CALCUTTA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT,KOLKATA, BATCH 2009-2013, C.S.E DEPARTMENT, DURING 4rthYEAR 2012WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK - A Survey by RAMESH VERMA ANIL KUMAR PRAVIND KUMAR
What are wireless sensor networks(WSNs) ? Large number of heterogeneous Sensor node devices spread over a large field. Wireless sensing + Data Networking. Smart Sensor Nodes: 1. Few hundred to thousand of nodes 2. Low power devices 3. Consists of- one or more sensors, a processor, memory, a power supply, a radio and an actuator.
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR NODES Can harvest energy during the idle time . Sensor nodes can efficiently convert environmental energy to its electrical energy. Self powered circuitry of nodes.
NETWORK DESIGN OBJECTIVES Low power consuming nodes are required. Scalability – network protocol design should be scalable to different network sizes. Can deliver data over noisy ,error prone, time varying wireless channel. Efficient use of bandwidth. Fault tolerancnce
ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WSN Responsible for maintaining routes in the networkTypes:1. Location based protocols2. Data-centric protocols3. Hierarchical based protocols4. Mobility based protocols5. Multi-path based protocols6. QOS based protocols
HEIRARCHICAL BASED PROTOCOLS Also known as cluster based routing. Based on clustering of sensor nodes. Cluster head, responsible for data transmission.
LEACH PROTOCOL Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. Clustering task is rotated among nodes. Its operation is divided into two rounds 1. Setup phase: organize network into clusters 2. Steady state phase: data aggregation, compression and transmission to the sink.
APPLICATIONS Monitoring and control of industrial appliances. In military for surveillance . Forest fire detection. Agriculture and Ocean-for monitoring fish Medical- Monitoring people’s locations and health condition.
SCOPE OF FUTURE RESEARCH To exploit redundancy To employ more efficient technique for fault tolerance. To maximize the life time of sensor nodes. To provide efficient energy harvesting techniques. To provide more secure way of data transmission
CONCLUSIONThe ultimate objective behind the routing protocol isto keep the sensor operating for as far as possible,thus extending the network lifetime.
REFERENCES S.K. Singh, M.P. Singh, and D.K. Singh, “A survey of Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cluster-base Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks” M. J. Handy, M. Haase, D. Timmermann” A survey on low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy with deterministic cluster-head section” Jamal N. Al-Karaki and Ahmed E. Kamal,” Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey”