Items, if needed • Teams (if only 2) / team representatives (more than 2 teams) decide which items to pick • Spread risk among teams. If items higher up in the backlog are not equally spread out, PO can change the distribution • The teams should be able to complete PBIs end-to- end with minimal dependencies Tips If teams have many questions during SP1, PBR is not rigorous If there are too many cross-team coordination issues, the teams are not true feature teams
  48. 48. LeSS Meetings: Sprint Planning 2 • Teams decide “How” • One room, multiple teams • Shared design • Each team creates their own Sprint Backlog • Team members interact and co-ordinate throughout the Sprint
  49. 49. LeSS Meetings: Daily Scrum • ... is no different from a single-team Scrum • ... can be used for coordination between teams by having people from other teams join in to observe. • ... is a meeting for the Team, not for the Scrum Master or managers. Scrum of Scrum • 2 or 3 times per week • Team is represented by team member, not SM or PO • Can be a sign of unnecessary dependency or coordination problems caused by single-function groups and component teams, or by teams not able or willing to identify and do shared work.
  50. 50. Coordination during the Sprint Just Talk !!!
  51. 51. Coordination during the Sprint <html> <body> #include <stdio.h> Select id, name from <table> Communicate in Code Barriers to integration are barriers to coordination
  52. 52. Use CommunitiesAvoid Branching Coordination during the Sprint
  53. 53. Coordination during the Sprint Decentralized (preferred) • Send the Ambassador (to other teams’ Daily Scrum) • Travellers • Multi-site Shared Space (e.g. “always on” webcams) • Environment Mapping (explore teams’ dependencies) • Coordination Working Agreements Centralized • Open Spaces • Scrum - of - Scrums • Town Hall
  54. 54. Product Backlog Refinement in LeSS Image Source: http://less.works
  55. 55. LeSS Meetings: Sprint Review For larger teams, use Diverge-Merge techniques
  56. 56. LeSS Meetings: Sprint RetrospectiveIndividualTeam Retrospectives Overall Retrospective 1.5 hours per 2 week sprint Image Source: http://less.works
  57. 57. How are you implementing some of these practices currently?
  58. 58. ONE Definition of Done for the Product • Not one DoD per team, but Teams can extend the “base” version of DoD • Must be created before the first Sprint during Initial Product Backlog Refinement by Teams and Product Owner • Steps • Identify all activities (technical, non-technical) that should be performed to ship the product to end customer (Perfect DoD for PSPI) • Identify activities that can be done within each Sprint considering current capabilities, context, skills, etc. (Current DoD) Work “done” ( in iteration) = current DoD x Product Backlog Item “Undone” work = work for Perfect DoD – work “done” as per current DoD LeSS Principle - Continuous Improvement Towards Perfection “Undone” Increment reduces transparency. So as time progresses, current DoD becomes more rigorous and there is no “Undone” work
  59. 59. If you can, get a perfect DoD before Sprint 1
  60. 60. If you end up having “Undone” work.... Image Source: http://less.works
  61. 61. If you end up having “Undone” work.... Image Source: http://less.works
  62. 62. LeSS Organizational Structure Goes away (integrated into teams) as teams get better. Is not architecture, DBA or testing What is missing? Image Source: http://less.works
  63. 63. Management Image Source: http://less.works
  64. 64. Organizational Agility is constrained by Technical Agility Image Source: http://less.works
  65. 65. Adopting LeSS Image Source: http://less.works
  66. 66. Adoption: Three Principles Deep and narrow over broad and shallow
  67. 67. Adoption: Three Principles Bottom-up and Top-Down
  68. 68. Adoption: Three Principles Use Volunteering
  69. 69. Coaching • Internal vs External coaching • Three levels of Coaching • Organizational Coach • Team level (or LeSS coach) • Technical practices Image Source: http://less.works
  70. 70. Feature Team Adoption Map Image Source: http://less.works
  71. 71. Getting Started 1. Educate everyone 2. Define ‘product’ 3. Define ‘done’ 4. Have appropriately-structured teams 5. Only the Product Owner gives work to the teams 6. Keep project managers away from the teams Image Source: http://less.works
  72. 72. Seeing What is Below the Surface
  73. 73. One More Exercise...
  74. 74. More with LeSS Change your mental models
  75. 75. Thank You Connect with him in LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/ramvasan (please mention this session and your email) and get access to more contents including beta access to chapters from the upcoming book “Large Scale Scrum” by Craig Larman and Bas Vodde Follow Ram’s blogs and get exclusive Agile tips http://InnovAgility.com Ram helps his clients transform to a high-performing organization. Contact Ram for your consulting and training needs.

×