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  2. 2. TYPES OF STRUCTURES • Frame Structures • Shell Structures • Arch Structures • Mix and Match • Mass Structures • Suspension Structures
  3. 3. FRAME STRUCTURES <ul><li>Is the most common choice of structures.
  4. 4. These structures are composed of long elements. </li></ul>
  5. 5. SHELL STRUCTURES <ul><li>Are made of a thin outer layer.
  6. 6. They are like a strong and hard coat that maintains the require shape </li></ul>
  7. 7. ARCH STRUCTURES <ul><li>The Romans invented the arch.
  8. 8. The stone at the very top is called the keystone </li></ul>
  9. 9. MIX AND MATCH <ul><li>Different types of structures are combined </li></ul><ul><li>The combination is a moree complex structure. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MASS STRUCTURES <ul><li>They are made of low quality of materials.
  11. 11. The structure is normally thick.
  12. 12. Advantage: Held in place by its own weight.
  13. 13. Disadvantage : Heavy need much material. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SUSPENSION STRUCTURES <ul><li>A suspension structure holds an element.
  15. 15. Are often best for bridges.
  16. 16. Good for covering a very large span. </li></ul>
  18. 18. They are meant for structures that will not needed to be disassembled.
  19. 19. Welding, rivets, glue... </li></ul><ul><li>NON-PERMANENT UNIONS :
  20. 20. Are those designed to assemble and disassemble the element of structures .
  21. 21. Nuts, bolts, clamps, friction... </li></ul>
  22. 22. FORCES ON STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS <ul><li>Tensional strain
  23. 23. Compression forces
  24. 24. Shear strain
  25. 25. Torsion forces
  26. 26. Bending forces </li></ul>
  27. 27. TENSIONAL STRAIN <ul><li>Is the strain that causes an element to stretch
  28. 28. It can be due to forces </li></ul>
  29. 29. COMPRESSION FORCES <ul><li>They are those forces which causes an element to get squeezed or buckled </li></ul>
  30. 30. SHEAR STRAIN <ul><li>Shear forces act across a material in such a way they can force.
  31. 31. A good example are when we cut with the scissors </li></ul>
  32. 32. TORSION FORCES <ul><li>If we apply a turning force called torque at one end of an element and, if the element is fixed to a support at the other end the element twists </li></ul>
  33. 33. BENDING FORCES <ul><li>Act at an angle to a member making it bend </li></ul>
  34. 34. BY: Manuel Folgado and Ramón Barrabés