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Agro-ecological approaches for sustaining farm based livelihoods
G. V. RamanjaneyuluAGRO-ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES FORSUSTAINING FARM BASED LIVELIHOODS
Agroecology: Several schools of thoughts• Non Pesticidal Management• Sustainable Agriculture• Organic Farming• Zero-Budget Natural Farming• Permaculture• Biodynamic farming• Cho Global Natural Farming
utilize all spaceimprove soil resilienceextend growing season Enhance Diversity Cropping sequenceMultistory arrangementIntegrating subsystems
Rainwater conservation measures Conservation of the entire rain water in the field itselfComponents include Trench,Conservation furrows, Farm Pond,compost pit , tank silt application.Rs. 48,000 per acre - MGNREGS
Crop duration Water requirement cropsOne season (< 4 Low Greengram,months blackgram, chickpea, kharif groundnut Medium Jowar, maize, rabi groundnut,More than one season More Cotton, chillies(6-8 months)Year or longer Very high Sugarcane, banana, Mango, Citrus
Crop Choices• Market demand• Soil and growing conditions
Crop duration Water requirement cropsOne season (< 4 Low Greengram,months blackgram, chickpea, kharif groundnut Medium Jowar, maize, rabi groundnut,More than one season More Cotton, chillies(6-8 months)Year or longer Very high Sugarcane, banana
Black soils- Vertisols and associated soils Shallow soil Medium deep soil Deep soilAbout 3.0 m ha of rainfed cotton soils are either shallow (< 50 cm ormedium deep (50-75 cm). Is Bt cotton the solution for these soils?
Hybrid cotton in a deep soilHybrid in a shallowsoil. Hybrids don’tperform well unlesssupplementalirrigation is available
Based on soil depth • Shallow roots (60 cm): ragi, sama, korra, onion, cauliflower, cabbage, potato • Medium deep roots (90 cm): groundnut, chillies, wheat, tobacco, castor • Deep roots (120 cm): maize, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, safflower, soybean, tomato, carrot, cucumber
Vidarbha–Rainfall Pattern and Water Requirement of Cotton Moisture availability is extremely critical during boll formation phase Short duration
How China made headway using HDPS with varieties Year Population/ha Yield (kg/ha) 1980 90, 000 300 1990 120,000 900 2000 150,000 1500 2004 180,000 1800
High DensityPlantation in cottonStraight varieties1.Short duration 140-160 days,2.Compact plant type3.6-8 bolls per plant with4.best quality and big bolls5.High density at 250,000 /ha
2. Semiarid, undulated terrainUpland with Degradedsoil and no irrigation Mid-lands (rainfed) Mild SlopesFruit Trees+ Community woodlots Mixed food grain +Intercropping planted with for firewood-fodder- integrated farms +Roselle, Pigeon Peas & other NTFP vegetable cultivation +Blackgram during early productions Nitrogen fixingstage & Yam at late stage + trees/shrubs as hedgerows+ Improved or living fences +Infiltration ditched and pastureland with tree Diamond beds for fruitSemi-circular bunds canopy trees with vegetables + Contour line hedgerows + water recharge and infiltration bunds. water storage pond
Tuber crops are important strategic crop for dry areas.
Crop Management in Rain-fed areas• Low water consuming crops• Perennials on conservation furrows including green leaf manure plants.• 7 tiered crop canopy ( 36*36 model ) near farm pond.
Crop Management in Rain-fed areas• Perennials on conservation furrows including green leaf manure plants.• Trees all around trench on farm boundary.• Cropping pattern with red gram in between the conservation furrows in 2:1 and 5:1 with millets and groundnut respectively.
• Total land area 12 ha • For every 2 ½ acres of land, pits for rain water harvesting were dug. • Every year, 10 tonnes of biomass per acre of land is being incorporated in the soil. • Total trees in the farm are around 3000, among them 2000 are teak plants others include mango, sapota, neem, tamarind, jamun, papaya, sithaphal etc. • Trees helps in reducing temperature by 3-4 0 • They also help in attracting birds to kill pests and adding bio mass.Subash Sharma, /Dorli, Yavatml, Maharashtra
Berry… Multi-tire pond Neem,Palmira/ Babool…date palm Pigeon pea… St ep