Chapter 3(methodology) Rough


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Rough methodology, it is not the final one

Chapter 3(methodology) Rough

  1. 1. Chapter Three Research Methodology3.1 IntroductionsResearch is a scientific inquiry aimed at learning new facts, testing ideas, etc. It is thesystematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data to generate new knowledgeand answer a certain question or solve a problem(Yigzaw, 2006).Research methodologyis a way to systematically solve the research problem. It maybe understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it westudy the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying hisresearch problem along with the logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcherto know not only the research methods or techniquesbut also the methodology.Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests,how tocalculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, howtoapply particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of thesemethods or techniques,are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean andindicate and why. Researchers alsoneed to understand the assumptions underlyingvarious techniques and they need to know the criteriaby which they can decide thatcertain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problemsand otherswill not. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design hismethodologyfor his problem as the same may differ from problem toproblem(Kothari, 2004). 1
  2. 2. This chapter describes the procedural or methodological aspects used in collecting,interpreting, analyzing, compiling and evaluating the data.Under this chapter it hasIntroduction, Philosophy, Research philosophy, philosophical worldviews, researchapproach, research design, sampling design, universe and sample size, samplingfilters, types of data sources, data collection strategy, formations of questionnaires andchecklist, reliability and validity test of research instruments, language translation-back-translation, discussion with expert, pilot study, data analysis and ethicalconsideration. The main objective of this chapter is to explain various techniques andtools used for data collection, analysis and interpretation.They are discussed in detailin this chapter.The research and research methodology or process can be shown in the figure below:Figure-1: Methodological Structure. 2
  3. 3. 3.2 PhilosophyPhilosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connectedwith reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy isdistinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generallysystematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.In more casual speech, byextension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes ofan individual or group"(WIKIPEDIA, 2013).The word "Philosophy" was usedaround in 580 BC by Pythagoras of Somos for thefirst time. In the very beginning philosophy was used for thepublicity of knowledge ofa person or a group and used to say discover of curiosity and meaning. But at presentthe philosophy is also known as science of the science. Philosophy investigates andexplores the answer of the questions like – what is human?, What is life?, What is thepurpose of successful and real life?, What is the nature of universe?, What is death?,Is there another world except earth?, Is there god or not?, What is truth-untruth?(Jha,2002)The word „Philosophy‟ involves two Greekwords – Philo meaning love and Sophiameaning knowledge. Thusliterally speaking, philosophy means love of wisdom. Manis a rationalanimal. Desire for knowledge arises from this rational nature ofman.Philosophy is an attempt to satisfy this very reasonable desire.Philosophysignifies a natural and necessary urge in human-beings to know themselves and worldin which they live, move and have their being.It is impossible for man to live withouta philosophy. The choice is not„between metaphysic and no metaphysic; it is betweena goodmetaphysic and a bad metaphysic‟(Dube, 2009). 3
  4. 4. Aristotle used to say Philosophy is the grouping of the knowledge of Universe". Andaccording to Socrates "Philosophyis the knowledge of truth". Likewise Zeigler stated"The philosophy is the branch of learning, which investigates, evaluates, andintegrates knowledge of reality as best as possible into one or more systemsembodying all available wisdom about the universe"(Jha, 2002).Philosophy provides the guidelines to conduct research study. This research was alsoconducted through the guidelines acquired from philosophy.3.2.1 Research PhilosophyResearch philosophy denotes to the systematic search for existence, knowledge,values, reasons, mind, and language. This research requires an open mind in order toestablish facts to both new and existing obscurities. Plato and Aristotle are regarded asthe father of philosophy.Easterby-Smith et al (2008:56) explain that failure to think through philosophicalissues can seriously affect the quality of management research. They also outline thatknowledge of philosophy can help the researcher recognize which designs will workbest and that it enables the achievement of a satisfactory outcome for the researchactivity. Saunders et al (2009:107) develop this further and explain that researchphilosophy supports the creation of knowledge in a particular field and is influencedby the way a researcher thinks(Orange, 2010).Philosophical perspectives are worldviews that definethe nature of the world, theindividual‟s place in it, andthe possible relationships to that world and itsparts.Learning and instructional theories are developed withrespect to a particular setof assumptions regardingwhat it means to know and learn. It is our contentionthat 4
  5. 5. when situational variables require some decisionon the part of the educator (and webelieve this isalways the case), an underlying set of assumptions(whether they be tacitor explicit) will, and should,drive the decision. In this chapter we provideoverviewdescriptions of five psychological perspectives, contrastedin terms ofepistemology, ontology, unit of analysis,and whether they suggest dualistrelationships.These theories (behaviorism, cognitivism, cognitiveconstructivism,sociocultural or historicism, and situativitytheory) provide frameworks for describinglearningand designing instruction. It is the goal of this chapterto clarify thesedistinctions and the underlying assumptionsso instructional designers, teachers, andresearchersmay make pedagogical decisions more explicitly(Yildiz, 2010).Research philosophy shows the systematic way to conduct research activities.Philosophy helps to establish relation to both existing and new knowledge and help toselect the proper research design and to create new knowledge and theory too.3.2.2 Philosophical WorldviewsAlthough philosophical ideas remain largely hidden in research (Slife& Williams,1995), they still influence the practice of research and need to be identified. I suggestthat individuals preparing a research proposal or plan make explicit the largerphilosophical ideas they espouse. This information will help explain why they chosequalitative, quantitative, or mixed methods approaches for their research (Creswell,2011).There are four types of philosophical worldviews which guide the researcher towardsthe philosophy of research through which he/she can be able to determine researchdesign to accomplish the research work. The philosophical worldviews have beendescribed below. 5
  6. 6. Post Positivist WorldviewInsights from Dewey, Popper, and Rescher suggest a broad-based post positivistphilosophy mediating critical space between positivism and constructivism basedupon the quest for truth as a regulative ideal within a fallibilistic scientificepistemology. A critical issue in adult literacy education illustrates the viability ofpostpositivist research design as applicable especially to the social sciences. Theobject here is less to draw out the subtle distinctions and potential points of conflictbetween Dewey, Popper, and Rescher, than to highlight some of the ways in whichthe collective impact of their work contributes toward the shaping of a postpositivisttemper(Demetrion, 2004).A Post-positivist research approach advocates methodological pluralism. It is basedon the assumption that the method to be applied in a particular study should beselected based on the research question being addressed. The research described heretakes a post-positivist approach, applying interpretive research in two ways: in anexploratory study of end-user computing conducted prior to a positivism study and ina study of end-user searching behaviours conducted concurrently with a positiviststudy(Wildemuth, 1993).Post positivists hold a deterministic philosophy in which causes probably determineeffects or outcomes. Thus, the problems studied by post-positivists reflect the need toidentify and asses the causes that influence outcomes, such as found in experiments. Itis also reductionistic in that the intent is to reduce the ideas into a small, discrete set ofideas to test, such as the variables that comprise hypotheses and research questions.The knowledge that develops through a positivist lens is based on careful observationand measurement of the objective reality that exists "out there" in the world. Thus, 6
  7. 7. developing numeric measures of observations and studying the behavior ofindividuals becomes paramount for a post-positivist(Creswell, 2011).The Post positivist worldviews can be used for the quantitative research. A part of thisresearch is also quantitative. So, this worldviews also was used in this research study. The Social Constructivist WorldviewSocial constructivists hold assumptions that individuals seek understanding of theworld in which they live and work. Individuals develop subjective meanings of theirexperiences–meanings directed toward certain objects or things. These meanings arevaried and multiple, leading researcher to look for the complexity of views rather thannarrowing meanings into a few categories or ideas. The goal of the research is to relyas much as possible on the participants views of the situation being studied. Thequestions become broad and general so that the participants can construct the meaningof a situation, typically forged in discussions or interactions with otherpersons(Creswell, 2011).Constructivism in education emerged after the behaviorist movement as a welcomeand refreshing view oflearning that centers on the active learner within the teaching-learning process. This emphasis on theindividual (within the greater social context)during instruction has drawn attention to the prior beliefs,knowledge, and skills thatindividuals bring with them. Prior knowledge has been shown tosignificantlyinfluence the ways individuals make meaning out of instruction. Theconstructivist focus on the socialcontext and larger community of learners hasresulted in a major shift away from individually-basedinstruction to instruction thatincorporates and embeds teaching within the larger community of peers,youngerstudents, as well as those who are older. Finally, constructivisms greatest contribution 7
  8. 8. to educationmay be through the shift in emphasis from knowledge as a product toknowing as a process. This legacy ofconstructivism will likely prove to be a lastingand meaningful shift in the structure of schooling(Brader-Araje, 2002).The Social Constructivist Worldview is concerned with the qualitative research. Apart of this research study is also qualitative in nature. So, this philosophicalworldviews was also used in this research. The Advocacy and Participatory WorldviewAn advocacy and participatory worldviewhold that research inquiry needs to beintertwined with politics and a political agenda. Thus, the research contains an actionagenda for reform that may change the lives of the participants, the institutions inwhich individuals work or live, and the researcher‟s life. Moreover, specific issuesneed to be addressed that speak to important social issues of the day, issues such asempowerment, inequality, oppression, domination, suppression, and lineation. Theresearcher often begins with one of these issues as the focal point of the study. Thisresearch also assumes that the inquirer will proceed collaboratively so as to notfurther marginalize the participants as a result of the inquiry. In this sense, theparticipants may help design questions, collect data, analyze information, or reap therewards of the research. Advocacy research provides a voice for these participants,raising their consciousness or advancing an agenda for change to improve their lives.It becomes a united voice for reform and change(Creswell, 2011).This worldviews was in opposition to the post-positivist assumptions because post-positivist worldviews is applied in quantitative research and in experimental study andthe research ia based on the researchers own idea but Advocacy and participatoryworldviews concerned with qualitative research and the researcher take help from the 8
  9. 9. participant to prepare questions, data collection, analyzing the information. It helps toraise the consciousness for change to improve prtipants lives too. This research wasconcerned to participate respondents to change their perception and attitude towardsthe behavioural change. So, this worldviews was used in reserch activities. The Pragmatic WorldviewPragmatism is a method of philosophy begun by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914),popularized by William James (1842-1910), and associated with two other majorearly representatives, John Dewey (1859-1952) and George Herbert Mead (1863-1931). Pragmatism was defined in 1878 by Peirce as follows: “Consider what effectsthat might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of ourconception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of ourconception of the object” (Peirce, 1992: 132)(Halton, 2004).According to John Dewey "Pragmatism is a philosophy of human nature". LikewiseRoss stated that "Pragmatism is essentially a humanistic philosophy maintaining thatman creates his own value in the course of activity, that reality is still in making andawaits part of its complexion from the future, that to an unascertainable extent ourtruths are man-made products"(Jha, 2002).A pragmatic research philosophy is introduced that embraces mixed-methodapproaches to applied research questions. With its origins in the work of Peirce(1984), James (1907), Dewey (1931), and contemporary support from Rorty (1982,1990, 1991), pragmatism emphasizes the practical problems experienced by people,the research questions posited, and the consequences of inquiry. As a way to highlightapplications of pragmatism in sport psychology, pragmatism is compared toconstructivism and positivism in terms of philosophical underpinnings and 9
  10. 10. methodological applications. The pragmatic researcher is sensitive to the social,historical, and political context from which inquiry begins and considers morality,ethics, and issues of social justice to be important throughout the research process.Pragmatists often use pluralistic methods during multiphase research projects.Exemplar design types are discussed that logically cohere to a pragmatic researchphilosophy(Giacobbi, Pazwardowski, & Hager, 2005).Pragmatism is the philosophy of common sense. It uses purposeful human inquiry as afocal point. Inquiry is viewed as a continuing process which acknowledges thequalitative nature of human experience as problematic situations emerge and arerecognized. Recognition involves the doubt associated with questioning existingbelief systems. Doubt is resolves through critical reasoning and ultimately tested inaction. It is the philosophy of common sense, because actions are assessed in light ofpractical consequences. Finally, inquiry is not necessarily limited to individual effort;rather it often incorporates a "community of inquirers". The applicability ofpragmatism to Public Administration inquiry flows from the above definition(Shields,1998).This article discusses the use of a pragmatic approach as the philosophical foundationof pedagogy in Finnish universities of applied sciences. It is presented that themission of the universities of applied sciences falls into the interpretive paradigm ofsocial sciences. This view is used as a starting point for a discussion aboutpragmatism in higher education. The Learning by Developing (LbD) action model isintroduced, analyzed and compared to pragmatism. The paper concludes that, at leastin practice-oriented academic subjects, a pragmatic approach to pedagogy, as well as 10
  11. 11. the LbD action model, is effective and could be considered in several universities asthe basis of philosophy of pedagogy(Raij, 2011).This research is based on the philosophy, Pragmatism. It is concerned with learningby doing, learning by trial and error and learning by experiences. Pragmatism dealswith both approaches i.e. Inductive and Deductive and both qualitative andquantitative methods of research. This study is also based on both the qualitative andquantitative or mixed method. So, this research study is guided by Pragmatism.3.3 Research ApproachesResearch approach refers to the way of conducting research. There are two types ofresearch approaches which are used in the research methodologies; they are Inductiveand deductive approaches. The research approach is decided on the basis of researchquestion. Inductive approach is planned at the time flow needed from specific togeneral. Similarly, deductive approach is in case when the topic demand flow fromgeneral to specific.This research is based on both inductive and deductive approaches.3.3.1 Inductive ApproachInductive reasoning is a theory building process, starting with observations of specificinstances, and seeking to establish generalisations about the phenomenon underinvestigation(Hyde, 2000).Ageneral inductive approach for analysis of qualitative evaluation data is described.Thepurposes for using an inductive approach are to (a) condense rawtextual data intoa brief, summaryformat; (b) establish clear links between the evaluation or researchobjectives and the summaryfindings derived from the rawdata; and (c) develop aframework of the underlying structure of experiencesor processes that are evident in 11
  12. 12. the raw data. The general inductive approach provides aneasily used and systematicset of procedures for analyzing qualitative data that can produce reliableand validfindings. Although the general inductive approach is not as strong as some otheranalyticstrategies for theory or model development, it does provide a simple,straightforward approach forderiving findings in the context of focused evaluationquestions. Many evaluators are likely to findusing a general inductive approach lesscomplicated than using other approaches to qualitative dataanalysis(Thomas D. R.,2006).Inductive approach helps to generate new theory.It is less complicated than otherapproaches. It provides easily used and systematic procedures for analyzingqualitative data and reliable and valid findings. It is not much strong as analyticalapproaches but it provides simple approach to derive findings.3.3.2 Deductive ApproachDeductive reasoning is a theory testing process which commences with an establishedtheory or generalisation, and seeks to see if the theory applies to specificinstances(Hyde, 2000).Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic or logical deduction or, informally, "top-down" logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more general statements(premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion(Wikipedia, 2013).Deductive approach is "a methodof reasoning by which (1) concrete applications orconsequences are deducted from general principles or (2) theorems are deduced fromdefinitions and postulates-compare" (Webster, 2013). 12
  13. 13. Deductive approach tests the theory. It helps to reach in certain logical conclusion.Actual consequences are deducted from general principal and theorems are deductedfrom definitions in this approach. So this approach was used in testing the theory,which was used in research as a guide.This research is based on mixed method in which both inductive and deductiveapproaches were used. The qualitative research is guided by the Inductive Approachand the quantitative research is guided by Deductive Approach whereas Inductiveapproach is used to generate the theory and Deductive Approach is used to test thetheory. So both approaches were used in this research study to test the existing theoryof behaviour and to generate the suitable theory of reproductive health behavior.3.4Research designA research design is a procedural plan that is adopted by the researcher to answerquestions validly, objectively, accurately and economically. According to Jahoda etal. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis ofdata in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose witheconomy in procedure(1962:50) (Kumar, 1999).The formidable problem that follows the task of defining the research problem is thepreparation ofthe design of the research project, popularly known as the “researchdesign”. Decisions regardingwhat, where, when, how much, by what meansconcerning an inquiry or a research study constitutea research design. “A researchdesign is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis ofdata in a mannerthat aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy inprocedure.”In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within whichresearch is conducted; it constitutesthe blueprint for the collection, measurement and 13
  14. 14. analysis of data. As such the design includes anoutline of what the researcher will dofrom writing the hypothesis and its operational implications tothe final analysis ofdata(Kothari, 2004).Research designs are plans and procedures for research that span the decisions frombroad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection and analysis. This planinvolves several decisions, and they need not to be taken in the order in which theymake sense to me and the order of their presentation here. The overall decisioninvolves which design should be used to study a topic. Informing this decision shouldbe the worldview assumptions the researcher brings to the study; procedures ofinquiry (called strategies); and specific methods of data collection, analysis, andinterpretation. The selection of a research design is also based on the nature of theresearch problem or issue being addressed, the researchers personal experiences, andthe audiences for the study(Creswell, 2011).There are three types of research designs which are mentioned below:Exploratory DesignExploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. Themain purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more preciseinvestigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an operational point ofview. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. Assuch the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough toprovide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Inbuiltflexibility in research design is needed because the research problem, broadly definedinitially, is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies, 14
  15. 15. which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevantdata (Kothari C. R., 2004).Descriptive DesignDescriptive researchstudies are those studies, which are concerned with describing thecharacteristics of a particularindividual, or of a group, whereas diagnostic researchstudies determine the frequency with whichsomething occurs or its association withsomething else. The studies concerning whether certainvariables are associated areexamples of diagnostic research studies(Kothari C. R., 2004).Experimental DesignExperimental design refers to the framework or structure of an experiment and assuch there areseveral experimental designs. We can classify experimental designs intotwo broad categories, viz.,informal experimental designs and formal experimentaldesigns. Informal experimental designs arethose designs that normally use a lesssophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitudes,whereas formalexperimental designs offer relatively more control and use precise statisticalprocedures for analysis(Kothari C. R., 2004).There are three types of research design i.e. explorative, descriptive and experimentaldesign. The researcher uses the suitable design/designs according to his/herobjectives. All three designs have equal importance according to the nature, and thesubject of research. This research study is based on explorative research design forqualitative and descriptive research design for quantitative research. Hence, thisresearch was conducted with both qualitative and quantitative types or mixed types ofresearch method. The research methods are described below: 15
  16. 16. 3.4.1 Quantitative Research StrategyQuantitative research is generally associated with the positivist/post-positivistparadigm. It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form sothat statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn(Freitag, 2009).Quantitative research is a means for testing objective theories by examining therelationship among variables. These variables, in turn, can be measured, typically oninstruments, so that numbered data can be analysed using statistical procedures. Thefinal written report has a set structure consisting of introduction, literature and theory,methods, results, and discussion (Creswell, 2008). Like qualitative researchers, thosewho engage in this form of inquiry have assumptions about testing theoriesdeductively, building in protections against bias, controlling for alternativeexplanations, and being able to generalize and replicate the findings(Creswell, 2011).For the quantitative research following research techniques can beapplied:Survey ResearchIn survey research, independent and dependent variables are used to define the scopeof study, but cannot be explicitly controlled by the researcher. Before conducting thesurvey, the researcher must predicate a model that identifies the expectedrelationships among these variables. The survey is then constructed to test this modelagainst observations of the phenomena (Glasow, 2005).Experimental ResearchExperimental research seeks to determine if a specific treatment influences anoutcome. This impact is assessed by providing a specific treatment to one group and 16
  17. 17. withholding it from another and then determining how both groups scored on anoutcome. Experiments include true experiments, with the random assignment ofsubjects to treatment conditions, and quasi-experiments that use nonrandomizeddesigns (Keppel, 1991). Included within quasi-experiments are single-subjectdesigns(Creswell, 2011).Quantitative research method uses the closed ended questions, predeterminedapproaches and numeric data. It tests or verifies the theories or explanations. Itidentifies variables to study and uses standards of validity and reliability. It helpsresearcher to observe and measure the information numerically. So, the facts orinformation has reliability and validity. This research study is also a quantitativeresearch a kind. So quantitative research strategy was used in this research study toget more reliable and valid data, fact or information related to the subject matters. Thesurvey method was used for the collection of data.3.4.2 QualitativeResearch StrategyQualitative research is the approach usually associated with the social constructivistparadigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality. It is aboutrecording, analysing and attempting to uncover the deeper meaning and significanceof human behaviour and experience, including contradictory beliefs, behaviours andemotions. Researchers are interested in gaining a rich and complex understanding ofpeople‟s experience and not in obtaining information which can be generalized toother larger groups(Freitag, 2009).Qualitative is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals orgroups ascribe to a social or human problem. The process of research involvesemerging questions and procedures, data typically collected in the participants 17
  18. 18. setting, data analysis inductively building from particulars to general themes, and theresearcher making interpretations of the meaning of the data. The final written reporthas a flexible structure. Those who engage in this form of inquiry support a way oflooking at research that honors an inductive style, a focus on individual meaning, andthe importance of rendering the complexity of a situation (adapted from Creswell,2007) (Creswell, 2011)For the qualitative research strategythere are five research strategieswhich aredescribed below:EthnographyEthnography is the study of a certain cultural or ethnic group of people in prolongedperiod of time in a natural setting.Grounded TheoryGrounded theory is the process of deriving theory or theories on the basis ofparticipants view. The two primary characteristics of this design are the constantcomparison of data with emerging categories and theoretical sampling of differentgroups to maximize the similarities and the differences of information(Creswell,2011).Case StudiesThe researcher studies in-depth of a case or a person or group within the certainperiod of time. The researcher collects data using various data collection procedures. 18
  19. 19. Phenomenological ResearchThe researcher identifies the fundamental nature of human experience about thephenomenon as described by the participants. The researcher sets his/her ownexperiences in order to understand participantsexperiences.Narrative ResearchThe researcher studies the lives of people in which one or more individuals providethe stories about their lives.The researcher asks the life stories of the peopleindividually and then combines the views of all to his/her life in collaborativenarratives.Following methods are also suitable for the collection of data during researchstudy:Focus Group DiscussionA focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are askedabout their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service,concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactivegroup setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. The firstfocus groups were created at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA, byassociate director, sociologist Robert K. Merton. The term itself was coined bypsychologist and marketing expert Ernest Dichter (WIKIPEDIA, 2013).In-Depth InterviewIn-depth interviewing, also known as unstructured interviewing, is a type of interviewwhich researchers use to elicit information in order to achieve a holistic understanding 19
  20. 20. of the interviewee‟s point of view or situation; it can also be used to exploreinteresting areas for further investigation. This type of interview involves askinginformants open-ended questions, and probing wherever necessary to obtain datadeemed useful by the researcher. As in-depth interviewing often involves qualitativedata, it is also called qualitative interviewing (Berry, 1999).Qualitative method research strategies use the open ended questions, emergingapproaches, texts or image data. It focuses on a single concept or phenomenon andbrings personal values into the study. It creates an agenda for change or reform. Thisresearch study also applied the qualitative research strategy in some cases for thecreation of agenda related to the adolescents to change or reform the attitude andbehavior towards the adolescents and towards the reproductive health of theadolescents, parents and the societies.3.4.3 MixedMethod Research StrategiesMixed methods research is an approach to inquiry that combines or associates bothqualitative and quantitative forms. It involves philosophical assumption, the use ofqualitative and quantitative approaches, and the mixing of both approaches in a study.Thus it is more than simply collecting and analyzing both kinds of data; it alsoinvolves the use of both approaches in tandem so that the overall strength of a study isgreater than either qualitative or quantitative research (Creswell and PlanoClark,2007) (Creswell, 2011).There are three strategies in mixed method research strategies, which are describedbelow: 20
  21. 21. Sequential Mixed MethodsThe researcher elaborates on the findings of one method to another method. In thismethod the researcher collects the data by using qualitative technique and later onquantitative technique, then compares and generalizes the result to the population.Concurrent Mixed MethodsThe researcher merges the qualitative and quantitative data in order to provide thecomprehensive analysis of the research problems. In this method, the researchercollects the both forms of data in a same time and integrates the information or factsduring the interpretation of the overall results.Transformative Mixed MethodsThe researcher uses a theory as an overarching perspective within a design in whichboth qualitative and quantitative data are contained. It provides a framework for theselection of topic of interest, data collection strategy and the results by the study.Mixed method claims the practical knowledge. Both open and closed ended questions,both emerging and pre-determined approaches and both the qualitative andquantitative data can be used in this method. It helps to integrate the data at differentstages of inquiry and employs the practice of both qualitative and quantitativeresearch.Only quantitative or qualitative research may cause bias in research.Mixedmethod helps to control the bias in research. So, this research was based on mixedmethod for the purpose of minimizing or controlling the different types of biasness. 21
  22. 22. This research study is about the adolescents, who are studying in school especially ingrade 9 to 12. The research topic is "Assessment of Reproductive Health Behaviour ofSchool Adolescents". So the study focuses on the evaluation of reproductive healthbehavior of the school adolescents.The adolescents who are going to school might have more opportunity to know aboutreproductive health than others who have not access the school education. There is thecurriculum of reproductive system, its functions and process too, and the teachersmight give the knowledge about sexual and reproductive health during classroomteaching. The main objectives of the study are to identify the factors influencing thebehaviour towards reproductive health, to find out the access on youth friendlyreproductive health service and to identify the knowledge and behavior on RH andtheir vulnerability on STI.The research study was carried out in Makwanpur District among the schooladolescents of classes 9 to 12. The required data was especially related to thereproductive health and its variables. So, the data were obtained from many journals,books, reports published by institutions and organisations, websites, Newspaper andarticles etc. Likewise the study was planned according to the time frame or schedule.According to the planning, the study was completed.For the selection of sample and to determine the sample size the study area,Makawanpur district was divided into five strata. Four strata were separated on thebasis of electoral constituency in village areas and one stratum is made tomunicipality because there is only one municipality in Makawanpur district and it hasdifferent characteristics than the VDCs as it is more developed area in the district.Only those VDCs are included in the strata where higher secondary schools (up to 12 22
  23. 23. classes) are running. After that the respondents were selected as proportionatestratified sampling method from the sampled schools. Both boys and girls wereincluded as respondent.The data was collected from both sources i.e. primary and secondary. For thecollection of primary data questionnaire, survey, checklist and rating scales were usedand journals, books, reports, newspaper and articles were studied for the collection ofsecondary data. And the collected data from both primary and secondary sources wereanalysed with the help of SPSS, a computer software especially for the quantitativedata and for the analysis of qualitative data or facts ………. was used.After the analysis of required collected data the report was prepared on the basis ofAmerican Psychological Association (APA) style.Across-sectional study was conducted with 400 school adolescents to investigate theirreproductive health behaviour and its insinuations for human health and society inMakawanpur district in Nepal.Both qualitative and quantitative research method (mixed method) were applied forthis research. Across-sectional study was conducted with 400school adolescents tolook into their reproductive health behaviour and its implications for human healthand society in Makawanpur district in Nepal.3.3 Sampling designSample design refers to the means by which one selects the primary units for datacollection and analysis appropriate for a specific research question. These units may 23
  24. 24. consist of states, cities, census enumeration districts, court records, cohorts orindividuals. Irrespective of the kind of unit, data are always collected at specific timesand places about a specific set of cases (a sample) that comprises a selected subset ofa larger sets of cases, times and places ( a population). Answer to research questionsthus takes the form of inferences from samples. A useful sample design warrants theconclusion that ones inferences are both accurate and appropriatelyprecise(Handwerker, 2005).Makawanpur is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-cultural and multi-geographicdistrict. The survey/studywas done in both urban and rural areas of the district. Themultistage sampling technique at different and varied stages was used to choose thearea and respondent for study.There are four electoral constituencies in Makawanpur district,where only onemunicipality and 43 DVCs are there. Among 43 VDCs, only 15 VDCs have highersecondary school (the school running up to 12 classes). The target respondents wereselected from the classes 9-12. So the higher secondary schools were taken asuniverse in VDCs and municipality too.There are 19 higher secondary schools inVDCs and 12 in municipality. But 2 schools are running up to 10 classes only. So,they are eliminated from the universe or population and only 10 schools were taken asuniverse in municipality. All together there are 29 higher secondary schools inMakawanpur district,which was shown in table 1 below. 24
  25. 25. Table 1: Total Number of Higher Secondary Schools in Makawanpur District as Universe.Electoral Constituency Name of VDCs & Name of Higher Sec. Schools Municipality Harnamadi VDC JyotiH.Sec. School JanapriyaH.Sec. School Hatiya VDC BalbodhH.Sec. SchoolElectoral Constituency -1 Chhatiwan VDC MahendraH.Sec. School BuddhaH.Sec. School Phaparbari VDC JanataH.Sec. School Makawanpur Gadhi VDC ChandikaH.Sec. School BhanuH.Sec. School Tistung VDC BajrabarahiH.Sec. School Chitlang VDC SwachchhandaBhairabH.Sec. SchoolElectoral Constituency -2 Palung VDC JanaklyanH.Sec. School Ambhanjyang VDC SharadaH.Sec. School Bhimphedi VDC MahendraH.Sec. School Bhutan DeviH.Sec. School TribhuvanH.Sec. School PragatiH.Sec. School BanshagopalH.Sec. School SiddharthaH.Sec. School ChandrodayH.Sec. SchoolElectoral Constituency -3 Hetauda Municipality AdhunikH.Sec. School TulsiMehar Memorial H.Sec. School Solidarity International H.Sec. School Zenith International H.Sec. School Basamadi VDC NirmalH.Sec. School MahendraKiranH.Sec. School Padampokhari VDC MahendraH.Sec. School Handikhola VDC MahendraJyotiH.Sec. SchoolElectoral Constituency -4 Manahari VDC MahendraKiranH.Sec. School Namtar VDC KalikaH.Sec. School The sample size was taken as proportionately. The proportion of sample was determined with the help of following formulas. There District was divided into five strata. So to find out the required sample size within the stratum, following formula was used, where total number of school (N) =29, total schools in first stratum (N1)=8, total schools in second stratum(N2) = 5, total schools in third stratum (N3) = 10, total schools in stratum four (N4) = 3, and total schools in stratum five (N5) = 3, where required sample size (n) = 10 25
  26. 26. i) Required sample size for stratum 1 (n1)= n.P1,where(P1= ). According to the formula, the required sample size for stratum 1 (n1)= n.P1= 10x0.28=2.8 (approximately 3)ii) Required sample size for stratum 2 (n2) = n.P2, where P2= .According to the formula,the required sample size for stratum 2 (n2) = n. P2 = 10x0.17= 1.7(approximately 2)iii) Required sample size for stratum 3 (n3) = n.P3, where P3= . According to formula,the required sample size for stratum 3(n3) = n.P3 = 10x 0.34=3.4 (approximately 3)iv) Required sample size for stratum 4 (n4) = n.P4, where P4= . According to formula,the required sample size for stratum 4(n4) = n.P4 = 10x 0.10=1 (approximately 1)v) Required sample size for stratum 5 (n5) = n.P5, where P5= . According to formula,the required sample size for stratum 5(n5) = n.P5 = 10x 0.10=1 (approximately 1)Among the higher secondary school in Makawanpur district 10 (34.48%) schoolswere taken as sample. First of all the district was divided into four strata in VDCslevel and one stratum in municipality level on the basis of electoral constituency. Butthere are two strata in electoral constituency No.3, because it has both VDCs andmunicipality. The municipality has its own different characteristics i.e. it is moredeveloped and more facilitated area, so the municipality was separated as singlestratum from the VDCs to have the equal representation from all areas of the district. 26
  27. 27. All together the district was divided into 5 strata. After that 10 schools (which are running up to 12 classes)were selectedaccording to the proportionate stratified sampling from every stratum.Probability random sampling technique was applied to select the school in every stratum. The municipality has both community and institutional schools. So, one institutional school among three was selected as sample, which is shown in table 2. Table 2: Total Number of Strata and Sampled Higher Secondary Schools in Makawanpur District.Electoral Constituency Name of VDCs & Name of Higher Sec. Schools Municipality Harnamadi VDC Janapriya Higher Secondary SchoolElectoral Constituency -1 Chhatiwan VDC Buddha Higher Secondary School (Stratum – 1) MakawanpuGadhi VDC ChandikaH.Sec.SchoolElectoral Constituency -2 Tistung VDC BajrabarahiHigher Secondary School (Stratum – 2) Ambhanjyang VDC SharadaHigher Secondary School Siddhartha Higher Secondary School Stratum-3 Hetauda Municipality TulsiMehar Memorial H.Sec. SchoolElectoral Bhutan Devi H.Sec.SchoolConstituency -3 Stratum-4 Padampokhari VDC Mahendra Higher Secondary SchoolElectoral Constituency -4 Manahari VDC MahendraKiran Higher Sec. School (Stratum – 5) Likewise for the selection of respondent/students proportionate stratified sampling method was used in each class of sampled schools. Fivegirls and five boys were selected from each class (9 to 12 classes) of the sampled schools. The numbers of respondents from every school were 40.All together Total numbers of respondents 27
  28. 28. were 400 in 10 sampled schools.A cross-sectional survey was carried out withinthesample of universe in Makawanpur district.3.4 Universe and Sample sizeOut of the total34,361 schools 33,881 are primary, 13,791 are lower secondary,34,066are basic, 7,938 are secondary, 3,382 are higher secondary and 8,233 aresecondary(Grades 9-12) levels.Out of the total 34,361 schools, 835 are religious schools(Madarasa, Gumba/Viharand Ashram/Gurukul)(MOE, Flash I REPORT 2068 (2011-012), 2012). Likewise the total number of students at secondary, higher secondary andsecondary (grades: 9-12) levels are 848,569; 353,338 and 1,201,907 respectively; ofthe total enrolment at secondary, higher secondary and secondary (grades: 9-12),83.5%, 88.0% and 84.8% are in community schools, whereas 16.5%; 12.0% and15.2% are in institutional schools. Similarly of the total enrolment at the school level,girls‟ enrolment constitutes almost 50.4%,of this, 50.4% at primary level, 50.5% atlower secondary level, 50.4% at basic level, 49.7% at secondary level, 51.2%at highersecondary level and 50.2% at secondary (grades: 9-12) level.(MOE, 2012).For the determination of sample size following formula was used.Sample size (n) = , where confidence level= 1.96, prevalence = 0.5,and marginal error = 0.05 percent. Or [n= .] 28
  29. 29. For the accuracy of data, the researchers have to take minimum 384 sample size.While filling the questionnaire there might be some missing data or errors. So, for theminimization of errors researchers have to select minimum 400 sample size.Respondents were selected through proportionate random sampling technique. Thekey objective of this survey was to find out the adolescents reproductive healthbehaviour influencing factors.3.5 Sampling FiltersThe main aim of a sample is to perform as a trustworthy replacement for the entirestatistical population from which it is taken. The students of different schoolsprovided the statistical respondents. Sampling theory specifies that after theidentification of the statistical respondents, a sampling frame is recognized whichpreferably list the entire individualof the statistical respondents from which a sampleis to be taken.3.5.1 Selection of study areas and its justificationNepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlockedsovereignstate located in South Asia. With an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi)and a population of approximately 27 million (and nearly 2 million absentee workersliving abroad), Nepal is the worlds 93rd largest country by land mass and the 41stmost populous country. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north bythe Peoples Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic ofIndia. Specifically, the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, WestBengal, and Sikkim border Nepal, while across the Himalayas lies the TibetanAutonomous Region. Kathmandu is the nations capital and largest metropolis. 29
  30. 30. Nepal has a rich geography. The mountainous north has eight of the worlds tentallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest, calledSagarmatha in Nepali. It contains more than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft. (6,096 m)above sea level. The fertile and humid south is heavily urbanised.Hinduism is practised by about 81% of Nepalis, making it the country with the highestpercentage of Hindu followers; Buddhism is linked historically with Nepal and ispracticed by 9%, Islam by 4.4%, Kirat 3%, Christianity 1.4%, and animism 0.4%(WIKIPEDIA, 2013).Map of Nepal Makawanpur DistrictMakwanpur District, a part of Narayani Zone, is one of the seventy-five districts ofNepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. The district, with Hetauda as its districtheadquarters, covers an area of 2,426 km², density of 170/km2, altitude of 305-2743 30
  31. 31. metersand had a population of 392,604 in 2001 and 420,477 in 2011(WIKIPEDIA,2012).Makawanpur is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-cultural district. It has variedgeographical features. The people of high classes to low classes on the basis ofeconomic status are living here. One of the big industrial area is in this district and itis famous in the country because of its agricultural activities. People of Terai andfrom other places are migrating in this district for the permanent settlement in thisdistrict because of its suitable climate and environment. The district represents thewhole scenario of the country, Nepal.Makawanpur is one of the famous district of Nepal, in case of girl trafficking.Hundreds of girls aresold from this district out of the country for the purpose ofprostitution. When they return to the district after some years, some of them startprostitution here too. So, this district is vulnerable to STIs, HIV and AIDS. Likewisepremarital sex and sexual activities in some ethnic group is normal. Due to this thereare immature sexual activities among adolescents which lead them to the risk of HIVand other STIs and unsafe abortion.Similarly the average age of marriage in some ethnic group like Tamang, Chepangetc. is low. They do not have proper knowledge of bad effects of early marriage andearly pregnancy.Many NGOs and INGOs are working in the field of reproductive health here inMakawanpur district because of its vulnerability to HIV and other STIs, girltrafficking etc. So Makawanpur district is the suitable area for the research on 31
  32. 32. reproductive health to find out the real situation of the district to assist the nation formaking the strategies to protect the adolescents from RH problem and support themfor healthier and happy life. Study Area (Makawanpur District)3.5.2 Selection of respondents and its justificationA respondent is a person who is called upon to issue a response to a communicationmade by another (Wikipedia, 2012). The respondents of this study were the schooladolescents. School adolescents especially studying in class 9 to 12 are therespondents of the research. Although, the adolescents who have opportunity to gotoschool, are supposed to have more knowledge of reproductive health than the 32
  33. 33. adolescents who are far from the school education, but the school adolescents are alsoequally vulnerable to STIs and other RH related problems.Having knowledge of RH is not enough to get ride from RH issues and problems. Thesexual and reproductive health behavior is more significant for the RH issues.Behaviour is the indicator of both knowledge and attitude of a person. So behaviormust be positive of a person who has got knowledge about sexual and reproductivehealth.Behaviouris the range of actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, orartificial entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the othersystems or organisms around as well as the physical environment. It is the response ofthe system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external,conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary(Wikipedia,2013).Adolescence is a period of curiosity. Especially the adolescents attracted towards theopposite sex. School is the place where many adolescents meet from different societyand cultural practices. During the school time the adolescents, both boys and girls sittogether, share difficulties and problems as well as their feelings of friendship andlove in study period and the way to school from home and way to home from schoolis the suitable place where adolescents propose friendship, love, and the sexualintercourse too. Likewise due to the peer imitation and pressure adolescents fall inlove and plan to meet alone in jungle or any secrete places. This situation is helpfulfor the unsafe sexual intercourse, which leads them towards the damage of life as wellas the STIs and HIV. ……….. 33
  34. 34. 3.6 Ethical Consideration3.7Types of data sources3.8 Data collection strategySocial scientists deal with human beings, which are most sensitive in nature. In suchstudies it isquiteessential that during development of measurement instrument, allaspects of data quality and human nature should be taken into account.3.8.1 Tools of collecting primary dataThe enumerators wereselected,whoformed a team of adolescents (both male andfemale) interviewers for the collection and the compilation of data from theinterviewed adolescents participants. The special course of training to the team fordata collection and gathering information has been arranged. For the data collection, awell-structured interviewing schedule consisting of open-ended and closed endedquestions were prepared in the light of research objectives. The necessary steps tochange the data were taken after the approval of the worthy supervisor, the pre-testwas also held in the Districts by the researcher.The information was collected directly fromtherespondents (school adolescents) byfollowing methods:a. Questionnaire and Surveys: - This includedthe range of response questions, close ended questions, providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. 34
  35. 35. Both the Closed ended and open ended questionnaires were developed to collect thedata, facts and information from the respondents,which is mentioned in appendix 1.b. Interview schedule: This included people to interview, develop the interview questions including open-ended questions and close ended questions and carefully eliminating leading questions. The interview schedule was prepared for the collection of required data and information of respondents, which is mentioned in appendix 2.c. Checklist:A checklist is a type of informational job aid used to reduce failure by compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention. It helps to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task. A basic example is the "to do list." A more advanced checklist would be a schedule, which lays out tasks to be done according to time of day or other factors (WIKIPEDIA, 2013).The checklist was developed to collect the facts and information of the respondentswhich they could not express during interview and filling the questionnaire. It ismentioned in appendix 3.d. Rating Scale:A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute. In the social sciences, common examples are the Likert scale and 1-10 rating scales in which a person selects the number which is considered to reflect the perceived quality of a product(WIKIPEDIA, 2012).The rating scale was developed for the collection of real information or fact or theattitude of the respondents, which is mentioned in appendix 4. 35
  36. 36. 3.8.2 Tools of collecting of secondary dataVarious statistical tools were also used tocollect and analyze the secondary data.a. Document Review: - Obtaining the actual forms and operating documentscurrently being used. Reviews office copies of forms and samples of actualcompleted forms.b. Observation: - analyzing annual reports and press releases, verifying thestatements made during the interviews.c. Web Search: - The information related to outside region (other part of Nepaland(Globe) was studied from internet to other published papers.d. Various policies from National organization weredealt in details by referringvarious government publications and reference books, journals, published datafrom time to time.e. Research of journals, periodicals, technical materials, electronics/internet searches, professionals meetings, seminars and discussions, site visits etc.Sampling like records, reports, operational logs, data entry documents,complaints, andvarious types of forms.3.9 Formations of questionnaires and checklist3.10 Reliability and validity test of research instruments3.10.1 Language translation-back-translation3.10.2 Discussion with expert 36
  37. 37. 3.10.3 Pilot study3.11 Data analysisThe Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for analyzing the data.Frequency distributions of the variables were first obtained and appropriate statisticaltools was applied to check the significance. For the clear representation of statisticsgraph, charts and bar diagrams were used accordingly.For the analysis of qualitativeinformation explanatory method was used. 37