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• Voice abuse or misuse — This means talking too much or too loudly. It can be an ongoing problem for people whose jobs depend on their voices, including singers, actors, telephone operators, lawyers, teachers, referees, coaches and anyone who must shout over loud noise at work (construction workers, personnel in airports and train stations, factory workers).
• Smoking — Cigarette smoke irritates the larynx, causing swelling and inflammation that thickens the vocal cords. This thickening can lower the pitch of the voice or make it sound raspy and harsh.• Viral infection - common cause of acute laryngitis• Allergies• Larynx cancer
• Tumor• Drinking alcohol heavily — Alcohol causes a chemical irritation of the larynx that produces changes similar to those seen in smokers.
• Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) — GERD is a disorder in which acidic fluids from the stomach flow backward (reflux) into the esophagus and throat, irritating the larynx. Because acid reflux usually is worse when lying down, the hoarseness caused by GERD often is most noticeable in the morning right after awakening.
• Work-related exposure to irritating chemicals or dusts — Many industrial products are suspected of causing chronic laryngitis and other respiratory problems. The U.S. Department of Labor monitors many of these products and provides safety guidelines for handling and exposure through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
• The most common symptom is hoarseness.• A low, raspy voice• A voice that tires easily, “breaks” or “cracks”• The sensation of a lump in the throat or a dry throat.• Difficulty swallowing• Coughing• Difficulty breathing
• A constant urge to clear the throat• Heavy mucus in the throat• Chronic cough or postnasal drip• Discomfort during swallowing
• The most common sign of laryngitis is hoarseness. Changes in your voice can vary with the degree of infection or irritation, ranging from mild hoarseness to almost total loss of your voice.• If you have chronic hoarseness, your doctor may want to listen to your voice and to examine your vocal cords, and he or she may refer you to an ear, nose and throat specialist.
• These techniques sometimes are used to help diagnose laryngitis:• Laryngoscope :-Your doctor can visually examine your vocal cords in a procedure called laryngoscope, by using a light and a tiny mirror to look into the back of your throat. Or your doctor may use fiber-optic laryngoscope.• This involves inserting a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) with a tiny camera and light through your nose or mouth and into the back of your throat.
• Then your doctor can watch the motion of your vocal cords as you speak.• Biopsy :- If your doctor sees a suspicious area, he or she may do a biopsy — taking a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
DEFINITIONo It is the acute inflammation oflarynx leading to oedema of laryngealmucosa and underlying structures.o Acute laryngitis is an inflammationof the vocal fold mucosa and larynxthat lasts less than 3 weeks. weeks.
ACUTE VIRAL LARYNGITIS• Frequently caused by “Rhinovirus”• Other causes: – Parainfluenza – respiratory syncytial virus – Adenovirus
• Inhaling humidified air promotes moisture of the upper airway, helping to clear secretions and exudate.• Complete voice rest is suggested, although this recommendation is nearly impossible to follow.
• If the patient must speak, soft sighing phonation is best. Avoidance of whispering is best, as whispering promotes hyper functioning of the larynx.• Prevailing data do not support the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids
• Lacks firm cartilaginous skeleton.• Flabby , easily collapses.• Glottis aperture , relatively smaller.• Mucosa swells up rapidly in response to slightest trauma or infection.• Stridor is the most noticeable presentation.
• Voice therapy is an approach to treating voice disorders that involves vocal and physical exercises coupled with behavioral changes.• The purpose of voice therapy is to help attain the best possible voice and the most relief from the vocal symptoms that are bothering the patient
The length of each individual voice therapy session usually ranges from ½ to 1 hour. The sessions are weekly. However, for some types of voice disorders, two or more sessions per week are best for the first few weeks, tapering down as the therapy progresses.
The duration of the entire voice therapy program is highly individual. The program can be as short as just a few sessions, or as long as 12 weeks or more.