Why to Architecture Information


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A Talk given in National Conference on Business & technology Conference at Indore, INDIA

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  • Adaptive Path Confidential · ©2001 Adaptive Path, LLC · 2443 Fillmore Street #404 · San Francisco, California 94115 Information architecture is so much a part of our world that we sometimes have trouble spotting it. It’s completely entangled with the way we process our environment. The Where’s Waldo? Books cultivate in the “reader” (really more like “user”, as there is no text) a way of seeing. The user becomes attuned to certain visual patterns, enabling them to pick out Waldo from a busy illustration. Similarly, we must cultivate a way of seeing that allows us to pick out IA from the busy informational landscape of modern life.
  • Why to Architecture Information

    1. 1. <ul><li>Information Architecture: </li></ul><ul><li>An emerging 21 st century profession </li></ul><ul><li>By : </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. A.K. Ramani </li></ul><ul><li>Head SCSIT,DAVV,Indore(M.P.) </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    2. 2. Preface <ul><li>In every enterprise ,a sound architecture is the key to success. As we know that a fragile architecture converts everything into chaos. So, by considering the stability of an enterprise, we should concentrate on its architecture. TOGAF is a framework that enable us to design, evaluate and build the right architecture for an enterprise. ADM is the core part of TOGAF .ADM is iterative and consists of many phases. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Review of Presentation <ul><li>Business and IT evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>IA vs Design </li></ul><ul><li>Need of IA </li></ul><ul><li>Website Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Architecture and its benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture team </li></ul><ul><li>Types of IA </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to TOGAF </li></ul><ul><li>Related subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap Up </li></ul>
    4. 4. System is complex
    5. 5. Different perceptions
    6. 6. Yesterday’s Scenario
    7. 7. Today’s Scenario
    8. 8. Business Evolution <ul><li>Old System </li></ul><ul><li>De-centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Federation </li></ul><ul><li>Retailer Push </li></ul><ul><li>Large inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Manual processes </li></ul><ul><li>Buying/Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Mass consumers </li></ul><ul><li>New System </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Customer pull </li></ul><ul><li>Just in time </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Category management </li></ul><ul><li>Individual customers </li></ul>
    9. 9. IT Evolution <ul><li>Old System </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Novell </li></ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Own development </li></ul><ul><li>SNA, IPX, Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanaged </li></ul><ul><li>Unresponsive </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>New System </li></ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Application Packages </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Managed </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling change </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit </li></ul>
    10. 10. Vertical Business Processes
    11. 11. Value Chains
    12. 12. Technology/Business cycle times
    13. 13. <ul><li>A rapidly changing technology and business landscape demands innovation and agility. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>“ Never innovate out of fear, but never fear to innovate”. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Innovation lifecycle
    16. 17. How to evolve new system from old system??
    17. 18. Solution is…..
    18. 19. Architecture <ul><li>1. Architecture -- (an architectural product or work) </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Architecture -- (the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings; ``architecture and eloquence are mixed arts whose end is sometimes beauty and sometimes use'' </li></ul><ul><li>3. Architecture -- (the profession of designing buildings and environments with consideration for their esthetic effect) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Structure, Architecture -- (the manner of construction of something and the disposition of its parts; ``artists must study the structure of the human body&quot;; &quot;the architecture of a computer's system software'' ) </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architecture </li></ul>
    20. 23. IA vs Design <ul><li>Two sides of the same coin? </li></ul><ul><li>Each part of the other? </li></ul><ul><li>IA = one kind of design? </li></ul><ul><li>Design = one kind of IA? </li></ul>
    21. 24. Is IA omnipresent?? <ul><li>Yes, it is.. </li></ul>
    22. 25. Spot the IA Where’s the information architecture in this picture? Information Architecture Waldo
    23. 26. An enigma history of information architecture <ul><li>Information architecture is as old as human communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Where there’s information, there’s architecture. </li></ul>
    24. 27. The most interesting architectures spring from problems of diversity: <ul><li>Diversity of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of modes of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But don’t overlook simple problems that have simple solutions </li></ul>
    25. 28. Need of Information Architecture <ul><li>To support the business by providing the fundamental technology and process structure for an IT strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a strategic context for the evolution of the IT system in response to the constantly changing needs of the business environment. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve the right balance between IT efficiency and business innovation. </li></ul>
    26. 29. Website Information Architecture <ul><li>Information architecture is currently emerging as a discipline that concerns itself with the development of systematic approaches to the organization and presentation of online information. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the combination of organization, labeling, search and navigation systems in websites, intranets, online communities and software </li></ul>
    27. 30. User Driven Design
    28. 31. Enterprise Architecture(EA) Business Strategy IT Strategy
    29. 32. Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>It is a “glue” that allows both Business and IT strategy enable and drive each other. </li></ul>
    30. 33. Enterprise Architecture
    31. 34. The Technical Architecture Inputs
    32. 35. Business benefits of EA <ul><li>Agility of enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Product time to market </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible sourcing of value chain components </li></ul><ul><li>Improved and consistent information exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Risk reduction </li></ul>
    33. 36. Financial benefits of EA <ul><li>Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Time savings </li></ul><ul><li>Lower support cost </li></ul><ul><li>Lower acquisition cost </li></ul><ul><li>Technical adaptability </li></ul>
    34. 37. The Architecture Team
    35. 38. Information Architects do: <ul><li>Research & understand user requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Find the patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear </li></ul><ul><li>An information architect uses tools and methods to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the IA Process </li></ul>
    36. 39. Types of IA <ul><li>Top Down </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up </li></ul>
    37. 40. “ Top-down” IA <ul><li>It involves developing a broad understanding of the business strategies and user needs, before defining the high level structure of site, and finally the detailed relationships between content. </li></ul>
    38. 41. “ Bottom-up” IA <ul><li>It involves understanding the detailed relationships between content, creating walkthroughs (or storyboards) to show how the system could support specific user requirements and then considering the higher level structure that will be required to support these requirements. </li></ul>
    39. 42. <ul><li>Not mutually exclusive—every project includes both. </li></ul>
    40. 43. What does an architecture process give us? <ul><li>A better understanding of the problems involved in creating an infrastructure for the public sector </li></ul><ul><li>– Common services </li></ul><ul><li>– Quality of service </li></ul><ul><li>– Vendor co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>– Centralisation of services vs flexibility in </li></ul><ul><li>choice of services </li></ul>
    41. 44. Approach to Information Architecture <ul><li>Architecture design is a technically complex process, and the design of heterogeneous, multi-vendor architectures is particularly complex. So, there is a need to simplify such complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>But how??? </li></ul>
    42. 45. <ul><li>TOGAF will help </li></ul>
    43. 46. What is TOGAF? <ul><li>TOGAF is an architecture framework - The Open Group Architecture Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables you to design, evaluate, and build the right architecture for your organization. </li></ul>
    44. 47. Real life definition of TOGAF What TOGAF is What TOGAF is not Generic Perspective about how to customize the framework. Process driven Perspective, Artefact driven “ One size fits all organizations”. Specific to company size or to an industry Flexible Ontology Driven Set of conceptual tools Tool Providing generic deliverables Prescribing a specific set of deliverables.
    45. 48. TOGAF:Developing an architecture
    46. 49. TOGAF: Information Architecture Process <ul><li>TOGAF consists of three main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM), </li></ul><ul><li>The Enterprise Continuum </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Foundation Architecture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Standards Information Base (SIB), </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Technical Reference Model (TRM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Resource Base </li></ul>
    47. 50. TOGAF Framework concepts
    48. 51. The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) Figure : Architecture Development Cycle
    49. 52. Figure : Architecture Development Cycle - Expansion
    50. 53. The architecture development process needs to be linked into the organization
    51. 54. Information architecture’s impact on the business <ul><li>1. Customers consistently request: </li></ul><ul><li>Better retrievability </li></ul><ul><li>Solution-oriented information </li></ul><ul><li>A seamless information experience across products </li></ul>
    52. 55. <ul><li>2. Good information architecture can fulfill those requests and: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce total cost of ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce customer support calls </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce number of non-defect customer support issues (NDOPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase customer satisfaction </li></ul>
    53. 56. <ul><li>3. All information developers can work toward these goals in their information deliverables and contribute to the overall information architecture. </li></ul>
    54. 57. Use of Architecture Framework provides: <ul><li>speed </li></ul><ul><li>simplify architecture development, </li></ul><ul><li>ensure more complete coverage of the designed solution, and </li></ul><ul><li>make certain that the architecture selected allows for future growth in response to the needs of the business. </li></ul>
    55. 58. Worth reading
    56. 60. Related Subjects <ul><li>• Usability / User experience/Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>design </li></ul><ul><li>• Information design </li></ul><ul><li>• Graphic design </li></ul><ul><li>• Information technology / System Design </li></ul>
    57. 61. <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    58. 62. Wrap Up <ul><li>Contact information: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. A.K Ramani </li></ul><ul><li>Head SCSIT,DAVV(Indore) </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you and Good Luck…. </li></ul>