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Re-cap of 15 Lok Sabhas


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Special feature done for Hindustan Times on January 25, 2014. Kickstarting election coverage with tons of archived data.

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Re-cap of 15 Lok Sabhas

  1. 1. | nation | SU NDAY HIN DU STA N T I M ES , N EW D E L H I JA NUARY 26 , 2 0 14 myindiamyvote REPUBLIC@65 A RE-CAP OF INDIA’S LOK SABHA ELECTIONS India first went to polls in 1952 and the Indian National Congress under Jawaharlal Nehru stormed into power with 44.99% of the vote share. Since then, India has gone to poll 15 times, coalition governments have become a reality and only nine governments have served their full term 1952 Years when election held 1ST LOK SABHA 1957 2ND LOK SABHA 1962 3RD LOK SABHA Tenure in years 1967 4TH LOK SABHA 1971 5TH LOK SABHA 1977 6TH LOK SABHA 1980 7TH LOK SABHA 1998 11TH LOK SABHA 1999 UNITED FRONT National Front, Left Front, TMC, DMK, AGP, Others 12TH LOK SABHA 42.69% 2004 2009 13TH LOK SABHA 14TH LOK SABHA 15TH LOK SABHA NDA BJP, TDP, JD(U), Shiv Sena, DMK, Others UPA Alliance INC, RJD, DMK, NCP, Lok Jan Shakti Party, Telangana Rashtra Samithi, PMK, JMM, MDMK, Indian Union Muslim League, Republican Party of India, PDP UPA Alliance INC, TMC, DMK, NCP, National Conference, JMM, Indian Union Muslim League, Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi, Kerala Congress (Mani),All India Majlis-eIttehadul Muslimeen, RPI (Athvale) UNDER DEVE GOWDA AND I K GUJRAL United Front, INC 49.10% 43.68% 1996 10TH LOK SABHA 52.74% 40.78% Vote share for the winning party/ coalition 9TH LOK SABHA 1991 INC, Left Front 47.78% 44.72% 8TH LOK SABHA 1989 Indira Gandhi declares Emergency in 1975 Nehru’s death results in Gulzari Lal Nanda taking over as temporary PM 44.99% 1984 40.80% 36.26% 35.40% 37.22% 20.29% BJP vote share 28.80% 25.59% INC vote share 17.79% Seats gained by the winning party 1996 was an exception when the INC refused to form the govt. after the BJP couldn’t prove majority INC won INC won INC won INC won 364/489 371 /494 361/494 283/520 Congress (I) won 352/518 Janata Party won Congress (I) won Congress (I) won 345/542 353/529 404/514 Janata Dal won 143/529 INC won 232/521 BJP won 161/543 INC won BJP won BJP+ won INC+ won INC+ won 181/543 299/543 218/543 262/543 140/543 INC KEY PLAYERS Indian National Congress (INC), Socialist Party, Communist Party of India (CPI), Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Kisan Majdoor Praja Party. RESULT The Jawaharlal Nehru-led INC stormed into power with 364 seats and 44.99 % of the votes. ISSUES Jaya Prakash Narayan and Kriplani were critical of the INC for moving away from original Gandhian ideals, which they claimed they still stood for. KEY PLAYERS INC, CPI, Praja Socialist Party (PSP) RESULT The INC repeated its success and Nehru became prime minister. AB Vajpayee, from Bharatiya Jana Sangh, won his first election from Balrampur in Uttar Pradesh. ISSUES This election marked the rise of regional interest groups, with the DMK, Samyukta Maharashatra Samiti and Mahagujarat Parishad making a dent. CPI saw resurgence in Kerala. KEY PLAYERS INC, Swatantra Party RESULT This was last election for the INC under the leadership of Nehru, who died in 1964. The Congress won 10 fewer from the earlier elections. ISSUES Swatantra party formed by C Rajagopalachari, (Rajaji) the first Governor General of India, debuted with 18 seats. It opposed license raj, advocated free trade and attacked the personality cult around the prime minister. KEY PLAYERS Indian national Congress, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Communist Party of India, Swatantra Party RESULT INC received a setback winning 283 seats. A year before elections, senior leader Moraji Desai opposed Indira Gandhi’s claim over the party’s top post. ISSUES Under Indira Gandhi’s prime ministership, the INC faced its first serious challenge with the Opposition calling it a party of thieves. CONG JP KEY PLAYERS Indian National Congress(I), Indian National Congress (O), Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Communist Party of India, Swatantra Party, DMK KEY PLAYERS Indian National Congress(I) and Janata Party alliance, comprising Congress(O), Jana Sangh, Bharatiya Lok Dal and the Socialist Party KEY PLAYERS Indian National Congress (I), Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (M), Janata Party, Janata Party (secular) KEY PLAYERS Indian National Congress (I), CPM, Janata party, Telgu Desam Party RESULT The Indira Gandhiled Congress(I) bounced back with 352 seats. RESULT Following the Emergency, the Congress(I) won only 189 seats. The Janata Party alliance won 345 seats. ISSUES Gandhi’s ‘garibi hatao’ (remove poverty) slogan was the flavour of this election. She took pro-poor decisions, such as nationalising banks, abolishing privy purses, and guaranteeing minimum wages. ISSUES The misuse of power by Indira Gandhi and her kitchen cabinet struck a chord the people. RESULT The Congress (I), under a chastised Indira Gandhi, won by a landslide. The Janata Party alliance crumbled when Jana Sangh pulled out in 1979. ISSUES This election marked the end of purely ideological planks during the elections and Gandhi campaigned on her ability to stabilise the government. RESULT Riding on sympathy wave after the assassination of Indira Gandhi in October 31, the Congress under Indira Gandhi’s son Rajiv Gandhi swept the polls, winning 414 seats. ISSUES The assassination of Indira Gandhi led to a sympathy wave in favour of the Congress. TEXT: M RAMAKRISHNAN & BRAJESH KUMAR SOURCE: ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru GRAPHIC: HT DESIGN JD KEY PLAYERS Congress, Janata Dal, CPI, CPM RESULT Vishwanath Pratap Singh, the former defence minister under Rajiv Gandhi’s government and leader of Janata Dal, led a minority government. ISSUES Allegations of taking kickbacks in the Bofors gun deal stuck Rajiv Gandhi, who lost his impressive mandate. BJP KEY PLAYERS Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP), CPI, CPM RESULT The Janata Dalgovernment collapsed within 16 months of its formation, and the Congress bounced back, but it was short of majority. It formed a minority government with support from Left parties and ran its full course of five years. ISSUES Votes were sought in the backdrop of RamjanmbhoomiBabri Masjid controversy, and reservation debate. V P Singh Prime Ministers since freedom Lal Bahadur Shastri Indira Gandhi Morarji Desai Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi 15 Chandra Shekhar KEY PLAYERS Congress, BJP, Shiv Sena, Haryana Vikash Party, Samata Party, CPI, CPI(M), Janata Dal and TDP. KEY PLAYERS Congress, BJP, AIADMK, Samta Party, Biju Janata Dal, Haryana Vikash Party, CPI, CPM KEY PLAYERS Congress, BJP, AIADMK, Samta Party, Biju Janata Dal, Haryana Vikash Party, CPI, CPM RESULT The BJP emerged as the single largest party but could not muster a twothird majority. It fell in 13 days. HD Deve Gowda-led UF formed the government till April 1997, when the INC withdrew support and forced a change of leadership to IK Gujral. RESULT IK Gujral government did not last long. The Congress pulled the plug again in 1998 leading to fresh elections. The BJP once again emerged as the single largest party with 181 seats. RESULT The BJP led-NDA alliance came to power winning 270 seats. It received the outside support from the Telgu Desam Party, which had won 29 seats. Atal Bihari Vajpayee ISSUES The robust growth in economy and instability caused by coalition government were some of the issues raised by the BJP. ISSUES With the Kargil victory behind it, the BJP brought together more than 20 parties to form National Democratic Alliance and challenge the Congress. KEY PLAYERS Congress, BJP, CPI, CPM, Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samajwadi Party (BSP) KEY PLAYERS Congress, BJP, CPI, CPM, Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samajwadi Party (BSP) RESULT The Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) won and formed the government in alliance with the Left (59 seats), Samajwadi Party (36 seats) and Bahujan Samajwadi party (19seats). RESULT The incumbent UPA repeated its 2004 performance in the 14th Lok Sabha elections and came back to power in the 15th Lok Sabha. increasing its tally to 262. ISSUES The BJP went to the polls with ‘India shining’ campaign. The impressive economic growth didn’t click with the masses. ISSUES The incumbent party spoke of the social schemes— NREGA, NRHM etc— in its campaign pitch. The NDA, on the other hand, raised issues such as inflation and internal security threats. H D Deve Gowda P V Narasimha Rao I K Gujral Atal Bihari Vajpayee Manmohan Singh