Today, India, with a successful green revolution has over 300 million living below the poverty line, mainly in rural areas. With 86 percent of India’s operational holdings being marginal and small (less than 2 hectares), largely unviable due to increasing input costs – of fertilizers, chemicals, water, seeds, agro-machinery and implements, (Acharya and Jogi, 2007), technology fatigue with increasing input prices and declining factor productivity (Swaminathan, 2005), increasing soil and water problems –both quantity (declining arable land and water tables) and quality (soil and water systems degradation) (ICAR, 1998; Government of India, 2005; 2008), limited rural employment opportunities (NCEUS, 2006), increasing capital intensity of agriculture (doubling the ICOR (Golait and Lokare, 2008), increasing deployment of labour saving technologies in agriculture and the low and declining employment elasticity (Palanivel, 2006), and the rate of growth of income per worker in the agriculture sector falling from 1.15% per annum (1980-81 to 1990-91) to 0.48% per annum (1990-91 to 2000-2001) (Sen and Bhatia, 2004; Bhalla and Hazell, 2003), the picture of agriculture in India is no longer green.
130316 Sustaining Agriculture in Odisha
Sustaining Agriculture in Odisha Ramanjaneyulu
Intensive Agriculture• Economic Crisis – Increasing costs of cultivation and decreasing returns – Reducing public support and increasing indebtedness• Ecological Crisis – is highly LINEAR, whereas traditionally agriculture was highly CYCLICAL. – is based on maximizing the output of a narrow range of species leading to monoculture of crops and varieties – is based on capital depletion and massive additions of external inputs (e.g. energy, water, chemicals) – views the farm as a factory with “inputs” (such as pesticides, feed, fertilizer, and fuel) and “outputs” (grain, cotton, chicken, and so forth) – never cared about the externalities• Socio-political crisis – Increasing tenancy, land use shift – Increasing farmers suicides, 2,70,940 in last 15 yr – Huge migration
Irrigation and fertilizer based productionSource: Government of India, 2009; RBI, 2009.
Fertilizer issues• The higher and imbalance use of chemical fertilizers threatened the soil health• Fertilizer use efficiency less than 50%• Factor productivity of fertilizer coming down• Fertilizer production largely dependent on Petroleum products and prices fluctuate with them• Phosphotic and Potash reserves coming down• Nutrient response drastically declined Period Response (kg/kg NPK) V FYP 15.0 Now 6.5• During 1961-2006 globally 8 fold increase in use of agrochemicals, but increase in grain yield only 1.5 times
Fertilizer use in Odisha 800.00 700.00 600.00 500.00Axis Title 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 0.00 N (000 t) P (000 t) K (000 t) Total (000 t) kg/ha
Fertiliser use in India: FAI, September 2012State Kg/haAndhra Pradesh 252.8Punjab 237.3Tamil Nadu 211.0Haryana 196.6Utter Pradesh 179.0Bihar 173.5West Bengal 172.0Gujarat 167.6Maharashtra 150.0Odisha 99.30Madhya Pradesh 90.4Rajasthan 57.4Nagaland 3.2Arunachal Pradesh 3.0National Average 145.0
Consumption of Fertilizer by Land Holding Cost of Fertilizer per Acre (Rs.’00) 16 Cost of fertiliser per acre 14 12 10 (Rs.00) Farmer Land 8 Holding 6 4 Cost of Fertilizer (Rs.00) 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Source: Fertilizer Association of India, 2007 Size of Land Holding (Acres)Higher dependence on chemical fertilizers by small/marginal farmers – higher risk
Soil Organic matter The soil organic matter has declined from about 1.43 and 1.21 % in red and black soils in the 1950’s to about 0.80 to 0.86 percent respectively at present. Soil organic matter performs Hydrological, Biological and Nutrient related functions, which are both interrelated and distinct. The OM helps tide over dry spells and in reducing runoff. Soil moisture and organic matter is essential even for improving the efficiency of biofertilisers and chemical nutrients.
Pesticides poisoning past, present and future • Acute poisoning effects • Agriculture workers killed • Chronic poisoning effects • Children growth effected • Effect on reproductive health • Pesticides increased costs of cultivations • Rs. 1000 to 15000/acre • Ecological Disturbances • Beneficials killed, pest shifts • Pest resistances, pest resurgences • Poisoning of resources • Soils • Water • Milk • Food (NIN study found18 pesticides found in Vegetables in Hyderabad, 2012)
Pesticide use in Odisha1800.001600.001400.001200.001000.00 800.00 600.00 M. Tons 400.00 200.00 0.00
Depleting natural resources • Increasing dark zones due to groundwater depletion • 30 % of soils are reported to be saline by the recent study by ministry of environment
Ecological Foot Prints Each ha of paddy yields @ 30 bags/acre and 75 5625 kg/ha grain kg/bag In terms of rice 70 % milling 3938 kg/ha Water requirement 2000 mm (2 m) crop water 20000 cu m water requirement x10000 sq m. Which is equal to 5.078 cu.m/kg rice (5078 litres/kg rice) Each family consuming monthly 30 152340 Litres of water per kg rice month per family This is equivalent to Each family consumes water @ 300 litres/day and for 30 9000 litres directly at around days Water consumption by way of 16.93 times higher than the rice is water we consume directly
Risky weather variations• 2/3 of cultivated area is drought prone in Odisha.• 15 districts including river deltas are flood prone• 7 districts along the 450 km coastal line prone to frequent storms, cyclones and sea water ingression• In the last 150 years there were 100 climate related disasters• During the last century, Odisha faced: – 49 years floods, – 30 years droughts, and – 11 years cyclones
Agro-Ecological Approaches• Holistic understanding of the ecological and biological processes (Gestalt approach)• Harnessing the synergy of biodiversity, ecological balance, high energy efficiency,• Need a new science to under stand technologies and not a new technology with old science
Crop productivity vs land productivity• Productivity is narrowly understood as crop productivity in a monoculture situation, and• Often compared with western developed countries which have – advantage of long day light, – higher diurnal variation of temperature – monoculture to suit mechanisation due to labor shortage – limited by only one crop season• cannot be compared with tropical climate which is rich in diversity and three crop seasons.
What is needed….• Integrated farming systems integrating livestock, trees etc• Building soil organic matter• Conserving moisture• Rainwater harvesting• Locally adopted crops and varieties• Contingence planning• Moving away from agro-chemical use
Sustainable Agriculture In harmony with nature• Local Resources: Seeds, soils, crops• Making best use of natural cycles and processes• Knowledge and skills of Ecological methods of farming like Non Pesticidal Management, Soil health and Productivity, Seed banks which reduce their – Dependency, risks and costs• What we need is – Soil literacy – Pest and disease literacy – Weather literacy
System of Rice Intensification• System of Rice Intensification is a cost effective and resource efficient method of cultivation• Extended to sugarcane, wheat, ragi etc 27
Switching over to ecological farming practices 28
Community Managed SustainableAgriculture in Andhra Pradesh Basic Principles Regenerative, ecologically sound practices Organized communities planning, implementing and managing the program Govt/ngos playing facilitating agency role 2004-05 started with 225 acres in one dist and reached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18 dist. World Bank says this is a good tool for poverty eradication and now promoted as part of NRLM With 50 % development expenditure one can double the incomes of the farmers A national program called Mahila Krishi Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) is launched based on this experiencce 2009
Farmers and area covered under CMSA4000 38003500 35003000 28002500 25002000 2135 1997 2000 20001500 1394 1541 1381 1500 13001000 1000 700 600 1015 500 200 0.225 25 300 0 80 0.1 15 Acerage (000 acres) Farmers (000) Pesticide use (MT Active Ingradient)
Average Reduction in costs and net additional income for different crops Crops Reduction in cost Reduction in costs due to use Net additional due to NPM (Rs) of organic fertilisers/manures income (Rs) (Rs) Paddy 940 1450 5590 Maize 1319 2357 5676 Cotton 1733 1968 5676 Chillies 1733 1968 7701 Groundnut 1021 3462 10483 Vegetables 1400 390 37903rd Party Evaluation of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) : Community ManagedOrganic Farming implemented by SERPEvaluation TeamProf. R. Ratnakar, Director, Dr. M. Surya Mani, Professor, EXTENSION EDUCATIONINSTITUTE, (Southern Region), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
Way forward• Moving from high external input agriculture to high internal input agriculture• Information based to knowledge based extension• Reducing the risks with uncertain weather conditions and degraded and limited natural resources, by adopting agroecologically suitable cropping patterns and production practices• Diversifying the assets and income sources to sustain the livelihoods by integrating livestock and horticulture into agriculture and promoting on-farm and off-farm employment opportunities,• Conserving and efficiently use the available natural resources like soil and water, and promote biomass generation,• Organizing farmers into institutions which can help them to have better planning, greater control over their production, help to access resources and support, improve food security and move up in the value chain,• Recasting subsidies to support farmers own resources and labor• Building livelihood security systems to withstand the natural disasters like drought, floods and other climate uncertainties