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SURATGARH SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION
Suratgarh thermal power station is the first super
thermal power Station of Rajasthan with total
installed capacity of 1500 MW.
Suratgarh super thermal power station is located
27 km away from Suratgarh town in Shree
Ganganagar Distt. on the left bank of IGNP at Up
Stream of Suratgarh Barrage.
This station is operated and maintained by Rajasthan
Vidhyt Utpadan Nigam Limited.
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S.S.T.P.S. is designed in six stages
•STAGE I - 1x250 MW
•STAGE II - 1x250 MW
•STAGE III - 1x250 MW
•STAGE IV - 1x250 MW
•STAGE V - 1x250 MW
•STAGE VI - 1x250 MW
•STAGE VII - 1x660MW(Under construction)
•STAGE VIII- 1x660MW(Under construction)
Total Power Generation - 1500 MW
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INSTALLED CAPACITY OF
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Supply of Water
Requirement of Land
Distance form Populated Area
Near to the Load Centre
Magnitude and nature of load to be handled
SELECTION OF SITE FOR
THERMAL POWER PLANT
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Three Phase Transmission Line
BASIC STRUCTURE OF THERMAL
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LAYOUT OF THERMAL POWER
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Coal Handling Plant (C.H.P)
Water Treatment Plant (W.T.P)
Boiler Maintenance Division (B.M.D)
Turbine Maintenance Division (T.M.D)
Generator Division (G.D)
MAIN UNITS OF THERMAL
Raw coal from bharat
coal ltd. Dhanbad &
To SSTPS from gudla via a single
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OVER VIEW OF COAL
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In boiler heat energy is
released from the combustion
of fossils fuel and heat is
transferred to different fluids
in the system.
The boiler installed in
S.T.P.S. are single
drum, tangential fired water
tube naturally circulated over
hanged, pulverizing coal firing
with a max. Continuous steam
output of 375 tons/hour at 138
kg/cm2 pressure and 5400C
A super heater is a device in
a steam engine that heats the
steam generated by the boiler
again, increasing its thermal
Super heater eliminates the
formulation of condensate
during transporting of steam in
pipelines and inside the early
stages of turbine, which is
harmful to the turbine blades
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Economizer is device which
recover the heat from the flue
gases on their way to chimney.
Flue gases coming out of the
boiler carry lot of heat.
An economizer extracts a part of
this heat from flue gases and
uses it for heating feed water.
This use of economizer results
in saving coal consumption and
higher boiler efficiency .
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Air Pre-heater is a heat
exchanger in which
preheating of air done by
transferring heat from the
flue gas before supplying
to the combustion chamber.
The preheating of air
2.Saving in fuel
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Steam after rotating steam
turbine comes to the
The purpose of
condenser is to condense
the outlet steam from steam
turbine to get the condensed
steam in the form of pure
This water is then Pumped
back to the boiler.
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These heaters are used to heat the feed water by means of bled steam
before it is supplied to the boiler. Necessity of heating feed water before
feeding it back to the boiler arises due to the following reasons:
Overall power plant efficiency is improved.
Thermal stresses due to cold water entering the drum of boiler are
Increase in the quantity of steam produced by the boiler.
Boiler corrosion are removed in the feed water heaters.
FEED WATER HEATER
The condensate (water)
formed in the condenser
after condensation is
initially at high temperature.
This hot water is passed to
It is a tower- or building-
like structure in which
atmospheric air circulates in
direct or indirect contact
with warmer water and the
water is thereby cooled.
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A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be
devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones.
In order to avoid corrosion of the metal, power station uses
a Deaerator, for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the
boiler feed water.
A deaerator has a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top
of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as a deaerated boiler feed
water storage tank.
Turbine is rotating device that converts the energy of a
moving stream of water, steam, or gas into mechanical energy.
The basic element in a turbine is a wheel or rotor.
This mechanical energy is then transferred through
a drive shaft to operate an alternator.
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An alternator is a device which convert mechanical energy to
Turbo-alternators are high
speed machines (3,000 or
5,000RPM) for 50 Hz systems.
Alternator have horizontal
configurations and smooth
cylindrical (or non salient pole)
type field structure wound
usually for 2 or 4 poles.
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Thermal station use
coal as the main fuel.
Raw coal is
transported by railway
The supply of coal is
from MP, Jharkhand by
rail. About 18000
tonne coal required per
day for whole unit and
each unit consumes
150tonnes coal per day.
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The system coming out the turbine is condensed and the
condensate is feedback to the boiler as feed water.
Some water may be lost due to blow-down, leakage etc. and to
make up these losses additional water, called the make-up water, is
required to be fed to the boiler. The make-up water in a modern
thermal plant is about 1-4%.
The heating of feed water :-
i. Improves the overall efficiency of the plant
ii. Removes dissolved oxygen and carbon-die-oxide
iii.Causes precipitation of other impurities carried by steam and
condensate outside the boiler
iv.Avoids thermal stresses owing to entry of cold water into the
ASH HANDLING PLANT
The percentage of ash in
coal is 5% in good quality
coal & about 40% in poor
Power plants generally
use poor quality of coal ,
thus amount of ash
produced by it is quite
A modern 1000MW plant
produces about 4800 tons of
The stations use some
conveyor arrangement to
carry ash to dump sites.
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The circulation of air is caused by a difference in pressure, known as draught.
In a boiler the combustions of the fuel requires supply of sufficient quantity
of air and removal of exhaust gases and this is achieved by draught system.
There are two types of drought system
i. Natural Draught : - The natural draught is provided by the action of
chimney or stack and is used only in small boilers. Its intensity depends
upon the average temperature (difference between the flue gases within
the chimney and the outside air (the gases within the chimney are at as
higher temperature than that of the surrounding air) and also on the
height of the chimney above the level of the furnace grate.
ii. Mechanical Draught: - Artificial or mechanical draught is provided
when the natural draught caused by a chimney is not sufficient or where
a certain draught is required to be maintained irrespective of weather
conditions or boiler operating conditions.
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THERMAL POWER PLANT
The equipments which help in the proper
functioning of the plant are called plant auxiliaries.
Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage
Fuel preparation system
Generator high-voltage system
Monitoring and alarm system
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MAJOR EQUIPMERNT IN
THERMAL POWER PLANT
Placed where switching operation of power
distribution is performed is known as Switch Yard.
Main Components of Switch Yard:
1. Circuit breaker
3. Lightening arrester
4. Bus bar
5. Current Transformer
6. Potential Transformer
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These are used for automatic switching during normal or
abnormal conditions .
Manufacturer ABB Limited
Type of Circuit Breaker SF6
Rated Voltage 245 KV
Under Site Condition of 40 0C
Under Site Condition of 50 0C
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
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These are used to disconnect transmission line under no-load
condition for safety, isolation and maintenance.
Rated current for site
Rated Voltage 245 KV
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
Operating time of Isolator Less than 12 sec.
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These are used to discharge lightning over voltages and
switching over voltages to earth.
Manufacturer Crompton Greaves Ltd,
Model No. ZLA X 25 C
Ref. Standard IEC 99 – 4. 1991
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
Max. Leakage Current 5 mA
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The conductors to which several incoming and
outgoing lines are connected.
They are made up of Cu & Al,
The incoming and outgoing cables are provided
for metering purpose.
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These are used to step-down currents for measurement, control
Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current
and monitoring the operation of the power grid.
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VT measure voltage and this parameter used for protection of
For high voltage CVT (capacitive voltage transformer) is used
instead of VT and capacitors play divider role.
We can also use these capacitors for PLC system.
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The control room is the nerve centre of a power station.
The various controls performed from here
1. Voltages adjustment
2. Load control
3. Emergency tripping of turbines
4. The equipment and instruments housed in a control room are
synchronising equipment and are controlled form control
room like as voltages regulators, relays, ammeters,
voltmeters, wattmeters, kWh meters, kVARh meters etc.
5. Temperature gauges
6. Water level indicators and other appliances
7. As well as a mimic diagram and suitable indicating
equipment to show the opened or closed position of circuit
breakers, isolators etc.
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EFFICIENCY OF THERMAL
Installed Plant Capacity Average Overall Thermal Efficiency
Up to 1MW 4%
1MW to 10MW 12%
10MW to 50MW 16%
50MW to 100MW 24%
above 100MW 27%
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At a temperature of about 600 degree centigrade and pressure of 30N/mm2, water
enters a supercritical phase and has properties between those of liquid and gas.
Water in supercritical stage can dissolve a number of organic compounds and gases
and on addition of hydrogen peroxide and liquid oxygen combustion process starts.
The steam power plants operating on this principle are called supercritical plats.
1. Low grade fossil fuels (e.g. lignite) can be used
2. NO2 emissions are completely eliminated
3. SO2 emission are reduced
4. complete burning of coal occurs.
5. need of desulphurisation and equipment and soot collector.
6. The cost of processing flue gas emissions (electrostatic precipitator etc.) is
7. cooling water requirements are also reduced,
8. more economical and efficient.
9. Supercritical power plants, these days have an overall efficiency of just over
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ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL
Temperature around 700 degree
centigrade is known as ultra
Efficiency of the power plant may
be improved to around 50%.
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They can respond to rapidly changing loads without
A portion of the steam generated can be used as a
process steam in different industries
Steam engines and turbines can work under 25 % of
Fuel used is cheaper
Cheaper in production cost in comparison with that of
diesel power stations
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Maintenance and operating costs are high
Long time required for erection and putting into action
A large quantity of water is required
Great difficulty experienced in coal handling
Presence of troubles due to smoke and heat in the plant
Unavailability of good quality coal
Maximum of heat energy lost
Problem of ash removing
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Thermal power plants haves low efficiency and
these are releases large amount of harmful gases
in environment and large amount of ash in the
form of wastage. To use renewable energy source
to save environment.
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"Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station" Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan
A course in Electrical Power By J.B.Gupta
Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005). Steam: Its Generation and Use (41st edition ed.)
Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (Co-author) (1997). Standard
Handbook of Power plant Engineering (2nd edition ed.). McGraw-Hill
Professional. ISBN 0-07-019435-1
Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented
Modern America Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2009 ISBN 1-59691-677-X
J.C. Hensley (Editor) (2006). Cooling Tower Fundamentals (2nd Ed. ed.). SPX
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