130601 sustainaing small holder agriculture

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  • 130601 sustainaing small holder agriculture

    1. 1. Sustaining Small Holder Agriculture in IndiaRamanjaneyuluCentre for Sustainable Agriculture…caring for those who feed the nationAndhra Pradesh Maharashtra Punjab
    2. 2. Green Revolution Paradigm• Synergy between technology and public policy• Nation’s self sufficiency as goal• Public Sector playing major role• Public extension• Irrigation playing major role• Technology transfer public to private• Free technology• Input intensive• Controlled markets• Public Distribution System
    3. 3. Green Revolution• is based on maximizing the output of a narrow rangeof species leading to monoculture of crops andvarieties• is based on capital depletion and massive additions ofexternal inputs (e.g. water, chemicals)• High energy consuming: fossil fuel, chemical fertilizers,chemicals, processing, storage, transport• views the farm as a factory with “inputs” (such aspesticides, feed, fertilizer, and fuel) and “outputs”(grain, cotton, chicken, and so forth)• never cared about the externalities
    4. 4. 0200040006000800010000120001400016000180002000019951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011Farmers suicides in IndiaNo. of suicidesSource: NCRB 1995-2010Total 270,940 in 17 years• an annual average of 14,462 in six years, from 1995 to 2000• a yearly average of 16,743 in 11 years between 2001 and 2011• around 46 farmers’ suicides each day, on average or nearly one every half-hoursince 2001• Farmers Suicide Rate is 16.3% compared to 11.1 % among rest of Indians (47%higher)
    5. 5. • two-thirds of the suicides areoccurring in half-a-dozenStates that account for justabout one-third of thecountry’s populationState Farmer Suicides Difference1995-2002 2003-2010Andhra Pradesh 1590 2301 +711Karnataka 2259 2123 -136MP+Chhattisgarh 2304 2829 +525Maharashtra 2508 3802 +1294Source: NCRB Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Reports 1995-2010
    6. 6. Post Green Revolution: dominant paradigm Proprietary technologies GM intensive Monoculture-monopoly Decreasing role of public research and extension• Realignment of links in the trade• Free markets: Shift from spot markets to specialized wholesalers toguarantee q and q leading to new intermediaries and logistics• Contract farming-Preference for limited transactions• Rise of private standards-Quality, safety not common for internal trade
    7. 7. What do Census-2011 say• Cultivators are 118.7 million (24.6%)and Agricultural Labourers are 144.3(30.0%)• Proportion of cultivators reduced from31.7 % and agriculture workersincreased from 26.5% in 2001• Main cultivators only 95.8 million (< 8per cent of the population) down from103 million in 2001 and 110 million in1991.• 15 million farmers (‘Main’ cultivators)fewer than there were in 1991 andover 7.7 million less since 2001• Agriculture workers numbersincreased from 63.4 m to 86.1 mbetween 2001-11• On average about 2,035 farmers losing‘Main Cultivator’ status every singleday for the last 20 years
    8. 8. Where are they going?• From 2004-05 to 2009-10, only 2 million additional employmentwas generated but 55 million were added to working agepopulation!• 25.1 million people lost their self-employment• Increase in the number of casual workers by 21.9 million, whilegrowth in the number of regular workers nearly halved between2004-05 and 2009-10, compared with the previous 5 year period.Sector 2004-05 2009-10 DifferenceAgriculture 258.93 243.21 -15.71Manufacturing 55.77 48.54 -7.23Services 112.81 112.33 -0.48Non-Manufacturing(construction)29.96 56.10 26.14TOTAL 457.46 460.18 2.72Sector-wise unemployment (millions)
    9. 9. Lives not better….66thNSSO survey says• Per capita expenditure of urban India was 88% higher than rural India• Average MPCE in 2009-10 to be Rs. 1054 and Rs. 1984 in rural India andurban India respectively• Top 10% of India’s rural population having an average MPCE (Rs. 2517) 5.6times that of the poorest 10% (Rs. 453)• Top 10% of urban population having a 9.8 times higher average MPCE (Rs.5863) compared that of the bottom 10% (Rs. 599)• Considering the average rural MPCE value of Rs. 1054 in isolation wouldbe partially misleading. The rural MPCE median of Rs. 895 (about Rs. 30per day) implies that half the rural population had MPCE below this level.• 40% of the rural population had MPCE below Rs. 800 while 60% had MPCEbelow Rs. 1000• Compared to the rural median MPCE (Rs. 895), the urban median MPCElevel was 1.68 times higher at Rs. 1502 with 30% of the urban populationhaving MPCE above Rs. 2100 and 20% having MPCE above Rs. 2600.
    10. 10. Income and Expenditure of farmersLandholdingCategory TotalIncome(Rs/month)Expenditure(Rs/month)Percent offarmers<0.01 Landless 1380 2297 36 %0.01-0.4 Sub marginal 1633 23900.4-1.0 Marginal 1809 2672 31 %1.0-2.0 Small 2493 3148 17 %2.0-4.0 Semi-medium 3589 3685 10 %4.0-10.0 Medium 5681 4626 6 %>10.0 Large 9667 6418Total 2115 2770 AllfarmersSource: Report “On Conditions Of Work And Promotion Of Livelihoods In The Unorganised Sector” Arjun SenGupta Committee, 2007•Income per ha in Karnataka from Rs.8809 to Rs.5671•Income per ha in Maharashtra from Rs.4194 to Rs.3047
    11. 11. Smaller holdings• Between 1960-61 and 2003, the total number ofoperational holdings increased from 50.77 millionto 101.27 million.• During the same period, the total operated areadeclined from 133.46 million hectares to 107.65million hectares.• Thus average operated area declined from 2.63hectares to 1.06 hectares.(NSSO, Some Aspects of Operational Land Holdingsin India, various issues, 2003)
    12. 12. Reducing institutional credit• The share of agricultural credit in total bank lending nearly doubledfrom around 10% in the mid-1970s to about 18% in the late 1980s.• The share of agricultural credit in total bank lending declined fromthe peak of 18% in the late 1980s to about 11% in 2005, the declinehas continued since then.• Rural branches of commercial banks has declined from 51.2% inMarch 1996 to 45.7% in March 2005.• Data also shows that the share of agricultural credit cornered byfarm sizes of more than 5 acres has increased• Tenancy is informal and tenant farmers do not get access to credit(GOI, 2007).
    13. 13. Year Share in total agricultural Credit (%)Direct Finance Indirect Finance Total1985 83.2 16.8 100.01990 86.8 13.2 100.02000 84.5 15.5 100.02005 76.1 23.9 100.02006 72.1 27.9 100.02007 74.5 25.5 100.02008 77.5 22.5 100.02009 77.1 22.9 100.02010 76.1 23.9 100.0Source: Basic Statistical Returns’ Reserve Bank of India, Various IssuesShares of direct and indirect finance to agriculture in total credit to agriculturefrom scheduled commercial banks, India, 1985 to 2009 in per cent
    14. 14. Credit limit size class ofloans (Rs)Share of amount outstanding in total out standing (%)1990 2000 2005 2010Less than 2 lakh 82.6 67.6 51.9 44.32 lakh to 10 lakh 4.3 11.7 17.9 22.610 lakh to 1 crore 7.6 6.6 6.4 6.41 crore to 10 crore 4.2 6.7 8.0 6.310 crore to 25 crore1.31.7 3.3 2.7Above 25 crore 5.7 12.6 17.7100 100 100 100Source: ‘Basic Statistical Returns’, Reserve Bank of India, Various IssuesDistribution of amount outstanding under total agricultural advances byscheduled commercial banks, by credit limit size-classes of loans, 1990 to 2010,in per cent
    15. 15. • Not adequate• Not accessible-crops, region,tenant farmers• Interestsubvention whobenefits?• How to increasecoverage?Year Rural + semi-urbanbranchesOnly ruralbranchesUrban+metropolitanbranchesOnlymetropolitanbranchesAll branchesAll India1990 85.1 55.5 14.9 4.0 100.01994 83.4 54.6 16.6 5.6 100.01995 83.7 52.7 16.3 7.3 100.02005 69.3 43.0 30.7 19.0 100.02006 62.4 37.1 37.6 23.8 100.02008 66.0 38.4 34.0 20.0 100.0Maharashtra1990 82.4 59.7 17.6 - 100.01994 76.8 52.9 23.2 - 100.01995 70.5 46.5 29.5 - 100.02005 41.8 26.1 58.2 48.5 100.02006 31.6 18.4 68.4 61.3 100.02008 42.4 25.7 57.6 48.3 100.0Share of agriculture credit from different bank branches1990-2008 (in %)
    16. 16. Insurance• Inadequate coverage: crops, people, regions• Problems in settling claims• Claims not covering the loss• Completely becoming a business model• How do we increase the coverage and make itworkable to reduce risks
    17. 17. subsidies• On decline….• Input based hence benefits only the suppliers• Specific inputs hence drives particulartechnologies and models of agriculture• Farmers own resources, labour neversupported
    18. 18. Unremunerative prices• MSP determination is faulty and unscientific.• Governments keep the prices low to ensure cheaplabor and cheap inputs, and food security for poor• Minimum Support Prices are announced for 25commodities but market intervention only for rice,wheat, cotton• Agricultural prices don’t account for living costs of ruralfamilies. Rising inflation has double impact on farmerswith increasing living costs & decreasing incomes• Removal of quantitative restrictions and allowingcheaper imports• Restrictions on exports on certain crops depressing localmarket prices
    19. 19. State governments irresponsibleMSPs recommended for 2013-14 (Rs/q)Crop AnnouncedMSP (Rs/q)2011-12AnnouncedMSP (Rs/q)2012-13RecommendedMSP (Rs/q)2013-14AnnouncedMSP (Rs/q)2013-14Paddy 1110 1280 2811 1310Blackgram 3300 4300 7295 4500Soybean 1650 2200 4382 2500Groundnut 2700 3700 8019 4000Sunflower 2800 3700 7412 3700Sesame 3400 4200 7847 4500Ragi 1050 1500 2925Maize 980 1175 2100 1310Jowar 1000 1520 2862Redgram 3850 7277 4300Greengram 4300 7287 4300Government of Andhra Pradesh
    20. 20. Monoculturing crops, varieties, genes, trees animals• Today Cotton, Maize, Paddy are the only crops whosearea increasing..globally only 3 crops supply 60% offood• Within crops 80% of the production comes from fewgenetic backgrounds• Increasing area under hybrid crops in areas notsuitable like rainfed areas, hill regions• 99 % of the cotton with bt genes to fight four majorpests..several others in pipeline• Promotion of water intensive orchards in rainfed areas• Promotion of cross bred animals, buffaloes in rainfedareas
    21. 21. GM crops and foods• Key issues• Relevance of GM crops• Biosafety issues• IPRs andMarket monopoly• Conflicts of interests and scandals• Studies on NPM vs/Bt cotton• Documentary evidences on Violations of regulationsin field trials,• Illegal GM food crop field trials• First reports on Bronze wilt, Tobacco Streak Virus,Mealybug• Evidences on sheep death• Studies on Environmental Risk Assessment and SocioEconomic Impacts• Contamination• IPRshttp://www.indiagminfo.org
    22. 22. GM foods
    23. 23. Do youremember I wasthis small whenwe first met!Pests and pesticides contribute to the major economic and ecological problems affecting thefarmers, crops and their living environment• Pesticide induced pest problem• Pesticide resistance• Pesticide poisoning (acute and chronic)• Pesticide and ecological problems• IPM > IRM
    24. 24. (‘000 crore)20082012
    25. 25. Life in queues 2011
    26. 26. Life in queues 2012
    27. 27. Depleting natural resources• Increasing dark zones dueto groundwater depletion• 30 % of soils are reportedto be saline by the recentstudy by ministry ofenvironment
    28. 28. Ecological Foot PrintsEach ha of paddy yields @ 30 bags/acre and 75kg/bag5625 kg/ha grainIn terms of rice 70 % milling 3938 kg/haWater requirement 2000 mm (2 m) crop waterrequirement x10000 sq m.20000 cu m waterWhich is equal to 5.078cu.m/kg rice (5078 litres/kgrice)Each family consuming monthly 30kg rice152340 Litres of water permonth per familyThis is equivalent toEach family consumes waterdirectly at around@ 300 litres/day and for 30days9000 litresWater consumption by way ofrice is16.93 times higher than thewater we consume directly
    29. 29. BUSINESS AS USUAL IS NOT AN OPTIONWe are what we eatandFood is only as safe as it is grown
    30. 30. What is needed….• Integrated farming systems integrating livestock,trees etc• Agronomic innovations like high densityplantation in cotton or SRI in paddy• Building soil organic matter, mulches etc• Conserving moisture and Rainwater harvesting• Locally adopted crops and varieties-millets,pulses, oilseeds, vegetables….• Contingence planning• Moving away from agro-chemical use
    31. 31. 34Changing to multiple cropping systems
    32. 32. 35Switching over to ecological farming practices
    33. 33. Millets in our dietGrain P Mg Ca Fe Zn Cu Mn Mo CrSorghum 352 171 15 4.2 2.5 0.44 1.15 0.06 0.017Pearl millet 379 137 46 8.0 3.1 1.06 1.15 0.07 0.023Finger millet 320 137 398 3.9 2.3 0.47 5.49 0.10 0.028Foxtail millet                  Whole 422 81 38 5.3 2.9 1.60 0.85 - 0.070Dehulled 360 68 21 2.8 2.4 1.40 0.60 - 0.030Common millet                  Whole 281 117 23 4.0 2.4 5.80 1.20 - 0.040Dehulled 156 78 8 0.8 1.4 1.60 0.60 - 0.020Little millet                  Whole 251 133 12 13.9 3.5 1.60 1.03 - 0.240Dehulled 220 139 13 9.3 3.7 1.00 0.68 - 0.180Barnyard millet                  Whole 340 82 21 9.2 2.6 1.30 1.33 - 0.140Dehulled 267 39 28 5.0 3.0 0.60 0.96 - 0.090Kodo millet                  Whole 215 166 31 3.6 1.5 5.80 2.90 - 0.080Dehulled 161 82 20 0.5 0.7 1.60 1.10 - 0.020
    34. 34. Punukula,the first pesticides-free village
    35. 35. Yenabavi -Organic Village• Entire village (55 households’ 228 acres) organic for last fiveyears• Most of the inputs internalised into farming• Land Productivity increased, crop yields maintained• In SRI paddy 44 bags were also recorded• Recently awarded Krishi Gaurav Award by Baba Ramdev’sPatanjali Trust for their role in promoting organic farming• More than 30 thousand farmers visited the village in lastthree years
    36. 36. Community Managed SustainableAgriculture in Andhra PradeshBasic Principles Regenerative, ecologically sound practices Organized action by communities inplanning, implementing and managing theprogram Govt/ngos playing facilitating agency role2004-05 started with 225 acres in one dist andreached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18 dist. WorldBank says this is a good tool for povertyeradication and now promoted as part of NRLMWith 50 % development expenditure one candouble the incomes of the farmersA national program called Mahila KrishiSashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) is launchedbased on this experiencce
    37. 37. 0.225 25200 7001300200028003500 36000.1 158030060010001500 1600 17702135 19971394 1541 1381101505001000150020002500300035004000Acerage (000acres) Farmers (000) Pesticide use (MT Active Ingradient)Farmers and area covered under CMSAhttp://65.19.149.140/pilots/cmsanew/index.html
    38. 38. Distinguished visitorsDr. V L Chopra,Member Planning CommissionJairam Ramesh,Honble Minister forCommerceT. NandakumarSecretary AgricultureGOI
    39. 39. States/UTs 2004-05 2005-06 2006-072007-08 2008-09 2009-10kg/ha2000-01kg/ha2009-10Punjab 6900 5610 5975 6080 5760 5810 0.98 0.82Haryana 4520 4560 4600 4390 4288 4070 0.84 0.68AndhraPradesh 2135 1997 1394 1541 1381 1015 0.34 0.09Maharastra 3030 3198 3193 3050 2400 4639 0.17 0.24Tamil Nadu 2466 2211 3940 2048 2317 2335 0.32 0.45Gujarat 2900 2700 2670 2660 2650 2750 0.30 0.29Kerala 360 571 545 780 272.69 631 0.31 0.26Karnataka 2200 1638 1362 1588 1675 1647 0.17 0.14Status of pesticide utilization in different states****Source: http://ppqs.gov.in/IpmPesticides.htm MT of active ingredient
    40. 40. Average Reduction in costs and netadditional income for different cropsCrops Reduction in costdue to NPM (Rs)Reduction in costs due to useof organic fertilisers/manures(Rs)Net additionalincome (Rs)Paddy 940 1450 5590Maize 1319 2357 5676Cotton 1733 1968 5676Chillies 1733 1968 7701Groundnut 1021 3462 10483Vegetables 1400 390 37903rd Party Evaluation of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) : Community ManagedOrganic Farming implemented by SERPEvaluation TeamProf. R. Ratnakar, Director, Dr. M. Surya Mani, Professor, EXTENSION EDUCATIONINSTITUTE, (Southern Region), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
    41. 41. Dorli, Maharashtra• CSA started working in Dorli clusterfrom 2006• Today farmers are back to farming andmanaging• Started a seed producer company
    42. 42. Sahaja Aharam Community MarketingProducer Co-op-1Farmer Group BConsumer Co-op•Healthy food•Affordable Price•Max share to farmers Organic StoreMobile StoreDirect to HomeProducer Co-op-2Other farmers andfarmers groupsFarmer Group AFarmer Group CSahaja AharamCooperative Federation•Capacity building•Institutional building•Investment support•Brand building•Qualtiy Management•Fair TradeMarket placeDirect toresellersWhole sale totradersBulk buyersOrganic StoreProcessing unitsSeed marketYet to estiblishMarketingAgencyValue ChainFund
    43. 43. COOPERATIVE MELA
    44. 44. So…what can be done• Support farmers to switch to ecologicalfarming• Help them to get organised for production,marketing and entitlements• Recast the support systems-research,extension, subsidies….• Increase the investment-public and private tomake farming viable
    45. 45. www.csa-india.orgwww.krishi.tvwww.agrariancrisis.inFacebook: ramoo.agripageTwitter: ramanjaneyuluGVEmail: ramoo.csa@gmail.comPhone: 040-27017735, 09000699702

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