964 Sukatan Pelajaran Biologi STPM (Baharu)

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964 Sukatan Pelajaran Biologi STPM (Baharu)

  1. 1. STPM/S(E)964 MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL) PEPERIKSAANSIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION) BIOLOGYSyllabus, Specimen Papers and Specimen Experiment This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.
  2. 2. FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN“Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah satu usaha berterusanke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secaramenyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yangseimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi,dan jasmani. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyatMalaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berakhlak mulia,bertanggungjawab, berketerampilan, dan berkeupayaanmencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbanganterhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,masyarakat dan negara.”
  3. 3. FOREWORDThis revised Biology syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use sincethe 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first examinationwill also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the changes made bythe Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination. Through the newsystem, sixth-form study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit for an examination atthe end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system. The mainobjective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching and learningorientation in sixth form so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in collegesand universities.The revision of the Biology syllabus incorporates current developments in biology studies to be morerelevant to the current global developments. Biology is a science that deals with the study of livingorganisms. It is dynamic and affects every aspect of our daily lives, from food and health, to theresponsibilities towards our environment. The cumulative discoveries and developments in biologyhave tremendously enhanced our understanding and perception towards both the unity and diversity oflife. With this understanding, we have become more aware of our interdependence with our richbiodiversity and natural resources. The application of biology together with modern technologiesleads to the evolution of biotechnology. Furthermore, the assessment tools of this syllabus consist ofwritten papers and coursework. The written papers evaluate candidates’ knowledge and understandingof the subject, while the coursework provides an opportunity for candidates to trigger their inquisitivebiological reasoning. This also enhances their understanding and application of biological sciencesand develops the candidates’ soft skills.The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination format, gradedescription, and sample questions.The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Emeritus Dato’ Dr.Latiff bin Mohamad of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Other committee members consist ofuniversity lecturers, representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry ofEducation Malaysia, and experienced teachers teaching Biology. On behalf of the MalaysianExaminations Council, I would like to thank the committee for their commitment and invaluablecontribution. It is hoped that this syllabus will be a guide for teachers and candidates in the teachingand learning process.OMAR BIN ABU BAKARChief ExecutiveMalaysian Examinations Council
  4. 4. CONTENTS Syllabus 964 Biology PageAims 1Objectives 1Content First Term: Biological Molecules and Metabolism 2–8 Second Term: Physiology 9 – 15 Third Term: Ecology and Genetics 16 – 21Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)) 22Written Practical Test (Paper 5) 23Scheme of Assessment 24 – 25Performance Descriptions 26Reference Books 27Specimen Paper 1 29 – 43Specimen Paper 2 45 – 63Specimen Paper 3 65 – 81Specimen Experiment Paper 4 83 – 86Specimen Paper 5 87 – 101
  5. 5. SYLLABUS 964 BIOLOGYAimsThis syllabus is designed to enhance candidates’ knowledge and understanding of biology andbiological issues, to prepare and equip the candidates for their tertiary education, to pursue careers inrelated fields and to promote continuous awareness of the importance of biology in life.ObjectivesThis syllabus enables candidates to:(a) understand the biological phenomena, principles and theories;(b) evaluate biological information critically and deduce logical conclusion;(c) plan and carry out experiments scientifically and make deductions;(d) develop abilities and skills in handling materials and apparatus correctly and safely, and;(e) cultivate proper attitudes and values on social, technological, and environmental issues in biology. 1
  6. 6. FIRST TERM: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES AND METABOLISM Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period1 Biological Molecules 24 1.1 Water 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the chemical properties (solvent, bond angles and hydrogen bond) of water and relate its physiological roles in the organisms; (b) describe the physical properties (polarity, cohesiveness, density, surface tension, specific heat capacity, and latent heat of vaporisation) of water and relate its physiological roles in organisms. 1.2 Carbohydrates 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) classify carbohydrates into monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide with respect to their physical and chemical properties; (b) classify monosaccharide according to the number of carbon atoms and the functional groups (i) triose e.g. glyceraldehydes, (ii) pentose e.g. ribose and deoxyribose, (iii) hexose e.g. glucose and fructose, (c) illustrate the molecular structure of a monosaccharide and differentiate between the reducing and non-reducing ends; (d) describe the formation of glycosidic bond in disaccharides (maltose and sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch, glycogen and cellulose); (e) relate the structure of disaccharides and polysaccharides to their functions in living organisms. 2
  7. 7. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period1.3 Lipids 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structures, properties and distribution of triglycerides, phospholipids (lecithin) and steroid (cholesterol); (b) state the functions of triglycerides, phospholipids (lecithin) and steroids (cholesterol); (c) differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.1.4 Proteins 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) classify amino acids into four main classes based on their side chains: polar, non-polar, acidic and basic; (b) describe the structure of an amino acid and the formation of peptide bonds in polypeptides; (c) explain the properties of protein (amphoteric, isoelectric point, buffer and colloid); (d) differentiate the various levels of organisation of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and relate the functions of each structure to the organisation of proteins; (e) explain the denaturation and renaturation of protein; (f) classify proteins according to their structures, compositions (simple and conjugated) and functions.1.5 Nucleic acids 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structures of nucleotides and the formation of phosphodiester bonds in a polynucleotide; (b) distinguish between DNA and RNA and the three types of RNAs (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA); (c) describe the structure of DNA based on Watson and Crick model. 3
  8. 8. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 1.6 Analytical techniques 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the basic principles of paper chromatography in pigment separation, electrophoresis for protein and nucleic acid separation.2 Structure of Cells and 16 Organelles 2.1 Prokaryotic and 4 Candidates should be able to: eukaryotic cells (a) state the cell theory; (b) compare the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; (c) compare typical animal and plant cells as seen under electron microscopes; (d) describe the basic principles of light and electron microscopy. 2.2 Cellular components 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) identify the cellular components of typical plant and animal cells; (b) describe the structures of organelles and state their functions; (c) explain the basic principles of differential centrifugation used to fractionate cellular components (g and S values). 2.3 Specialised cells 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) outline the structures, functions and distributions of unspecialised cells found in plants (meristematic cells); (b) describe the structures, functions and distributions of specialised plant cells found in epidermal, ground and vascular tissue; (c) describe the structures, functions and distributions of specialised animal cells found in connective, nervous, muscular and epithelial tissues, including the formation of endocrine and exocrine glands. 4
  9. 9. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period3 Membrane Structure and 8 Transport 3.1 Fluid mosaic model 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure of a membrane based on Singer-Nicolson fluid mosaic model; (b) explain the roles of each component of the membrane. 3.2 Movement of 5 Candidates should be able to: substance across membrane (a) explain the processes of passive and active transports, endocytosis and exocytosis; (b) explain the concepts of water potential, solute potential and pressure potential; (c) calculate the water potential of a plant cell in a solution.4 Enzymes 20 4.1 Catalysis and 3 Candidates should be able to: activation energy (a) explain that enzyme is a globular protein which catalyses a metabolic reaction; (b) explain the mode of action of enzymes at active site involving enzyme-substrate complex and lowering of the activation energy and enzyme specificity. 4.2 Mechanism of action 5 Candidates should be able to: and kinetics (a) illustrate enzyme specificity using induced fit (Koshland) and lock and key (Fischer) models; (b) explain the time course of an enzyme- catalysed reaction by measuring the rate of formation of product(s) or rate of disappearance of substrate(s) as the rate of reaction; (c) deduce the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) from the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver- Burk plots; (d) explain the significance of Km and Vmax; (e) explain the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration on the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction. 5
  10. 10. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 4.3 Cofactors 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the roles of cofactors (ion activators, coenzymes and prosthetic groups) in an enzymatic reaction; (b) explain the importance of vitamins and minerals as precursors of coenzymes/cofactors. 4.4 Inhibitors 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the effects of competitive and non- competitive inhibitions on the rate of enzyme activity of reversible inhibition; (b) relate the Lineweaver-Burk plot to the effect of inhibition on Km and Vmax values. 4.5 Classification of 2 Candidates should be able to: enzymes (a) describe enzyme classification according to International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) e.g. oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase, lyase, isomerase and ligase. 4.6 Enzyme technology 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the importance and the main techniques of enzyme immobilisation namely adsorption, entrapment and covalent coupling; (b) explain the application of enzyme immobilisation in the development of biosensors.5 Cellular Respiration 12 5.1 The need for energy in 1 Candidates should be able to: living (a) outline the importance of energy and respiration in living organisms; (b) describe the structure of the energy carriers such as ATP, NADH and FADH2. 5.2 Aerobic respiration 8 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the various stages of aerobic respiration and its location in the cells; (b) describe glycolysis, and calculate the net energy produced in glycolysis; 6
  11. 11. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) describe the various steps involved in the Krebs cycle (including the link reaction); (d) explain the formation of NADH, FADH2, GTP and ATP during the Krebs cycle; (e) describe oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis in the electron transport system; (f) explain the role of NADH, FADH2 and ATP synthase in the electron transport chain; (g) calculate and explain the net energy produced in aerobic respiration per molecule of glucose in liver and muscle cells; (h) describe the effects of cyanide and carbon monoxide on respiration; (i) explain how lipid and protein act as alternative energy sources. 5.3 Anaerobic respiration 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the anaerobic respiration in yeast and muscle cells; (b) describe the applications of anaerobic respiration in food industries (bread, tapai, and yogurt).6 Photosynthesis 16 6.1 Autotroph 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) classify autotroph into photoautotroph and chemoautotroph; (b) describe photosynthetic pigments; (c) explain the absorption spectrum and action spectrum of photosynthetic pigments. 6.2 Light-dependent 3 Candidates should be able to: reactions (a) explain photo-activation of chlorophyll a resulting in photolysis of water; (b) explain the cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation including electron transport system resulting in the production of ATP and NADPH. 7
  12. 12. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period6.3 Light-independent 8 Candidates should be able to: reactions (a) describe Calvin cycle; (b) explain photorespiration; (c) describe the anatomical structure of C4 leaf (Krantz anatomy) in comparison to C3 leaf; (d) explain carbon dioxide fixation in C4 plants and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants; (e) differentiate the metabolism of C3, C4 and CAM plants.6.4 Limiting factors 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain limiting factors of photosynthesis (light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature); (b) relate the roles of C3, C4 and CAM plants on the increasing carbon dioxide emission and global warming. 8
  13. 13. SECOND TERM: PHYSIOLOGY Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period7 Gas Exchange 12 7.1 Gaseous exchange in 7 Candidates should be able to: humans (a) outline the structure of human respiratory system, including the microscopic structure of the wall of an alveolus; (b) describe the structure of haemoglobin; (c) explain the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood; (d) explain the oxygen dissociation curves of haemoglobin, myoglobin and foetal haemoglobin; (e) explain the Bohr effect and relate it to the oxygen dissociation curve. 7.2 Breathing cycle 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the control of breathing mechanism, including the role of chemoreceptor; (b) define tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. 7.3 Gaseous exchange in 2 Candidates should be able to: plants (a) describe the structure and functions of stomata; (b) describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata based on potassium ion accumulation hypothesis.8 Transport in Animals and 16 Plants 8.1 Transport system in 8 Candidates should be able to: mammals (a) describe the structure of a mammalian heart; (b) define systole and diastole, and explain the sequence of events in a cardiac cycle including changes in pressure and volume in aorta, left atrium and left ventricle; (c) describe the initiation and regulation of heart beat; 9
  14. 14. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (d) explain hypertension, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction, and state their causes and preventions; (e) describe the lymphatic system in relation to the blood circulatory system; (f) determine the direction of fluid movement at the arterial and venous ends of the capillaries by calculating the differences between osmotic pressure/solute potential and hydrostatic pressure. 8.2 Transport system in 8 Candidates should be able to: vascular plants (a) explain the uptake of water and mineral ions from the soil by the root hairs involving water potential; (b) describe the apoplast, symplast and vacuolar pathway of water movement through the root tissues; (c) describe the root pressure, cohesion-tension theory and transpiration pull in relation to water movement from the roots to leaves; (d) explain translocation using the mass flow, electro-osmosis, cytoplasmic streaming and peristaltic waves hypotheses; (e) explain the concept of source and sink, and phloem loading and unloading in translocation according to pressure flow hypothesis.9 Control and Regulation 22 9.1 Nervous system 16 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the organisation of the nervous system in humans; (b) explain the formation of resting and action potentials; (c) describe the characteristics of nerve impulse; (d) describe the structure of synapse, and explain the role of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and norepinephrine); (e) explain and compare the mechanisms of impulse transmission along the axon and across the synapse; 10
  15. 15. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (f) describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and sarcomere; (g) explain the role of sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium ions, myofibril and T tubules in muscle contraction; (h) explain the mechanism of muscle contraction according to the sliding filament hypothesis; (i) compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; (j) explain the mechanisms of drug action on nervous system and neuromuscular junction (cocaine and curare). 9.2 Hormones 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the mechanisms of action of steroid hormone and non-steroid hormones; (b) explain the roles of plant hormones in growth and development; (c) explain the mechanism of phytochrome action and their roles in photoperiodism and flowering; (d) outline the application of plant growth regulators (synthetic auxin, synthetic gibberellins, and synthetic ethylene) in agriculture.10 Reproduction, 13 Development and Growth 10.1 Sexual reproduction in 6 Candidates should be able to: humans (a) outline spermatogenesis and oogenesis; (b) describe the passage and development of sperms from the testis to the oviduct for fertilisation; (c) describe the process of fertilisation and implantation; (d) describe the roles of hormones in menstrual cycle and pregnancy; (e) describe briefly the stages in embryonic development; 11
  16. 16. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (f) explain the roles of placenta, chorion, amniotic fluid and allantois in foetal development; (g) explain the process of parturition. 10.2 Sexual reproduction in 2 Candidates should be able to: flowering plants (a) outline double fertilisation; (b) describe the embryonic development in seed and formation of fruit. 10.3 Seed germination 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the mobilisation of nutrients after imbibition in seed germination; (b) state the external factors affecting germination. 10.4 Growth curves and 4 Candidates should be able to: patterns of growth (a) explain the types of growth curves (absolute growth curve, absolute growth rate curve and relative growth rate curve); (b) explain with examples the patterns of growth (limited growth in humans, unlimited growth in perennial plant, allometric growth in humans, isometric growth in fish and intermittent growth in insect); (c) explain the processes of ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects, and relate the role of hormones (neurosecretory hormone, juvenile hormone and ecdysone) in these processes.11 Homeostasis 10 11.1 Importance of 2 Candidates should be able to: homeostasis (a) explain the importance of homeostasis; (b) describe the homeostatic control system in mammals; (c) explain the physiological and behavioural control in thermoregulation of endotherms. 12
  17. 17. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 11.2 Liver 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure of liver, and explain the roles of its components; (b) describe carbohydrate metabolism in the liver (glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis); (c) describe protein metabolism (transamination, deamination and urea formation) in the liver. 11.3 Osmoregulation in 3 Candidates should be able to: mammals (a) explain the process of ultrafiltration, reabsorption and secretion in the formation of urine; (b) explain the role of ADH and aldosterone, and the related hormones in regulating water, sodium and potassium ions of urine; (c) explain the regulation of pH of tissue fluid. 11.4 Osmoregulation in 1 Candidates should be able to: plants (a) describe the role of stomata in regulation of water loss, and explain the importance of transpiration; (b) describe the various types of plant adaptations to prevent water loss (halophytes and xerophytes).12 Immunity 10 12.1 Immune system 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe human lymphatic system, and explain its function in relation to immunity; (b) describe antibody (structure and function), antigen, epitope, and the development of B and T cells; (c) describe the roles of macrophages, B cells and T cells. 13
  18. 18. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 12.2 Development of 3 Candidates should be able to: immunity (a) explain cell-mediated and humoral immune responses; (b) outline the antigen-antibody reactions (precipitation, agglutination, neutralisation, complement fixation). 12.3 Concept of self and 3 Candidates should be able to: non-self (a) explain the concept of self and non-self and relate this to tissue rejection in organ transplant; (b) explain the mechanism of immune suppression (HIV infection). 12.4 Immune disorder 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe autoimmune disorder (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)).13 Infectious Diseases 13 13.1 Infectious disease 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain what is meant by an infection and an infectious disease; (b) outline the types of infectious agents. 13.2 Dengue 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the causes and symptoms of dengue; (b) explain the transmission of dengue; (c) discuss the roles of social, economical and biological factors in the prevention of dengue. 13.3 Cholera 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the causes and symptoms of cholera; (b) explain the transmission of cholera; (c) discuss the roles of social, economical and biological factors in the prevention of cholera. 14
  19. 19. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period13.4 Tuberculosis (TB) 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the causes and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB); (b) explain the transmission of TB; (c) discuss the roles of social, economical and biological factors in the prevention of TB.13.5 Malaria 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the causes and symptoms of malaria; (b) explain the transmission of malaria; (c) discuss the roles of social, economical and biological factors in the prevention of malaria. 15
  20. 20. THIRD TERM: ECOLOGY AND GENETICS Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period14 Taxonomy and 14 Biodiversity 14.1 Taxonomy 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the importance of taxonomy in biological sciences; (b) explain the concept of species, and relate how a species is classified into higher categories in a taxonomic hierarchy. 14.2 Diversity of organisms 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the morphological characteristics of the following phyla in the respective kingdoms: Protoctista (Chlorophyta and Zoomastigina), Fungi (Zygomycota), Plantae (Bryophyta, Filicinophyta, Coniferophyta and Angiospermophyta) and Animalia (Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Arthropoda and Chordata). 14.3 Biodiversity in 2 Candidates should be able to: Malaysia (a) describe the different levels and examples of biodiversity in Malaysia, namely ecosystem or community diversity, species or taxonomic diversity and genetic diversity; (b) explain the importance of biodiversity in Malaysia. 14.4 Threats to biodiversity 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the natural and man-made factors that threaten biodiversity in Malaysia; (b) explain the steps and efforts taken by various agencies and organisations to address the threats. 14.5 Conservation of 2 Candidates should be able to: biodiversity (a) describe the various measures taken to conserve the different levels of biodiversity including in situ and ex situ conservation in Malaysia. 16
  21. 21. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period15 Ecology 22 15.1 Levels of ecological 3 Candidates should be able to: organisation (a) explain the concept of hierarchy in an ecosystem and the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components. 15.2 Biogeochemical cycles 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the biogeochemical cycles (carbon, phosphorus and sulphur), and explain their importance. 15.3 Energy flow 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the energy flow and the efficiency of energy transfer in terrestrial ecosystem (tropical rain forest) and aquatic ecosystem (lake). 15.4 Population ecology 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain population growth (S and J growth curves), biotic potential, natality, mortality, migration and survivorship; (b) explain the characteristics of populations that show Type I, Type II and Type III survivorship curves, and K-strategies and r-strategies. 15.5 Carrying capacity 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain what is meant by carrying capacity and sustainable development; (b) explain the factors limiting the population size and distribution. 15.6 Quantitative ecology 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the use of quadrat and line transect sampling methods and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using these methods; (b) calculate the various sampling parameters (frequency, density, cover and their absolute and relative estimations) and estimate the population size of organisms; (c) explain the pattern of distribution of organisms in an ecosystem. 17
  22. 22. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period16 Selection and Speciation 10 16.1 Natural and artificial 6 Candidates should be able to: selection (a) describe continuous and discontinuous variations in relation to selection and speciation; (b) explain the modes of natural selection (stabilising, directional and disruptive) and their consequences; (c) describe with examples, sexual selection and polymorphism; (d) explain the importance of artificial selection (gene bank, germplasm bank and sperm bank). 16.2 Speciation 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the processes of isolation, genetic drift, hybridisation and adaptive radiation; (b) explain the importance of speciation in relation to evolution.17 Inheritance and Genetic 34 Control 17.1 Types of genetic 5 Candidates should be able to: crosses and breeding (a) explain the Mendelian inheritance pertaining system to the phenotypic and genotypic ratios; (b) describe the types of crosses (test cross, backcross, reciprocal cross and selfing) and explain their importance; (c) describe pure breeding, outbreeding, inbreeding, selective breeding, and explain their importance. 17.2 Non-Mendelian 7 Candidates should be able to: inheritance (a) explain (i) incomplete dominance (flower colour in snapdragon), (ii) codominance (MN blood group in humans), (iii) multiple alleles (ABO blood group in humans), and calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratios; 18
  23. 23. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (b) explain lethal genes (sickle-cell in human/coat colur in mice/chlorophyll production in maize), polygenes (height in humans), linked and sex-linked genes (Drosophila eye colour and haemophilia in humans), and epistasis (coat colour in dog and capsule shape in shepherd’s purse plant); (c) explain the pedigree analysis.17.3 Genetic mapping 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain crossing over and distinguish between parental and recombinant genotypes and phenotypes; (b) calculate the distance between two loci, and determine the relative position of a gene on a chromosome based on percentage of crossing- over in Drosophila.17.4 Population genetics 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the concept of gene pool, gene/allele frequency and genotype frequency; (b) explain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1 and p + q = 1), and calculate the gene/allele and genotype frequencies; (c) explain the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to be valid; (d) describe changes in genotype frequencies in relation to evolution.17.5 DNA replication 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the experiments to prove DNA is the genetic material (Avery, MacLeod and McCarty experiment and Hershey and Chase experiment); (b) explain the three models of DNA replication, and interpret the experiment of Meselson and Stahl to prove the semi-conservative model of DNA replication; (c) explain the mechanism of DNA replication, and the role of the enzymes involved. 19
  24. 24. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period17.6 Gene expression 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the experiment of Beadle and Tatum which leads to the establishment of one-gene- one-polypeptide hypothesis; (b) interpret the genetic code table, and identify the appropriate anti-codon; (c) explain the characteristics of genetic code; (d) describe transcription and translation.17.7 Regulation of gene 2 Candidates should be able to: expression (a) define repressor, inducer, negative control in lac operon and constitutive enzyme; (b) describe the components of lac operon, and explain its mechanism.17.8 Mutation 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the different types of gene mutation with examples of its consequences (substitution – sickle-cell anaemia, insertion/addition – frameshift mutation, deletion – frameshift mutation and thalassaemia major and inversion); (b) differentiate missense, nonsense and silent/ neutral mutations; (c) describe the four structural changes in chromosomes (duplication, deletion, inversion and translocation); (d) describe the changes in chromosome number, including the definition of non-disjunction; (e) describe the consequences of non-disjunction in relation to meiosis; (f) explain and give examples of different types of aneuploidy (monosomy and trisomy); (g) explain and give examples of different types of euploidy: diploid and polyploid, including autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy. 20
  25. 25. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period18 Gene Technology 8 18.1 Recombinant DNA 8 Candidates should be able to: technology (a) explain recombinant DNA technology/genetic engineering; (b) differentiate between genomic and cDNA cloning and genomic and cDNA libraries; (c) describe the vectors used in cloning and their properties; (d) describe the restriction enzyme (EcoR1 and SmaI), including its nomenclature, recognition site (palindrome), importance and the types of ends generated; (e) explain reverse transcription, insertion, ligation, transformation/transduction, amplification and screening; (f) describe the steps involved in genomic and cDNA cloning, including the enzymes involved, and explain human insulin production in E. coli as an example.19 Biotechnology 8 19.1 Roles of 1 Candidates should be able to: biotechnology (a) define biotechnology; (b) outline the roles of biotechnology in our life. 19.2 Applications of 7 Candidates should be able to: biotechnology (a) describe the application of biotechnology in food and beverages production (fermentation and vitamin-enriched eggs); (b) describe the application of biotechnology in agriculture (hybrid rice, herbicide resistant plants and transgenic fish); (c) describe the application of biotechnology in medicine (human growth hormone, human insulin and gene therapy) and forensic (DNA finger printing); (d) describe the application of biotechnology in public health (genetic screening, diagnostic kits and oil-decomposing bacteria). 21
  26. 26. The Practical SyllabusSchool-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)School-based assessment of practical work will be carried out throughout the form six school termsfor candidates from government schools and private schools which are approved by the MEC to carryout the school-based assessment of practical work. MEC will determine 15 compulsory experiments to be carried out by the candidates and to beassessed by the subject teachers in schools in the respective terms. Details of the title, objective,learning outcome, introduction, material, apparatus and procedure of each of the experiments will bespecified in the Teacher’s and Student’s Manual for Practical Biology which can be downloaded fromMEC Portal (http://www.mpm.edu.my) during the first term of form six by the subject teacher. Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experimentso as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one schooldouble period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practicalsessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessmentguidelines prepared by MEC. A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for two subsequentexaminations. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made during theregistration of the examination. During the practical session, candidates should be able to: (a) make observations on living, preserved specimens and models, and record them accurately in writing or by using clear drawings or diagrams, (b) identify morphological features of specimens as a basis for their classification, (c) carry out dissection, display and illustrate the result, (d) stain and mount specimens for microscopic examination, (e) identify and illustrate the specimens observed under light microscope, (f) carry out biochemical, physiological and genetic experiments, (g) carry out sampling for ecological studies, (h) record the results systematically, interpret the data scientifically and make conclusion. 22
  27. 27. Written Practical Test (Paper 5)The main objective of written practical test is to assess the candidates’ understanding of practicalprocedures in the laboratory. The following candidates are required to register for this paper: (a) individual private candidates, (b) candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based assessment of practical work, (c) candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools), (d) candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years (in government or private schools), (e) candidates who take Biology other than the package offered by schools. Three structured questions related to practical work will be set. MEC will not be strictly bound bythe syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidates will be given sufficient information toenable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theory within the syllabus and knowledge ofusual laboratory practical procedures will be expected. Candidates should have sufficient knowledge on: (a) structure of specimens and record them accurately in writing or illustration, (b) morphological and anatomical features and relate to functions of specimens as a basis for their classification, (c) dissection of specimens and illustration of the result (rat), (d) staining and mounting specimens for microscopic examination, (e) identification and illustration of the specimens as observed under microscope, (f) biochemical, physiological and genetic experiments, (g) sampling for ecological studies, (h) interpreting, evaluating, drawing conclusion from experimental data, (i) using theories to explain the results of experiments and performing simple calculations based on experiments. 23
  28. 28. Scheme of Assessment Term of Paper Code Mark Theme/Title Type of Test Duration Administration Study and Name (Weighting) First 964/1 Biological Written test 60 Term Biology Molecules (26.67%) Paper 1 and Section A 15 Metabolism 15 compulsory multiple-choice questions to be answered. Section B 15 Central 2 compulsory short 1½ hours assessment structured questions to be answered. Section C 30 2 out of 3 essay questions to be answered. All questions are based on topics 1 to 6. Second 964/2 Physiology Written test 60 Term Biology (26.67%) Paper 2 Section A 15 15 compulsory multiple-choice questions to be answered. Section B 15 2 compulsory short Central 1½ hours structured questions to assessment be answered. Section C 30 2 out of 3 essay questions to be answered. All questions are based on topics 7 to 13. 24
  29. 29. Term of Paper Code Mark Theme/Title Type of Test Duration Administration Study and Name (Weighting)Third 964/3 Ecology and Written test 60Term Biology Genetics (26.67%) Paper 3 Section A 15 15 compulsory multiple-choice questions to be answered. Section B 15 2 compulsory short Central 1½ hours structured questions to assessment be answered. Section C 30 2 out of 3 essay questions to be answered. All questions are based on topics 14 to 19. 964/5 Written Practical 45 Biology Test (20%) Paper 5 Central 3 structured questions 1½ hours assessment with diagram/graph/ table to be answered. First, 964/4 Biology School-based 225Second Biology Practical Assessment of (20%) and Through- Paper 4 PracticalThird out the School-basedTerms 15 compulsory three assessment experiments to be terms carried out. 25
  30. 30. Performance DescriptionsA Grade A candidate is likely able to: (a) recall almost all the content of required areas of biological syllabus, and relate the content with the question; (b) decide on, organise and present information to explain the concept, theories and depth of biological knowledge in an ordered and logical manner; (c) plan and carry out investigations, solve problems based on a sound biological knowledge; (d) interpret and analyse complex data presented, and relate the biological knowledge and understanding of content by using correct formulae, terminologies, scientific units and approach; (e) integrate various concepts and findings accurately, and formulate logical conclusion; (f) apply and justify knowledge and understanding successfully to unfamiliar contexts and data.A Grade C candidate is likely able to: (a) recall some of the content of the required areas of biological syllabus, and relate the content with the question moderately; (b) decide on, organise and present information to describe the concept, theories and depth of biological knowledge; (c) plan and carry out investigations, solve problems based on a mediocre biological knowledge; (d) interpret and analyse simple and straight forward data presented, and relate the biological knowledge and understanding of content by using some formulae, terminologies and scientific units; (e) integrate some concepts and findings, and formulate simple conclusion; (f) apply knowledge with moderate understanding to unfamiliar contexts and data. 26
  31. 31. Reference BooksTeachers and candidates may use books specially written for the STPM examination and otherreference books such as those listed below.1. Alters, S. and Alters, B., 2006. Biology: Understanding Life. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2. Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G. and Byers, B. E., 2001. Biology: Life on Earth. 6th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.3. Campbell, M. K., Farrell, S. O., 2006. Biochemistry. Belmont: Thomson Brooks/Cole.4. Campbell, N. A. and Reece, N. A., 2005. Biology. 7th edition. San Francisco: Benjamin/ Cummings.5. Clegg, C. J. and Mackean, D. G., 2000. Advanced Biology: Principles and Applications. 2nd edition. London: John Murray.6. Kent, M., 2000. Advanced Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.7. Klug, W. S., Cummings, M.R. and Spencer, C. A., 2005. Concepts of Genetics. 8th edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.8. Klug, W. S. and Cummings, M. R., 2005. Essentials of Genetics. 5th edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.9. Mader, S., 2004. Biology. 8th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.10. Raven, P. H., et. al. 2005. Biology. 7th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.11. Russel, P. J., et. al. 2008. Biology: The Dynamics Science. 1st edition. Belmont: Thompson Brooks/Cole.12. Smith, R. L. and Smith, T. M., 2003. Elements of Ecology. 5th edition. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.13. Solomon, E. P., Berg, L. R. and Martin, D. W., 2005. Biology. 7th edition. Belmont: Thompson Brooks/Cole.14. Taylor, D. J., Green, N. P. O. and Stout, G. W., 2003. Biological Science 1: Organisms, Energy and Environment. 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.15. Taylor, D. J., Green, N. P. O. and Stout, G. W., 2003. Biological Science 2: Systems, Maintenance and Change. 3rd editon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.16. Toole, G. and Toole, S., 1999. Understanding Biology for Advanced Level. 4th edition. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes. 27
  32. 32. 28
  33. 33. Identity card number:………………………….. Centre number/index number:……………………….(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran) SPECIMEN PAPER 964/1 STPM BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI) PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1) One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah) MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL) SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)Instructions to candidates: DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. Answer all questions in Section A. Marks will not be deducted for wrong answers. For eachquestion, four suggested answers are given. Choose the correct answer and circle the answer. Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces provided. Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be shown. For numericalanswers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paperand arrange your answers in numerical order.Arahan kepada calon: JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUATDEMIKIAN. Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.Bagi setiap soalan, empat cadangan jawapan diberikan. Pilih jawapan yang betul dan buat bulatanpada jawapan tersebut. Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang diberikan. Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklahditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai.Mulakan setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan andamengikut tertib berangka. This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page. (Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.) © Majlis Peperiksaan MalaysiaSTPM 964/1 29
  34. 34. Section A [15 marks] Answer all questions in this section.1 Which property of water is important to living organisms? A Polar molecule B Non polar molecule C Low specific heat capacity D Low latent heat of vaporisation2 Which monosaccharide, example and its description correspond? Monosaccharide Example Description A Pentose Ribose A coenzyme involved in the transfer of hydrogen during glycolysis B Pentose Ribulose A source of NADPH production C Triose Glyceraldehyde An important intermediate substance in glycolysis D Triose Dihydroxyacetone A monomer of cellulose3 Which is not true of lipid? A It is soluble in water. B It is a solvent for cholesterol. C It is soluble in organic solvents. D It is an ester formed from the reaction of fat and alcohol.4 Which amino acid is the first to be carried by tRNA to ribosome during translation? A Leucine B Tyrosine C Tryptophan D Methionine5 Which organelle gives rise to the membranes of a cell? A Vacuole B Nucleus C Lysosome D Smooth endoplasmic reticulum964/1 30
  35. 35. Bahagian A [15 markah] Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.1 Sifat air yang manakah yang penting kepada organism hidup? A Molekul berkutub B Molekul tak berkutub C Muatan haba tentu yang rendah D Haba pendam pengewapan yang rendah2 Monosakarida, contohnya, dan penerangan yang manakah yang berpadanan? Monosakarida Contoh Penerangan A Pentosa Ribosa Satu koenzim yang terlibat dalam pemindahan hydrogen semasa glikolisis B Pentosa Ribulosa Sumber penghasilan NADPH C Triosa Gliseraldehid Bahan perantara penting dalam glikolisis D Triosa Dihidroksiaseton Monomer selulosa3 Yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang lipid? A Terlarut dalam air. B Pelarut bagi kolesterol. C Terlarut dalam pelarut organik. D Satu ester yang terbentuk daripada tindak balas lemak dan alkohol.4 Asid amino yang manakah yang pertama dibawa oleh tRNA ke ribosom semasa translasi? A Leusina B Tirosina C Triptofan D Metionina5 Organel yang manakah yang membentuk membran sel? A Vakuol B Nukleus C Lisosom D Jalinan endoplasma licin964/1 31
  36. 36. 6 Which statement is not true of xylem? A Xylem cells contain pits. B Matured xylem cells are dead cells. C Companion cells provide nutrients to the xylem. D Xylem consists of vessel elements and tracheids.7 The table below shows the components of a cell membrane and their functions. Component of a cell Functions membrane I Oligosaccharide p Acts as a receptor to a certain molecule such as hormone II Lecithin q As an indicator so that the cells can recognise each other III Protein r Gives the semi-permeable and selective characteristics to the membrane IV Cholesterol s Maintains the fluid characteristics of the membrane Which components of cell membrane and functions correspond? I II III IV A p q r s B q r p s C r p s q D s r q p8 Which factor reduces enzyme activity? A Extreme pH B Heavy metal C Competitive inhibitor D Very high temperature964/1 32
  37. 37. 6 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang xilem? A Sel xilem mengandungi pit. B Sel xylem yang matang ialah sel mati. C Sel rakan membekalkan nutrien kepada xilem. D Xilem terdiri daripada unsur salur dan trakeid.7 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan komponen-komponen satu membran sel dan fungsinya. Komponen Fungsi membran sel I Oligosakarida p Bertindak sebagai reseptor kepada molekul tertentu seperti hormon II Lesitin q Sebagai penanda supaya sel boleh mengecam antara satu sama lain III Protein r Memberi sifat separa telap dan sifat memilih pada membran IV Kolesterol s Mengekalkan ciri bendalir bagi membran Yang manakah yang betul bagi komponen membran sel di atas dan fungsi masing-masing? I II III IV A p q r s B q r p s C r p s q D s r q p8 Faktor yang manakah yang mengurangkan aktiviti enzim? A pH yang melampau B Logam berat C Perencat persaingan D Suhu yang sangat tinggi964/1 33
  38. 38. 9 Which graph shows the possible changes in the rate of a reaction catalysed by an enzyme in thepresence of a competitive inhibitor? 1/V Without 1/V With inhibitor inhibitor With Without inhibitor inhibitor 1/[S] 1/[S] A B 1/V Without 1/V inhibitor With With inhibitor inhibitor Without inhibitor 1/[S] 1/[S] C D10 Which statement describes the advantage of immobilised enzyme? A The efficiency of enzyme increases. B The enzyme can be easily retrieved but cannot be reused. C The end product does not contain the enzyme and easily retrieved. D The characteristics of enzyme can be changed in order to increase its surface area.11 What is the fate of all carbons from a glucose molecule after it is completely oxidised? A Pyruvate B Carbohydrate C Carbon dioxide D Acetyl coenzyme A12 In a condition without oxygen, pyruvate in plants will A be converted into lactate B be converted into acetaldehyde C enter the Krebs cycle immediately D be converted back into phosphoglyceraldehyde964/1 34
  39. 39. 9 Graf yang manakah yang menunjukkan kemungkinan perubahan kadar tindak balas yangdimangkinkan oleh enzim dalam kehadiran perencat persaingan? 1/V Tanpa 1/V Dengan perencat perencat Dengan perencat Tanpa perencat 1/[S] 1/[S] A B 1/V Tanpa 1/V perencat Dengan Dengan perencat perencat Tanpa perencat 1/[S] 1/[S] C D10 Penyataan yang manakah yang memerihalkan kelebihan enzim pentakmobilan? A Keefisienan enzim bertambah. B Enzim boleh didapatkan dengan mudah tetapi tidak boleh digunakan semula. C Produk akhir tidak mengandungi enzim dan mudah didapatkan. D Ciri enzim boleh diubah bagi meningkatkan luas permukaan.11 Apakah yang terjadi kepada semua karbon dari molekul glukosa selepas dioksidakan denganlengkap? A Piruvat B Karbohidrat C Karbon dioksida D Asetil koenzim A12 Dalam keadaan ketiadaan oksigen, piruvat dalam tumbuhan akan A ditukarkan kepada laktat B ditukarkan kepada asetildehid C masuk ke kitar Krebs dengan segera D ditukar semula kepada fosfogliseraldehid964/1 35
  40. 40. 13 In cyclic photophosphorylation, the excited electron which returns to its ground state will emit A light B microwave C gamma ray D ultraviolet radiation14 Which statement describes the characteristic of bundle sheath cell of C4 plants? A It has small grana. B It contains a few starch granules. C The activity of photosystem I is high. D Carbon dioxide is assimilated by PEP carboxylase.15 The diagram below shows non-cyclic photophosphorylation during the light reaction ofphotosynthesis. Which are represented by X, Y and Z ? X Y Z A Ferredoxin Plastoquinone Plastocyanin B Ferredoxin Plastocyanin Plastoquinone C Plastocyanin Plastoquinone Ferredoxin D Plastoquinone Plastocyanin Ferredoxin964/1 36
  41. 41. 13 Dalam pemfotofostorilan berkitar, elektron teruja yang kembali ke keadaan asas akanmembebaskan A cahaya B gelombang mikro C sinar gamma D sinaran ultra lembayung14 Penyataan yang manakah yang memerihalkan ciri sel berkas tumbuhan C4? A Mempunyai grana yang kecil. B Mengandungi beberapa granul kanji. C Aktiviti fotosistem I adalah tinggi. D Karbon dioksida diasimilasi oleh PEP karboksilase.15 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan pemfotofosforilan bukan kitar semasa tindak balas cahayafotosintesis. Penerima Penerima pertama pertama Kompleks sitokrom NADP+ reduktase Cahaya Cahaya Yang manakah yang diwakili oleh X, Y, dan Z ? X Y Z A Ferredoksin Plastokuinon Plastosianin B Ferredoksin Plastosianin Plastokuinon C Plastosianin Plastokuinon Ferredoksin D Plastokuinon Plastosianin Ferredoksin964/1 37
  42. 42. Section B [15 marks] Answer all questions in this section.16 A quantity of cells taken from a type of tissue were homogenised and their organelles wereseparated by ultracentrifugation. The diagrams below show three types of organelles obtained. R P Q Organelle X Organelle Y Organelle Z (a) State where these cells may have been taken from. [1 mark]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (b) Arrange the order of sedimentation of organelles X, Y and Z. Explain your answer. [2 marks]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (c) From the above diagrams, name the structure labelled P, Q and R. [3 marks]P: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...Q: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...R: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………... (d) Give one function of organelle Y. [1 mark]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (e) Give one common function of organelles X and Z. [1 mark]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................964/1 38
  43. 43. Bahagian B [15 markah] Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.16 Sejumlah sel yang diambil daripada tisu telah dihomogenkan dan kandungan organelnyadiasingkan melalui ultrapengemparan. Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan tiga jenis organel yangdiperoleh. R P Q Organel X Organel Y Organel Z (a) Nyatakan dari manakah sel-sel ini mungkin telah diperoleh. [1 markah]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (b) Susunkan turutan pengenapan bagi organel X, Y, dan Z. Jelaskan jawapan anda. [2 markah]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (c) Daripada gambar rajah di atas, namakan struktur yang berlabel P, Q, dan R. [3 markah]P: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...Q: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...R: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………... (d) Berikan satu fungsi organel Y. [1 markah]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (e) Berikan satu fungsi sepunya bagi organel X dan Z. [1 markah]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................964/1 39
  44. 44. 17 The diagram below shows photophosphorylation in light reaction for plants. Oxidation- reduction potential (Relative energy level) (a) Name the photosystems labeled Q and R, and give the wavelengths of their appropriatereaction centres. [4 marks] Name of photosystem Wavelength Q : …………………… ……………… R: ……………………. ……………… (b) What are the forms of energy represented by S and T? [2 marks]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (c) Name the process that occurs at Q. [1 mark]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................964/1 40
  45. 45. 17 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan pemfotofosforilan dalam tindak balas cahaya bagitumbuhan. Keupayaan pengoksidaan penurunan (Aras tenaga Penerima elektron relatif) Penerima elektron (a) Namakan fotosistem yang berlabel Q dan R, dan berikan panjang gelombang bagi pusattindak balas yang sewajarnya. [4 markah] Nama fotosistem Panjang gelombang Q : …………………… ……………………….. R: ……………………. ……………………… (b) Apakan bentuk tenaga yang diwakili oleh S dan T? [2 markah]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ (c) Namakan proses yang berlaku di Q. [1 markah]……………………………………………………………………………………………........................964/1 41

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