• Voice abuse or misuse —
This means talking too much or too
loudly. It can be an ongoing problem
for people whose jobs depend on their
voices, including singers, actors,
telephone operators, lawyers,
teachers, referees, coaches and
anyone who must shout over loud
noise at work (construction workers,
personnel in airports and train
stations, factory workers).
• Smoking — Cigarette smoke irritates
the larynx, causing swelling and
inflammation that thickens the vocal
cords. This thickening can lower the pitch
of the voice or make it sound raspy and
• Viral infection - common cause of acute
• Larynx cancer
• Drinking alcohol
Alcohol causes a chemical irritation
of the larynx that produces changes
similar to those seen in smokers.
• Gastro esophageal reflux
disease (GERD) — GERD is a
disorder in which acidic fluids from the
stomach flow backward (reflux) into the
esophagus and throat, irritating the
larynx. Because acid reflux usually is
worse when lying down, the hoarseness
caused by GERD often is most noticeable
in the morning right after awakening.
• Work-related exposure to
irritating chemicals or dusts —
Many industrial products are suspected
of causing chronic laryngitis and other
respiratory problems. The U.S.
Department of Labor monitors many of
these products and provides safety
guidelines for handling and exposure
through the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA).
• The most common symptom is
• A low, raspy voice
• A voice that tires easily, “breaks” or
• The sensation of a lump in the throat
or a dry throat.
• Difficulty swallowing
• Difficulty breathing
• A constant urge to clear the throat
• Heavy mucus in the throat
• Chronic cough or postnasal drip
• Discomfort during swallowing
• The most common sign of laryngitis is
hoarseness. Changes in your voice can
vary with the degree of infection or
irritation, ranging from mild hoarseness
to almost total loss of your voice.
• If you have chronic hoarseness, your
doctor may want to listen to your voice
and to examine your vocal cords, and he
or she may refer you to an ear, nose and
• These techniques sometimes are used to help
• Laryngoscope :-Your doctor can
visually examine your vocal cords in a
procedure called laryngoscope, by using a
light and a tiny mirror to look into the back
of your throat. Or your doctor may use
• This involves inserting a thin, flexible tube
(endoscope) with a tiny camera and light
through your nose or mouth and into the
back of your throat.
• Then your doctor can watch the
motion of your vocal cords as you
• Biopsy :- If your doctor sees a
suspicious area, he or she may do a
biopsy — taking a sample of tissue
for examination under a microscope.
o It is the acute inflammation of
larynx leading to oedema of laryngeal
mucosa and underlying structures.
o Acute laryngitis is an inflammation
of the vocal fold mucosa and larynx
that lasts less than 3 weeks.
• Frequently caused by “Rhinovirus”
• Other causes:
– respiratory syncytial virus
• Inhaling humidified air promotes
moisture of the upper airway, helping
to clear secretions and exudate.
• Complete voice rest is suggested,
although this recommendation is
nearly impossible to follow.
• If the patient must speak, soft
sighing phonation is best. Avoidance
of whispering is best, as whispering
promotes hyper functioning of the
• Prevailing data do not support the use
of antihistamines and corticosteroids
• Voice therapy is an approach to
treating voice disorders that involves
vocal and physical exercises coupled
with behavioral changes.
• The purpose of voice therapy is to
help attain the best possible voice
and the most relief from the vocal
symptoms that are bothering the
The length of each individual voice therapy
session usually ranges from ½ to 1 hour.
The sessions are weekly.
However, for some types of voice
disorders, two or more sessions per week
are best for the first few weeks, tapering
down as the therapy progresses.
The duration of the entire voice
therapy program is highly individual.
The program can be as short as just
a few sessions, or as long as 12
weeks or more.