Mid Term presentation Based onWire Line project Company-: Reliance Comm. Ltd Name-:raman sanoria Roll no-:RH6802A24
Geographical Information System• A geographic information system (GIS) is any system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages the present data that are linked to location.
GIS techniques and technology• Modern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. The most common method of data creation is digitization, where a hard copy map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through the use of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program.
Data RepresentationGIS data represents real objects with digital data. Real objects can be divided into two abstractions: 1.Discrete objects 2.Continous Feilds
Applications• Scientific investigations• Resource management,• Urban planning• Geographic history• GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of a previously under served market.
Network Engineer Software• An overview-:With Network Engineer software we are able to create, manage, and manipulate your telecommunications facility data within a geographical information system (GIS) environment. Network Engineer supports copper, coaxial, wireless, and fiber networks in two environments: Inside Plant (ISP) and Outside Plant (OSP). Features are listed below-:• Structure• Span• Transport media• Drop line
Single Optical fibres modeSingle Mode Fibers are high quality fibers forwideband, long-haul transmission and aregenerally fabricated from doped silica in orderto reduce attenuation. Multi modeMulti Mode fibers may be fabricated fromeither multi component glass compounds ordoped silica. These fibers can havereasonable large core diameters and largenumerical apertures to facilitate efficientcoupling to incoherent light source.
Diagram of total internalreflection in an Optical Fiber
Optical fibresBuffer/jacket color MeaningYellow single-mode optical fiberOrange Multi-mode optical fiber 10 gig laser-optimized 50/125 micrometer multi-modeAqua optical fiberGrey Outdated color code for multi-mode optical fiber
Optical fibre colour scheme Position Jacket color1 Blue2 Orange3 Green4 Brown5 Slate6 White7 Red8 Black9 Yellow10 Violet11 Rose12 Aqua
Optical Fiber Tools1.Stipper: It is an instrument mainly used to remove thecore and cladding from the glass fiber.2. Fiber Optic Cleaver is used to cutthe fiberglass to make a good end face,as we know the quality of the bare fiberendface will determine the quality of thejoint of the fibers in the fiber opticfusion process, and the joint pointquality means higher or lowerattenuation of the fiber connection line.
Optical Fiber Tools3.An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is an optoelectronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber. An OTDR injects a series of optical pulses into the fiber under test. It also extracts, from the same end of the fiber, light that is scattered or reflected back from points along the fiber.
Optical Fiber Connections• Fiber Splices-: A permanent joint formed between two individual optical fibers in the field or factory is known as fiber Splice. Fiber Splice has mainly two techniques named below-: 1.Fusion Splicing 2.Mechanical Splicing
Optical Fiber Connections• Fusion Splicing technique involves the heating of two prepared fiber ends to their fusing point with the application of sufficient axial pressure between two optical fibers. Fiber Optic Fusion Splicer
Optical Fiber Connections Internal view of Fusion Splicer
Optical Fiber Connections1. Enclosure is also a suitable Enclosuretechnique to connect two endsof optical fiber during fiber cut.Internal view of Enclosure-:Whenever there is a fibercut dueto any construction work of roadside using JCB machines or dueto another reason an enclosure isused to re-establish the connectionto clear the route and to reduce thelosses.
Optical fiber losses1. Coupling losses-:Ideally, optical signals coupled between fiber optic components are transmitted with no loss of light. However, there is always some type of imperfection present at fiber optic connections that causes some loss of light. It is the amount of optical power lost at fiber optic connections that is a concern of system d2. Fiber bend loss-: Opticals fiber suffer radiation losses at bends or curves on their paths. This is due to the energy in the evanescent field at the bend exceeding the velocity of light in the cladding and hence the guidance mechanism is inhibited which causes light energy to be radiated from the fiber.