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- 1. STPM/S(E)960 MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL) PEPERIKSAANSIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION) PHYSICSSyllabus, Specimen Papers and Specimen Experiment This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.
- 2. FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN“Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah satu usaha berterusanke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secaramenyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yangseimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi,dan jasmani. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyatMalaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berakhlak mulia,bertanggungjawab, berketerampilan, dan berkeupayaanmencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbanganterhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,masyarakat dan negara.”
- 3. FOREWORDThis revised Physics syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use sincethe 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first examinationwill also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the changes made bythe Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination. Through the newsystem, sixth-form study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit for an examination atthe end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system. The mainobjective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching and learningorientation in sixth form so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in collegesand universities.The revision of the Physics syllabus incorporates current developments in physics studies and syllabusdesign in Malaysia. The syllabus will give students exposure to pre-university level about Physics thatincludes mechanics and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, optics,and modern physics. The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examinationformat, grade description, and sample questions.The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Dato’ Dr. Mohd.Zambri bin Zainuddin from University of Malaya. Other committee members consist of universitylecturers, representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of EducationMalaysia, and experienced teachers teaching Physics. On behalf of the MEC, I would like to thank thecommittee for their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that this syllabus will be aguide for teachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process.OMAR BIN ABU BAKARChief ExecutiveMalaysian Examinations Council
- 4. CONTENTS Syllabus 960 Physics PageAims 1Objectives 1Content First Term: Mechanics and Thermodynamics 2–9 Second Term: Electricity and Magnetism 10 – 15 Third Term: Oscillations and Waves, Optics, and Modern Physics 16 – 22Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)) 23 – 24Written Practical Test (Paper 5) 24Scheme of Assessment 25 – 26Performance Descriptions 27Summary of Key Quantities and Units 28 – 30Values of constants 31Reference Books 32Specimen Paper 1 33 – 48Specimen Paper 2 49 – 66Specimen Paper 3 67 – 82Specimen Experiment Paper 4 83 – 85Specimen Paper 5 87 – 113
- 5. SYLLABUS 960 PHYSICSAimsThis syllabus aims to enhance candidates’ knowledge and understanding of physics to enable them toeither further their studies at institutions of higher learning or assist them to embark on a relatedcareer and also to promote awareness among them of the role of physics in the universe.ObjectivesThe objectives of this syllabus are to enable candidates to:(a) use models, concepts, principles, theories, and laws of physics;(b) interpret and use scientific information presented in various forms;(c) solve problems in various situations;(d) analyse, synthesise, and evaluate information and ideas logically and critically;(e) use techniques of operation and safety aspects of scientific equipment;(f) plan and carry out experiments scientifically and make conclusions;(g) develop proper attitudes, ethics, and values in the study and practice of physics. 1
- 6. FIRST TERM: MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period1 Physical Quantities and 6 Candidates should be able to: Units 1.1 Base quantities and 1 (a) list base quantities and their SI units: SI units mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K) and quantity of matter (mol); (b) deduce units for derived quantities; 1.2 Dimensions of 1 (c) use dimensional analysis to determine the physical quantities dimensions of derived quantities; (d) check the homogeneity of equations using dimensional analysis; (e) construct empirical equations using dimensional analysis; 1.3 Scalars and vectors 2 (f) determine the sum, the scalar product and vector product of coplanar vectors; (g) resolve a vector to two perpendicular components; 1.4 Uncertainties in 2 (h) calculate the uncertainty in a derived quantity measurements (a rigorous statistical treatment is not required); (i) write a derived quantity to an appropriate number of significant figures.2 Kinematics 6 Candidates should be able to: 2.1 Linear motion 2 (a) derive and use equations of motion with constant acceleration; (b) sketch and use the graphs of displacement- time, velocity-time and acceleration-time for the motion of a body with constant acceleration; 2.2 Projectiles 4 (c) solve problems on projectile motion without air resistance; (d) explain the effects of air resistance on the motion of bodies in air. 2
- 7. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period3 Dynamics 12 Candidates should be able to: 3.1 Newton’s laws of 4 (a) state Newton’s laws of motion; motion dv dm (b) use the formula F = m +v for constant dt dt m or constant v only; 3.2 Linear momentum and 3 (c) state the principle of conservation of its conservation momentum, and verify the principle using Newton’s laws of motion; (d) apply the principle of conservation of momentum; (e) define impulse as ∫F dt ; (f) solve problems involving impulse; 3.3 Elastic and inelastic 2 (g) distinguish between elastic collisions and collisions inelastic collisions (knowledge of coefficient of restitution is not required); (h) solve problems involving collisions between particles in one dimension; 3.4 Centre of mass 1 (i) define centre of mass for a system of particles in a plane; (j) predict the path of the centre of mass of a two- particle system; 3.5 Frictional forces 2 (k) explain the variation of frictional force with sliding force; (l) define and use coefficient of static function and coefficient of kinetic friction.4 Work, Energy and Power 5 Candidates should be able to: 4.1 Work 2 (a) define the work done by a force dW = F • ds ; (b) calculate the work done using a force- displacement graph; (c) calculate the work done in certain situations, including the work done in a spring; 4.2 Potential energy and 2 (d) derive and use the formula: potential energy kinetic energy change = mgh near the surface of the Earth; (e) derive and use the formula: kinetic energy 1 = mv 2 ; 2 3
- 8. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (f) state and use the work-energy theorem; (g) apply the principle of conservation of energy in situations involving kinetic energy and potential energy; 4.3 Power 1 (h) derive and use the formula P = Fv ; (i) use the concept of efficiency to solve problems.5 Circular Motion 8 Candidates should be able to: 5.1 Angular displacement 1 (a) express angular displacement in radians; and angular velocity (b) define angular velocity and period; (c) derive and use the formula v = rω ; 5.2 Centripetal 2 (d) explain that uniform circular motion has an acceleration acceleration due to the change in direction of velocity; (e) derive and use the formulae for centripetal v2 acceleration a = and a = rω 2 ; r 5.3 Centripetal force 5 (f) explain that uniform circular motion is due to the action of a resultant force that is always directed to the centre of the circle; (g) use the formulae for centripetal force mv 2 F= and F = mrω 2 ; r (h) solve problems involving uniform horizontal circular motion for a point mass; (i) solve problems involving vertical circular motions for a point mass (knowledge of tangential acceleration is not required).6 Gravitation 10 Candidates should be able to: 6.1 Newton’s law of 1 (a) state Newton’s law of universal gravitation and universal gravitation GMm use the formula F = 2 ; r 6.2 Gravitational field 2 (b) explain the meaning of gravitational field; (c) define gravitational field strength as force of gravity per unit mass; 4
- 9. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period GM (d) use the equation g = for a gravitational r2 field; 6.3 Gravitational potential 3 (e) define the potential at a point in a gravitational field; GM (f) derive and use the formula V = − ; r (g) use the formula for potential energy GMm U= − ; r (h) show that ΔU = mgΔr = mgh is a special case GMm of U = − for situations near to the r surface of the Earth; dV (i) use the relationship g = − ; dr (j) explain, with graphical illustrations, the variations of gravitational field strength and gravitational potential with distance from the surface of the Earth; 6.4 Satellite motion in a 3 (k) solve problems involving satellites moving in circular orbit a circular orbit in a gravitational field; (l) explain the concept of weightlessness; 6.5 Escape velocity 1 (m) derive and use the equation for escape 2GM velocity ve = and ve = 2 gR . R7 Statics 6 Candidates should be able to: 7.1 Centre of gravity 1 (a) define centre of gravity; (b) state the condition in which the centre of mass is the centre of gravity; 7.2 Equilibrium of 1 (c) state the condition for the equilibrium of a particles particle; (d) solve problems involving forces in equilibrium at a point; 7.3 Equilibrium of rigid 4 (e) define torque as τ = r × F ; bodies (f) state the conditions for the equilibrium of a rigid body; 5
- 10. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (g) sketch and label the forces which act on a particle and a rigid body; (h) use the triangle of forces to represent forces in equilibrium; (i) solve problems involving forces in equilibrium.8 Deformation of Solids 5 Candidates should be able to: 8.1 Stress and strain 1 (a) define stress and strain for a stretched wire or elastic string; 8.2 Force-extension graph 2 (b) sketch force-extension graph and stress-strain and stress-strain graph graph for a ductile material; (c) identify and explain proportional limit, elastic limit, yield point and tensile strength; (d) define the Young’s modulus; (e) solve problems involving Young’s modulus; (f) distinguish between elastic deformation and plastic deformation; (g) distinguish the shapes of force-extension graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric materials; 8.3 Strain energy 2 (h) derive and use the formula for strain energy; (i) calculate strain energy from force-extension graphs or stress-strain graphs.9 Kinetic Theory of Gases 14 Candidates should be able to: 9.1 Ideal gas equation 2 (a) use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT ; 9.2 Pressure of a gas 2 (b) state the assumptions of the kinetic theory of an ideal gas; (c) derive and use the equation for the pressure 1 exerted by an ideal gas p = ρ c 2 ; 3 9.3 Molecular kinetic 2 (d) state and use the relationship between the energy Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant R k= ; NA 6
- 11. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (e) derive and use the expression for the mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule, 1 3 mc 2 = kT ; 2 2 9.4 The r.m.s. speed of 2 (f) calculate the r.m.s. speed of gas molecules; molecules (g) sketch the molecular speed distribution graph and explain the shape of the graph (description of the experiment is not required); (h) predict the variation of molecular speed distribution with temperature; 9.5 Degrees of freedom 3 (i) define the degrees of freedom of a gas and law of molecule; equipartition of energy (j) identify the number of degrees of freedom of a monatomic, diatomic or polyatomic molecule at room temperature; (k) explain the variation in the number of degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule ranging from very low to very high temperatures; (l) state and apply the law of equipartition of energy; 9.6 Internal energy of an 3 (m) distinguish between an ideal gas and a real gas; ideal gas (n) explain the concept of internal energy of an ideal gas; (o) derive and use the relationship between the internal energy and the number of degrees of freedom.10 Thermodynamics of Gases 14 Candidates should be able to: 10.1 Heat capacities 2 (a) define heat capacity, specific heat capacity and molar heat capacity; (b) use the equations: Q = CΔθ , Q = mcΔθ , Q = nCV,m Δθ and Q = nCp,m Δθ ; 10.2 Work done by a gas 1 (c) derive and use the equation for work done by a gas W = ∫ p dV ; 7
- 12. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 10.3 First law of 5 (d) state and apply the first law of thermodynamics thermodynamics Q = ΔU + W ; (e) deduce the relationship ΔU = nCV, m ΔT from the first law of thermodynamics; (f) derive and use the equation Cp,m − CV,m = R ; (g) relate CV,m and Cp,m to the degrees of freedom; Cp, m (h) use the relationship γ = to identify the CV, m types of molecules; 10.4 Isothermal and 6 (i) describe the isothermal process of a gas; adiabatic changes (j) use the equation pV = constant for isothermal changes; (k) describe the adiabatic process of a gas; (l) use the equations pV γ = constant and TV γ −1 = constant for adiabatic changes; (m) illustrate thermodynamic processes with p-V graphs; (n) derive and use the expression for work done in the thermodynamic processes.11 Heat Transfer 10 Candidates should be able to: 11.1 Conduction 5 (a) explain the mechanism of heat conduction through solids, and hence, distinguish between conduction through metals and non-metals; (b) define thermal conductivity; dQ dθ (c) use the equation = − kA for heat dt dx conduction in one dimension; (d) describe and calculate heat conduction through a cross-sectional area of layers of different materials; (e) compare heat conduction through insulated and non-insulated rods; 11.2 Convection 1 (f) describe heat transfer by convection; (g) distinguish between natural and forced convection; 8
- 13. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period11.3 Radiation 3 (h) describe heat transfer by radiation; dQ (i) use Stefan-Boltzmann equation = eσ AT 4 ; dt (j) define a black body;11.4 Global warming 1 (k) explain the greenhouse effect and thermal pollution; (l) suggest ways to reduce global warming. 9
- 14. SECOND TERM: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period12 Electrostatics 12 Candidates should be able to: 12.1 Coulomb’s law 2 (a) state Coulomb’s law, and use the formula Qq F= ; 4π ε 0 r 2 12.2 Electric field 3 (b) explain the meaning of electric field, and sketch the field pattern for an isolated point charge, an electric dipole and a uniformly charged surface; (c) define the electric field strength, and use the F formula E = ; q (d) describe the motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field; 12.3 Gauss’s law 4 (e) state Gauss’s law, and apply it to derive the electric field strength for an isolated point charge, an isolated charged conducting sphere and a uniformly charged plate; 12.4 Electric potential 3 (f) define electric potential; Q (g) use the formula V = ; 4πε 0 r (h) explain the meaning of equipotential surfaces; dV (i) use the relationship E = − ; dr (j) use the formula U = qV.13 Capacitors 12 Candidates should be able to: 13.1 Capacitance 1 (a) define capacitance; 13.2 Parallel plate 2 (b) describe the mechanism of charging a parallel capacitors plate capacitor; Q ε A (c) use the formula C = to derive C = 0 for V d the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor; 10
- 15. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 13.3 Dielectrics 2 (d) define relative permittivity ε r (dielectric constant); (e) describe the effect of a dielectric in a parallel plate capacitor; ε rε 0 A (f) use the formula C = ; d 13.4 Capacitors in series 2 (g) derive and use the formulae for effective and in parallel capacitance of capacitors in series and in parallel; 13.5 Energy stored in a 1 (h) use the formulae charged capacitor 1 1 Q2 1 U= QV , U = and U = CV 2 2 2 C 2 (derivations are not required); 13.6 Charging and 4 (i) describe the charging and discharging process discharging of a of a capacitor through a resistor; capacitor (j) define the time constant, and use the formula τ = RC ; (k) derive and use the formulae ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ Q = Q0 ⎜1 − e τ ⎟ , V = V0 ⎜1 − e τ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ t − I = I 0 e τ for charging a capacitor through a resistor; t − (l) derive and use the formulae Q = Q0 e τ , t t − − V = V0 e τ and I = I 0 e τ for discharging a capacitor through a resistor; (m) solve problems involving charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor.14 Electric Current 10 Candidates should be able to: 14.1 Conduction of 2 (a) define electric current, and use the equation electricity dQ I= ; dt (b) explain the mechanism of conduction of electricity in metals; 11
- 16. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 14.2 Drift velocity 2 (c) explain the concept of drift velocity; (d) derive and use the equation I = Anev ; 14.3 Current density 2 (e) define electric current density and conductivity; (f) use the relationship J = σ E ; ne 2t 14.4 Electric conductivity 4 (g) derive and use the equation σ = ; m and resistivity RA (h) define resistivity, and use the formula ρ = ; l (i) show the equivalence between Ohm’s law and the relationship J = σ E ; (j) explain the dependence of resistivity on temperature for metals and semiconductors by ne 2t using the equation σ = ; m (k) discuss the effects of temperature change on the resistivity of conductors, semiconductors and superconductors.15 Direct Current Circuits 14 Candidates should be able to: 15.1 Internal resistance 1 (a) explain the effects of internal resistance on the terminal potential difference of a battery in a circuit; 15.2 Kirchhoff’s laws 4 (b) state and apply Kirchhoff’s laws; 15.3 Potential divider 2 (c) explain a potential divider as a source of variable voltage; (d) explain the uses of shunts and multipliers; 15.4 Potentiometer and 7 (e) explain the working principles of a Wheatstone bridge potentiometer, and its uses; (f) explain the working principles of a Wheatstone bridge, and its uses; (g) solve problems involving potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge. 12
- 17. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period16 Magnetic Fields 18 Candidates should be able to: 16.1 Concept of a magnetic 1 (a) explain magnetic field as a field of force field produced by current-carrying conductors or by permanent magnets; 16.2 Force on a moving 3 (b) use the formula for the force on a moving charge charge F = qv × B ; (c) use the equation F = qvB sin θ to define magnetic flux density B; (d) describe the motion of a charged particle parallel and perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field; 16.3 Force on a current- 3 (e) explain the existence of magnetic force on a carrying conductor straight current-carrying conductor placed in a uniform magnetic field; (f) derive and use the equation F = IlB sin θ ; 16.4 Magnetic fields due to 4 (g) state Ampere’s law, and use it to derive the currents μI magnetic field of a straight wire B = 0 ; 2πr μ 0 NI (h) use the formulae B = for a circular coil 2r and B = μ 0 nI for a solenoid; 16.5 Force between two 3 μ0 I1I 2l current-carrying (i) derive and use the formula F = for the 2 πd conductors force between two parallel current-carrying conductors; 16.6 Determination of the 2 (j) describe the motion of a charged particle in the e presence of both magnetic and electric fields ratio m (for v, B and E perpendicular to each other); (k) explain the principles of the determination of e the ratio for electrons in Thomson’s m experiment (quantitative treatment is required); 16.7 Hall effect 2 (l) explain Hall effect, and derive an expression for Hall voltage VH ; (m) state the applications of Hall effect. 13
- 18. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period17 Electromagnetic Induction 18 Candidates should be able to: 17.1 Magnetic flux 1 (a) define magnetic flux as Φ = B • A ; 17.2 Faraday’s law and 8 (b) state and use Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law; Lenz’s law (c) derive and use the equation for induced e.m.f. in linear conductors and plane coils in uniform magnetic fields; 17.3 Self induction 5 (d) explain the phenomenon of self-induction, and define self-inductance; dI (e) use the formulae E = − L and LI = NΦ ; dt (f) derive and use the equation for the self- μ N2A inductance of a solenoid L = 0 ; l 17.4 Energy stored in an 2 (g) use the formula for the energy stored in an inductor 1 inductor U = LI 2 ; 2 17.5 Mutual induction 2 (h) explain the phenomenon of mutual induction, and define mutual inductance; (i) derive an expression for the mutual inductance between two coaxial solenoids of the same μ0 N p Ns A cross-sectional area M = . lp18 Alternating Current 12 Candidates should be able to: Circuits 18.1 Alternating current 3 (a) explain the concept of the r.m.s. value of an through a resistor alternating current, and calculate its value for the sinusoidal case only; (b) derive an expression for the current from V = V0 sin ωt ; (c) explain the phase difference between the current and voltage for a pure resistor; (d) derive and use the formula for the power in an alternating current circuit which consists only of a pure resistor; 14
- 19. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period18.2 Alternating current 3 (e) derive an expression for the current from through an inductor V = V0 sin ωt ; (f) explain the phase difference between the current and voltage for a pure inductor; (g) define the reactance of a pure inductor; (h) use the formula X L = ω L ; (i) derive and use the formula for the power in an alternating current circuit which consists only of a pure inductor;18.3 Alternating current 3 (j) derive an expression for the current from through a capacitor V = V0 sin ωt ; (k) explain the phase difference between the current and voltage for a pure capacitor; (l) define the reactance of a pure capacitor; 1 (m) use the formula X C = ; ωC (n) derive and use the formula for the power in an alternating current circuit which consists only of a pure capacitor;18.4 R-C and R-L circuits in 3 (o) define impedance; series (p) use the formula Z = R2 + ( X L − X C )2 ; (q) sketch the phasor diagrams of R-C and R-L circuits. 15
- 20. THIRD TERM: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES, OPTICS, AND MODERN PHYSICS Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period19 Oscillations 12 Candidates should be able to: 19.1 Characteristics of 1 (a) define simple harmonic motion; simple harmonic motion 19.2 Kinematics of simple 4 (b) show that x = A sin ωt is a solution of harmonic motion a = −ω 2 x ; (c) derive and use the formula v = ±ω A2 − x 2 ; (d) describe, with graphical illustrations, the variation in displacement, velocity and acceleration with time; (e) describe, with graphical illustrations, the variation in velocity and acceleration with displacement; 19.3 Energy in simple 2 (f) derive and use the expressions for kinetic harmonic motion energy and potential energy; (g) describe, with graphical illustrations, the variation in kinetic energy and potential energy with time and displacement; 19.4 Systems in simple 3 (h) derive and use expressions for the periods of harmonic motion oscillations for spring-mass and simple pendulum systems; 19.5 Damped oscillations 1 (i) describe the changes in amplitude and energy for a damped oscillating system; (j) distinguish between under damping, critical damping and over damping; 19.6 Forced oscillations and 1 (k) distinguish between free oscillations and resonance forced oscillations; (l) state the conditions for resonance to occur.20 Wave Motion 12 Candidates should be able to: 20.1 Progressive waves 3 (a) interpret and use the progressive wave equation y = A sin (ω t − kx) or y = A cos (ω t − kx); (b) sketch and interpret the displacement-time graph and the displacement-distance graph; 16
- 21. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 2π x (c) use the formula φ = ; λ (d) derive and use the relationship v = f λ ; 20.2 Wave intensity 2 (e) define intensity and use the relationship I ∝ A2 ; (f) describe the variation of intensity with distance of a point source in space; 20.3 Principle of 1 (g) state the principle of superposition; superposition 20.4 Standing waves 4 (h) use the principle of superposition to explain the formation of standing waves; (i) derive and interpret the standing wave equation; (j) distinguish between progressive and standing waves; 20.5 Electromagnetic waves 2 (k) state that electromagnetic waves are made up of electrical vibrations E = E0 sin (ω t − kx) and magnetic vibrations B = B0 sin (ω t − kx); (l) state the characteristics of electromagnetic waves; (m) compare electromagnetic waves with mechanical waves; 1 (n) state the formula c = , and explain its ε 0μ0 significance; (o) state the orders of the magnitude of wavelengths and frequencies for different types of electromagnetic waves.21 Sound Waves 14 Candidates should be able to: 21.1 Propagation of sound 2 (a) explain the propagation of sound waves in air waves in terms of pressure variation and displacement; (b) interpret the equations for displacement y = y0 sin (ω t − kx) and pressure ⎛ π⎞ p = p0 sin ⎜ ω t − kx + ⎟ ; ⎝ 2⎠ 17
- 22. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) use the standing wave equation to determine the positions of nodes and antinodes of a standing wave along a stretched string; 21.2 Sources of sound 4 T (d) use the formula v = to determine the μ frequencies of the sound produced by different modes of vibration of the standing waves along a stretched string; (e) describe, with appropriate diagrams, the different modes of vibration of standing waves in air columns, and calculate the frequencies of sound produced, including the determination of end correction; 21.3 Intensity level of 2 (f) define and calculate the intensity level of sound sound; 21.4 Beat 2 (g) use the principle of superposition to explain the formation of beats; (h) use the formula for beat frequency f = f1 − f2 ; 21.5 Doppler effect 4 (i) describe the Doppler effect for sound, and use the derived formulae (for source and/or observer moving along the same line).22 Geometrical Optics 8 Candidates should be able to: r 22.1 Spherical mirrors 3 (a) use the relationship f = for spherical 2 mirrors; (b) draw ray diagrams to show the formation of images by concave mirrors and convex mirrors; 1 1 1 (c) use the formula + = for spherical u v f mirrors; 22.2 Refraction at spherical 2 n1 n 2 n 2 − n1 surfaces (d) use the formula + = for u v r refraction at spherical surfaces; 18
- 23. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 22.3 Thin lenses 3 n1 n 2 n 2 − n1 (e) use the formula + = to derive u v r 1 1 1 the thin lens formula + = and u v f 1 ⎛ nl ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ lensmaker’s equation =⎜ − 1⎟⎜ − ⎟ ; f m ⎝ nm ⎠⎝ r1 r2 ⎠ (f) use the thin lens formula and lensmaker’s equation.23 Wave Optics 16 Candidates should be able to: 23.1 Huygens’s principle 1 (a) state the Huygens’s principle; (b) use the Huygens’s principle to explain interference and diffraction phenomena; 23.2 Interference 2 (c) explain the concept of coherence; (d) explain the concept of optical path difference, and solve related problems; (e) state the conditions for constructive and destructive interferences; 23.3 Two-slit interference 2 (f) explain Young’s two-slit interference pattern; pattern λD (g) derive and use the formula x = for the a fringe separation in Young’s interference pattern; 23.4 Interference in a thin 2 (h) explain the phenomenon of thin film film interference for normal incident light, and solve related problems; 23.5 Diffraction by a single 2 (i) explain the diffraction pattern for a single slit; slit λ (j) use the formula sin θ = for the first a minimum in the diffraction pattern for a single slit; λ (k) use the formula sin θ = as the resolving a power of an aperture; 19
- 24. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 23.6 Diffraction gratings 3 (l) explain the diffraction pattern for a diffraction grating; (m) use the formula d sin θ = mλ for a diffraction grating; (n) describe the use of a diffraction grating to form the spectrum of white light, and to determine the wavelength of monochromatic light; 23.7 Polarisation 2 (o) state that polarisation is a property of transverse waves; (p) explain the polarisation of light obtained by reflection or using a polariser; (q) use the Brewster’s law tan θ B = n ; (r) use the Malus’s law I = I0 cos2 θ ; 23.8 Optical waveguides 2 (s) explain the basic principles of fibre optics and waveguides; (t) state the applications of fibre optics and waveguides.24 Quantum Physics 20 Students should be able to: 24.1 Photons 8 (a) describe the important observations in photoelectric experiments; (b) recognise the features of the photoelectric effect that cannot be explained by wave theory, and explain these features using the concept of quantisation of light; (c) use the equation E = hf for a photon; (d) explain the meaning of work function and threshold frequency; (e) use Einstein’s equation for the photoelectric 1 2 effect hf = W + mvmax ; 2 (f) explain the meaning of stopping potential, and 1 2 use eVs = mvmax ; 2 20
- 25. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period24.2 Wave-particle duality 2 (g) state de Broglie’s hypothesis; h (h) use the relation λ = to calculate de Broglie p wavelength; (i) interpret the electron diffraction pattern as an evidence of the wave nature of electrons; (j) explain the advantages of an electron microscope as compared to an optical microscope;24.3 Atomic structure 4 (k) state Bohr’s postulates for a hydrogen atom; (l) derive an expression for the radii of the orbits in Bohr’s model; Z 2e4m (m) derive the formula E n = − 2 for 8ε 0 h2n2 Bohr’s model; (n) explain the production of emission line spectra with reference to the transitions between energy levels; (o) explain the concepts of excitation energy and ionisation energy;24.4 X-rays 5 (p) interpret X-ray spectra obtained from X-ray tubes; (q) explain the characteristic line spectrum and continuous spectrum including λ min in X-rays; hc (r) derive and use the equation λmin = ; eV (s) describe X-ray diffraction by two parallel adjacent atomic planes; (t) derive and use Bragg’s law 2d sin θ = mλ ;24.5 Nanoscience 1 (u) explain the basic concept of nanoscience; (v) state the applications of nanoscience in electronics devices. 21
- 26. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period25 Nuclear Physics 14 Candidates should be able to: 25.1 Nucleus 4 (a) describe the discovery of protons and neutrons (experimental details are not required); (b) explain mass defect and binding energy; (c) use the formula for mass-energy equivalence ΔE = Δmc2; (d) relate and use the units u and eV; (e) sketch and interpret a graph of binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number; 25.2 Radioactivity 6 (f) explain radioactive decay as a spontaneous and random process; (g) define radioactive activity; dN (h) state and use the exponential law = −λN dt for radioactive decay; (i) define decay constant; (j) derive and use the formula N = N 0 e − λt ; (k) define half-life, and derive the relation ln 2 λ= ; t1 2 (l) solve problems involving the applications of radioisotopes as tracers in medical physics; 25.3 Nuclear reactions 4 (m) state and apply the conservation of nucleon number and charge in nuclear reactions; (n) apply the principle of mass-energy conservation to calculate the energy released (Q – value) in a nuclear reaction; (o) relate the occurrence of fission and fusion to the graph of binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number; (p) explain the conditions for a chain reaction to occur; (q) describe a controlled fission process in a reactor; (r) describe a nuclear fusion process which occurs in the Sun. 22
- 27. The Practical SyllabusSchool-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)School-based assessment of practical work is carried out throughout the form six school terms forcandidates from government schools and private schools which have been approved by MEC to carryout the school-based assessment. MEC will determine 13 compulsory experiments and one project to be carried out by thecandidates and to be assessed by the subject teachers in schools in the respective terms. The projectwill be carried out during the third term in groups of two or three candidates. Details of the title, topic,objective, theory, apparatus and procedure of each of the experiments and project will be specified inthe Teacher’s and Student’s Manual for Practical Physics which can be downloaded from MEC Portal(http://www.mpm.edu.my) during the first term of form six by the subject teachers. Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experimentso as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one schooldouble period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practicalsessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessmentguidelines prepared by MEC. A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for two subsequentexaminations. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made during theregistration of the examination. The Physics practical course for STPM should achieve its objective to improve the quality ofcandidates in the aspects as listed below. (a) The ability to follow a set or sequence of instructions. (b) The ability to plan and carry out experiments using appropriate methods. (c) The ability to choose suitable equipment and use them correctly and carefully. (d) The ability to determine the best range of readings for more detailed and careful measurements. (e) The ability to make observations, to take measurements and to record data with attention given to precision, accuracy and units. (f) The awareness of the importance of check readings and repeat readings. (g) The awareness of the limits of accuracy of observations and measurements. (h) The ability to present data and information clearly in appropriate forms. (i) The ability to interpret, analyse and evaluate observations, experimental data, perform error analysis and make deductions. (j) The ability to make conclusions. (k) The awareness of the safety measures which need to be taken. 23
- 28. The objective of the project work is to enable candidates to acquire knowledge and integratepractical skills in Physics with the aid of information and communications technology as well as todevelop soft skills as follows: (a) communications, (b) teamwork, (c) critical thinking and problem solving, (d) flexibility/adaptability, (e) leadership, (f) organising, (g) information communications and technology, (h) moral and ethics.Written Practical Test (Paper 5)The main objective of the written practical test is to assess the candidates’ understanding of practicalprocedures in the laboratory. The following candidates are required to register for this paper: (a) individual private candidates, (b) candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based assessment of practical work, (c) candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools), (d) candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years (in government or private schools). (e) candidates who take Physics other than the package offered by schools. Three structured questions on routine practical work and/or design of experiments will be set.MEC will not be strictly bound by the syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidateswill be given sufficient information to enable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theorywithin the syllabus and knowledge of usual laboratory practical procedures will be expected. The questions to be set will test candidates’ ability to: (a) record readings from diagrams of apparatus, (b) describe, explain, suggest, design or comment on experimental arrangements, techniques and procedures, (c) complete tables of data and plot graphs, (d) interpret, draw conclusions from, and evaluate observations and experimental data, (e) recognise limitations of experiments and sources of results, (f) explain the effect of errors on experimental results, (g) suggest precautions or safety measures, (h) explain theoretical basis of experiments, (i) use theory to explain or predict experimental results, (j) perform simple calculations and error analysis based on experiments. 24
- 29. Scheme of Assessment Term of Paper Code Mark Theme/Title Type of Test Duration Administration Study and Name (Weighting) First 960/1 Mechanics and Written test 60 Term Physics Thermodynamics (26.67%) Paper 1 Section A 15 15 compulsory multiple-choice questions to be answered. Section B 15 2 compulsory Central 1½ hours structured questions assessment to be answered. Section C 30 2 questions to be answered out of 3 essay questions. All questions are based on topics 1 to 11. Second 960/2 Electricity and Written test 60 Term Physics Magnetism (26.67%) Paper 2 Section A 15 15 compulsory multiple-choice questions to be answered. Section B 15 2 compulsory Central 1½ hours structured questions assessment to be answered. Section C 30 2 questions to be answered out of 3 essay questions. All questions are based on topics 12 to 18. 25
- 30. Term of Paper Code Mark Theme/Title Type of Test Duration Administration Study and Name (Weighting)Third 960/3 Oscillations and Written test 60Term Physics Waves, Optics (26.67%) Paper 3 and Modern Section A 15 Physics 15 compulsory multiple-choice questions to be answered. Section B 15 2 compulsory Central 1½ hours structured questions assessment to be answered. Section C 30 2 questions to be answered out of 3 essay questions. All questions are based on topics 19 to 25. 960/5 Written Physics Written practical 45 Physics Practical test (20%) Paper 5 Central 1½ hours 3 compulsory assessment structured questions to be answered. First, 960/4 Physics Practical School-based 225Second Physics Assessment of To be and Paper 4 Practical scaled to 45 Through Third (20%) -out the School-based 13 compulsoryTerms three assessment experiments and terms one project to be carried out. 26
- 31. Performance DescriptionsA Grade A candidate is likely able to: (a) recall the fundamental knowledge of Physics from the syllabus with few significant omissions; (b) show good understanding of the fundamental principles and concepts; (c) identify the appropriate information and apply the correct techniques to solve problems; (d) communicate effectively using logical sequence based on physics fundamentals, including usage of mathematical expressions, schematic diagrams, tables and graph; (e) synthesise information from fundamental principles of different content areas in problem solving; (f) show good understanding of the underlying working principles and carry out extensive calculation in numerical-type questions; (g) make adaptations, appropriate assumptions and use the fundamental knowledge of Physics in analyzing an unfamiliar situation; (h) identify causes, factors or errors in questions involving experiments; (i) shows good knowledge relating precision of data to the accuracy of the final result; (j) interpret and evaluate critically the numerical answer in calculations.A Grade C candidate is likely able to: (a) recall the knowledge of Physics from most parts of the syllabus; (b) show some understanding of the main principles and concepts in the syllabus; (c) present answer using common terminology and simple concepts in the syllabus; (d) demonstrate some ability to link knowledge between different areas of Physics; (e) perform calculation on familiar numerical-type or guided questions; (f) show some understanding of the underlying Physics principles when carrying out numerical work; (g) identify causes, factors or errors in questions involving experiments; (h) shows good knowledge relating precision of data to the accuracy of the final result; (i) interpret and evaluate critically the numerical answer in calculations. 27
- 32. Summary of Key Quantities and UnitsCandidates are expected to be familiar with the following quantities, their symbols, their units, andtheir interrelationships. They should also be able to perform calculations and deal with questionsinvolving these quantities as indicated in the syllabus. The list should not be considered exhaustive. Quantity Usual symbols Units Base quantities Amount of matter n mol Electric current I A Length l m Mass m kg Temperature T K Time t s Other quantities Acceleration a m s−2 Acceleration of free fall g m s−2 Activity of radioactive source A s−1, Bq Amplitude A m Angular displacement . θ °, rad Angular frequency ω rad s−1 Angular momentum L kg m2 rad s−1 Angular speed ω, θ rad s−1 Angular velocity ω, θ rad s−1 Area A m2 Atomic mass ma kg Atomic number (proton number) Z Capacitance C F Change of internal energy ΔU J Charge carrier density n m−3 Coefficient of friction μ Conductivity σ Ω−1m−1 Critical angle θc ° Current density J A m−2 Decay constant λ s−1 Density ρ kg m−3 Displacement s, x m Distance d m Electric charge Q, q C Electric field strength E N C−1 Electric flux Φ N C−1 m2 Electric potential V V Electric potential difference V, ΔV V Electromotive force ε, E V Electron mass me kg, u Elementary charge e C Emissivity e Energy E, U J Focal length f m Force F N 28
- 33. Quantity Usual symbols UnitsForce constant k N m−1Frequency f HzGravitational field strength g N kg−1Gravitational potential V J kg−1Half-life t½ sHeat Q JHeat capacity C J K−1Image distance v mImpedance Z ΩIntensity I W m−2Internal energy U JLatent heat L JMagnetic flux Φ WbMagnetic flux density B TMagnification power mMass number (nucleon number) AMass per unit length μ kg m−1Molar heat capacity Cm J K−1 mol−1Molar mass M kg mol−1Molecular speed c m s−1Momentum p NsMutual inductance M HNeutron mass mn kg, uNeutron number NObject distance u mPeriod T sPermeability μ H m−1Permeability of free space μ0 H m−1Permittivity ε F m−1Permittivity of free space ε0 F m−1Phase difference φ °, radPotential energy U JPower P WPressure p PaPrincipal molar heat capacities CV,m; Cp,m J K−1 mol−1Radius r mRatio of heat capacities γReactance X ΩRefractive index nRelative atomic mass ArRelative molecular mass MrRelative permeability μrRelative permittivity εrResistance R ΩResistivity ρ ΩmSelf-inductance L HSpecific heat capacity c J K−1 kg−1Specific latent heat l J kg−1Speed u, v m s−1Speed of electromagnetic waves c m s−1 29
- 34. Quantity Usual symbols UnitsStress σ PaSurface charge density σ C m−2Temperature T, θ K, °CTension T NThermal conductivity k W m−1 K−1Time constant τ sTorque τ NmVelocity u, v m s−1Volume V m3Wavelength λ mWave number k m−1Weight W NWork W JWork function φ, W JYoung’s modulus E, Y Pa, N m−2 30
- 35. 960 PHYSICS Values of constantsAcceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s−2Avogadro’s constant NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol−1Boltzmann’s constant k, kB = 1.38 × 10−23 J K−1Gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2Magnitude of electronic charge e = 1.60 × 10−19 CMass of the Earth ME = 5.97 × 1024 kgMass of the Sun MS = 1.99 × 1030 kgMolar gas constant R = 8.31 J K−1 mol−1Permeability of free space μ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m−1Permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F m−1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −9 −1 = ⎜ ⎟ × 10 F m ⎝ 36π ⎠Planck’s constant h = 6.63 × 10−34 J sRadius of the Earth RE = 6.38 × 106 mRadius of the Sun RS = 6.96 × 108 mRest mass of electron me = 9.11 × 10−31 kgRest mass of proton mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kgSpeed of light in free space c = 3.00 × 108 m s−1Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.67 × 10−8 W m−2 K−4Unified atomic mass unit u = 1.66 × 10−27 kg 31
- 36. Reference BooksTeachers and candidates may use books specially written for the STPM examination and otherreference books such as those listed below.1. Adam, S. and Allday, J., 2000. Advanced Physics. New York: Oxford.2. Breithaupt, J., 2000. Understanding Physics for Advanced Level. 4th edition. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.3. Duncan, T., 2000. Advanced Physics. 5th edition. London: John Murray.4. Giancoli, D.C., 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics. 4th edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.5. Giancoli, D.C., 2008. Physics-Principles with Application. 6th edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.6. Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Walker, J., 2008. Fundamentals of Physics. 8th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.7. Hutchings, R., 2000. Physics. 2nd edition. London: Nelson Thornes.8. Jewett Jr, J.W. and Serway, R.A., 2006. Serway’s Principles of Physics. 4th edition. California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.9. Jewett Jr, J.W. and Serway, R.A., 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 7th edition. California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.10. Nelkon, M. and Parker, P., 1995. Advanced Level Physics. 7th edition. Oxford: Heinemann.11. Young, H.D. and Freedman, R.A., 2011. University Physics with Modern Physics. 13th edition. California: Pearson Addison Wesley. 32
- 37. Identity card number:………………………….. Centre number/index number:……………………….(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran) SPECIMEN PAPER 960/1 STPM PHYSICS (FIZIK) PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1) One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah) MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL) SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)Instructions to candidates: DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. Answer all questions in Section A. Marks will not be deducted for wrong answers. For eachquestion, four suggested answers are given. Choose the correct answer and circle the answer. Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces provided. Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be shown. For numericalanswers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paperand arrange your answers in numerical order. Values of constants are provided on page in this question paper.Arahan kepada calon: JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUATDEMIKIAN. Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.Bagi setiap soalan, empat cadangan jawapan diberikan. Pilih jawapan yang betul dan buat bulatanpada jawapan tersebut. Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan. Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklahditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai.Mulakan setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan andamengikut tertib berangka. Nilai pemalar dibekalkan pada halaman kertas soalan ini. This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page. (Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.) © Majlis Peperiksaan MalaysiaSTPM 960/1 33

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