G. V. RamanjaneyuluAGRO-ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES FORSUSTAINING FARM BASED LIVELIHOODS
Agroecology: Several schools of thoughts•   Non Pesticidal Management•   Sustainable Agriculture•   Organic Farming•   Zer...
Aligning with nature• Crops• Cropping Patterns  – Agro-diversity  – Crop cycles• Production practices  – Natural products ...
utilize all spaceimprove soil resilienceextend growing season   Enhance Diversity  Cropping sequenceMultistory arrangement...
Rainwater conservation measures                                        Conservation of the                                ...
Insitu water harvesting
Crop Choices• Market demand• Soil and growing conditions
Critical Stages of crop growth • Paddy: tillering stage, flowering, milking • Maize/jowar: flowering, panicle initiation, ...
Crop duration          Water requirement   cropsOne season (< 4        Low                 Greengram,months               ...
Critical Stages of crop growth • Paddy: tillering stage, flowering, milking • Maize/jowar: flowering, panicle initiation, ...
Crop Choices• Market demand• Soil and growing conditions
Crop duration          Water requirement   cropsOne season (< 4        Low                 Greengram,months               ...
Black soils- Vertisols and associated soils    Shallow soil            Medium deep soil           Deep soilAbout 3.0 m ha ...
Hybrid cotton in                          a deep soilHybrid in a shallowsoil. Hybrids don’tperform well unlesssupplemental...
Based on soil depth • Shallow roots (60 cm): ragi, sama, korra, onion,   cauliflower, cabbage, potato • Medium deep roots ...
Vidarbha–Rainfall Pattern and Water Requirement of Cotton     Moisture availability is extremely critical during boll form...
How China made headway using HDPS with varieties      Year    Population/ha Yield (kg/ha)      1980    90, 000        300 ...
High DensityPlantation in cottonStraight varieties1.Short duration 140-160 days,2.Compact plant type3.6-8 bolls per plant ...
CICR’s Results – 2010-           11Seed cotton yield (kg/ha) – Americancotton 60x30 45x20Spacing cm            30x 30 45x ...
Seed cotton yield (kg/ha) in G     arboreum15 45 x 13.5 30 x 20 45 x 10 30 x 15     Spacing cm 60 x     Population/ha     ...
Technology mission on cotton-network -resultsNon-Bt Genotype under HDPS versus Bt hybrid-(Spacing 45x15 cm for variety and...
System of Rice Intensification• System of Rice Intensification  is a cost effective and  resource efficient method of  cul...
1.   Hilly terrain, UplandModel 1 : (Paddy+Fish+ Azolla) + (pond+duck+fish) +(Home stead garden) + (Livestock) + (Vermicom...
Fruit Trees      Human         Pond + Hen shade          Homestead Garden                     Cow, GoatHigh slope, small  ...
SPICES BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS
2. Semiarid, undulated terrainUpland with Degradedsoil and no irrigation                             Mid-lands (rainfed)  ...
Tuber crops are important strategic crop for dry areas.
Crop Management in Rain-fed areas• Low water consuming crops• Perennials on conservation furrows including green leaf  man...
Crop Management in Rain-fed areas• Perennials on conservation furrows including green  leaf manure plants.• Trees all arou...
Courtesy: Dr. GNS Reddy, BAIF
Agronomic practices-Water harvesting, conservation and use
36Changing to multiple cropping systems
•   Total land area 12 ha                     •   For every 2 ½ acres of land, pits for                         rain water...
Berry…                      Multi-tire pond              Neem,Palmira/      Babool…date palm                   Pigeon pea…...
Midland (Pond bank Management)
Planted at a time, but harvested in different time span. Mixed cropping of different root depth, different height…Jowar,Ba...
3. Humid regionModel 1 : (duck-Fish-Azolla-Paddy) + (Homestead Grden) +(Biodigestor with Biogas plant) + (Livestock) + (po...
Crop Selected: (2 acre IFS      Enterprise allocationmodel):Cereals:(50 percent area)  Rice, wheat,MaizeVegetables(12.5 pe...
ramoo.csa@gmail.com09000699702040-27017735www.agrariancrisis.inwww.krishi.tvWWW.CSA-INDIA.ORG
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
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Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods

  1. 1. G. V. RamanjaneyuluAGRO-ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES FORSUSTAINING FARM BASED LIVELIHOODS
  2. 2. Agroecology: Several schools of thoughts• Non Pesticidal Management• Sustainable Agriculture• Organic Farming• Zero-Budget Natural Farming• Permaculture• Biodynamic farming• Cho Global Natural Farming
  3. 3. Aligning with nature• Crops• Cropping Patterns – Agro-diversity – Crop cycles• Production practices – Natural products – Natural cycles – Natural processes
  4. 4. utilize all spaceimprove soil resilienceextend growing season Enhance Diversity Cropping sequenceMultistory arrangementIntegrating subsystems
  5. 5. Rainwater conservation measures Conservation of the entire rain water in the field itselfComponents include Trench,Conservation furrows, Farm Pond,compost pit , tank silt application.Rs. 48,000 per acre - MGNREGS
  6. 6. Insitu water harvesting
  7. 7. Crop Choices• Market demand• Soil and growing conditions
  8. 8. Critical Stages of crop growth • Paddy: tillering stage, flowering, milking • Maize/jowar: flowering, panicle initiation, milking • Groundnut: flowering, prop root stage, pod formation • Cotton: flowering, boll formation • Soybean/redgram/greengram/blackgram: flowering, grain formation • Sunflower: bud formation, flowering, grain formation
  9. 9. Crop duration Water requirement cropsOne season (< 4 Low Greengram,months blackgram, chickpea, kharif groundnut Medium Jowar, maize, rabi groundnut,More than one season More Cotton, chillies(6-8 months)Year or longer Very high Sugarcane, banana, Mango, Citrus
  10. 10. Critical Stages of crop growth • Paddy: tillering stage, flowering, milking • Maize/jowar: flowering, panicle initiation, milking • Groundnut: flowering, prop root stage, pod formation • Cotton: flowering, boll formation • Soybean/redgram/greengram/blackgram: flowering, grain formation • Sunflower: bud formation, flowering, grain formation
  11. 11. Crop Choices• Market demand• Soil and growing conditions
  12. 12. Crop duration Water requirement cropsOne season (< 4 Low Greengram,months blackgram, chickpea, kharif groundnut Medium Jowar, maize, rabi groundnut,More than one season More Cotton, chillies(6-8 months)Year or longer Very high Sugarcane, banana
  13. 13. Black soils- Vertisols and associated soils Shallow soil Medium deep soil Deep soilAbout 3.0 m ha of rainfed cotton soils are either shallow (< 50 cm ormedium deep (50-75 cm). Is Bt cotton the solution for these soils?
  14. 14. Hybrid cotton in a deep soilHybrid in a shallowsoil. Hybrids don’tperform well unlesssupplementalirrigation is available
  15. 15. Based on soil depth • Shallow roots (60 cm): ragi, sama, korra, onion, cauliflower, cabbage, potato • Medium deep roots (90 cm): groundnut, chillies, wheat, tobacco, castor • Deep roots (120 cm): maize, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, safflower, soybean, tomato, carrot, cucumber
  16. 16. Vidarbha–Rainfall Pattern and Water Requirement of Cotton Moisture availability is extremely critical during boll formation phase Short duration
  17. 17. How China made headway using HDPS with varieties Year Population/ha Yield (kg/ha) 1980 90, 000 300 1990 120,000 900 2000 150,000 1500 2004 180,000 1800
  18. 18. High DensityPlantation in cottonStraight varieties1.Short duration 140-160 days,2.Compact plant type3.6-8 bolls per plant with4.best quality and big bolls5.High density at 250,000 /ha
  19. 19. CICR’s Results – 2010- 11Seed cotton yield (kg/ha) – Americancotton 60x30 45x20Spacing cm 30x 30 45x 13.5 30x20Population/ha 55000 111000 111000 166000 166000 MeanAnjali 502 847 853 966 796 793CNH120MB 1030 976 1139 1250 1289 1137PKV 081 1200 1714 1418 1921 1967 1644NISC 50 1056 890 1103 1016 1052 1023CCH 724 679 843 681 864 835 781Mean 893 1054 1039 1203 1187
  20. 20. Seed cotton yield (kg/ha) in G arboreum15 45 x 13.5 30 x 20 45 x 10 30 x 15 Spacing cm 60 x Population/ha 111000 166000 166000 222000 222000 Mean AKA-07 1163 1349 1456 1815 1419 1441 CINA-404 1430 1550 1610 2173 1772 1707 PA-255 1259 1595 1349 1625 1226 1411 PA-08 1090 1318 1455 1509 1479 1370 JK-5 1223 1452 1151 1842 1734 1480 Mean 1233 1453 1404 1793 1526 Spacing Genotypes Interaction CD at 5% 71.1 73.6 164.6CINA-404 out yielded others at allplanting densities, JK 5 and AKA 7were more dwarf and compact.
  21. 21. Technology mission on cotton-network -resultsNon-Bt Genotype under HDPS versus Bt hybrid-(Spacing 45x15 cm for variety and 90x60 cm for Bt hybrid ) Yield (q/ha) Parbhani Khandwa Genotype 2010-11 2011-12 Genotype 2010-11 2011-12 NH-545 12.85 17.03 Vikram 18.47 14.72 NH-452 12.21 15.23 Khandwa 2 19.11 15.22 PKV-081 12.38 15.40 JK-4 20.14 16.04 Mallika Bt 13.88 — Jai Bt 13.38 — Akola Nandyal PKV-081 17.31 15.87 Narasimha 18.47 18.94 NH-615 16.19 16.19 Sivanandi 18.67 20.42 NH-630 19.07 16.46 NDLH-1938 25.10 23.55 Bunny Bt 10.28 — Bunny Bt 22.98 19.85
  22. 22. System of Rice Intensification• System of Rice Intensification is a cost effective and resource efficient method of cultivation• Extended to sugarcane, wheat, ragi etc 23
  23. 23. 1. Hilly terrain, UplandModel 1 : (Paddy+Fish+ Azolla) + (pond+duck+fish) +(Home stead garden) + (Livestock) + (Vermicompost)Model 2: (Crop Field – Mixed Crop) + (Livestock) +(Composting) + (Backyard vegetable)
  24. 24. Fruit Trees Human Pond + Hen shade Homestead Garden Cow, GoatHigh slope, small Compost/Vermicompostamount of landaround homestead Pig Shade
  25. 25. SPICES BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS
  26. 26. 2. Semiarid, undulated terrainUpland with Degradedsoil and no irrigation Mid-lands (rainfed) Mild SlopesFruit Trees+ Community woodlots Mixed food grain +Intercropping planted with for firewood-fodder- integrated farms +Roselle, Pigeon Peas & other NTFP vegetable cultivation +Blackgram during early productions Nitrogen fixingstage & Yam at late stage + trees/shrubs as hedgerows+ Improved or living fences +Infiltration ditched and pastureland with tree Diamond beds for fruitSemi-circular bunds canopy trees with vegetables + Contour line hedgerows + water recharge and infiltration bunds. water storage pond
  27. 27. Tuber crops are important strategic crop for dry areas.
  28. 28. Crop Management in Rain-fed areas• Low water consuming crops• Perennials on conservation furrows including green leaf manure plants.• 7 tiered crop canopy ( 36*36 model ) near farm pond.
  29. 29. Crop Management in Rain-fed areas• Perennials on conservation furrows including green leaf manure plants.• Trees all around trench on farm boundary.• Cropping pattern with red gram in between the conservation furrows in 2:1 and 5:1 with millets and groundnut respectively.
  30. 30. Courtesy: Dr. GNS Reddy, BAIF
  31. 31. Agronomic practices-Water harvesting, conservation and use
  32. 32. 36Changing to multiple cropping systems
  33. 33. • Total land area 12 ha • For every 2 ½ acres of land, pits for rain water harvesting were dug. • Every year, 10 tonnes of biomass per acre of land is being incorporated in the soil. • Total trees in the farm are around 3000, among them 2000 are teak plants others include mango, sapota, neem, tamarind, jamun, papaya, sithaphal etc. • Trees helps in reducing temperature by 3-4 0 • They also help in attracting birds to kill pests and adding bio mass.Subash Sharma, /Dorli, Yavatml, Maharashtra
  34. 34. Berry… Multi-tire pond Neem,Palmira/ Babool…date palm Pigeon pea… St ep
  35. 35. Midland (Pond bank Management)
  36. 36. Planted at a time, but harvested in different time span. Mixed cropping of different root depth, different height…Jowar,Bajra… Pigeon pea, Guar … Sesame, Roselle… Ragi, Beans… korra etc
  37. 37. 3. Humid regionModel 1 : (duck-Fish-Azolla-Paddy) + (Homestead Grden) +(Biodigestor with Biogas plant) + (Livestock) + (pond + duckhouseand scaffold over the pond).Model 2 : banana + Fruit Trees + Creepers + Tuber + Fodder) +(Biodegestor) + (Vegetable + Medicinal Plant + Azolla in homestead) + (Apiculture + Mushroom)Nutrition Garden : Leafy Vegetable + Vegetable + Spices+ Tuber + Herbal + Beans
  38. 38. Crop Selected: (2 acre IFS Enterprise allocationmodel):Cereals:(50 percent area) Rice, wheat,MaizeVegetables(12.5 percent area)Rabi-Tomato, Pea,cabbage,BrinjalSummer: Brinjal,Cowpea, Okra,CucurbitsKharif:CucurbitsFodders (12.0% area)Rabi: Berseem, Oat, MaizeSummer:Cow pea, Sudangrass,maizeKharif:Maize, MP chari/sudangrasVegetables on field bunds(4%)Rabi:Tomato,Cauliflower/cabbage, BrinjalSummer: cowpea ,Bitter gourdand OkraKharif: Cucurbits
  39. 39. ramoo.csa@gmail.com09000699702040-27017735www.agrariancrisis.inwww.krishi.tvWWW.CSA-INDIA.ORG

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