Database 1 Introduction


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Database 1 Introduction

  1. 1. <ul><li>WORKSHOP ON </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>A. K. RAMANI </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECTOR, IIPS, DAVV, INDORE </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>WELCOME
  2. 2. <ul><li>$ 10 Billion Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Shift of focus in research from Computation towards Information Management </li></ul><ul><li>Broadening application areas, like weather, genetic, entertainment, CAE, data warehousing, data mining, and decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in areas, like visualization, robotics, optical storage, high speed communications </li></ul>MOTIVATION
  3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Limited understanding of DB principles and techniques for advanced information management. </li></ul><ul><li>Next generation DBs will need MM support, complex objects, real-time, rule processing… </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation in Scientific, engineering, commercial problems will need large scale heterogeneous distributed DBs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements: Efficiency, Resilience, Access control, Persistence </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>DBMSs to organize, create, and maintain collections of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge is to apply DB technology in new and important areas in scientific databases, design databases, business, and utility databases and many more. </li></ul>CHALLENGE OF DB TECH.
  5. 5. <ul><li>An Instant Virtual Enterprise (IVE) is a group of companies, that do not routinely function as a unit, come together to respond to a proposal of CIM. The task involves CAD, production, QA, Product planning, resource management etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In such an environment it is necessary for IVE companies to exchange and cooperatively manage the large amount of data. </li></ul>SCENARIO
  6. 6. <ul><li>A personnel information system provides information tailored to an individual, and delivered via a GPS of laptop, and access internet from any where any time, from waking up to bed time. Weather report, day special events, appointments, diet, best route, news headlines, sporting events, best investments, list of tasks, start of sale, best air ticket, best return route, preview of next day, by querying remote DBs. </li></ul>SCENARIO
  7. 7. <ul><li>The aim of this workshop is to help you developing an understanding of database development techniques in information management applications, and become an expert database developer. </li></ul>AIM
  8. 8. <ul><li>To familiarize with the concept of database development. </li></ul><ul><li>To present the various steps in the approach to database development. </li></ul><ul><li>To see an example of a DBMS oriented approach. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Sequential Records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index for random Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open, Close, Read, Write, Delete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy, inconsistency, poor data sharing,low productivity etc. </li></ul></ul>FILE SYSTEM
  11. 11. A conventional File Processing System FILE SYSTEM
  12. 12. <ul><li>_ In file processing,each dept has own IS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For new system, new programs are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program data dependence - All program to be changed for any change in file designs ( Record Formats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplication – Data inconsistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Data Sharing – Incompatible files. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy Development Times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every new application start from scratch low productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High maintenance cost 80% cost </li></ul></ul>FILE SYSTEM
  13. 13. <ul><li>Hierarchical & Network Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex record structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to change application programs </li></ul></ul>DATABASE MODELS Program Class STD DORM STAFF Course Faculty Employee
  14. 14. <ul><li>Relational DB Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in Tables form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple SQL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example DB2,ORACLE,INGRESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to handle Complex data & Relation ships </li></ul></ul>RELATIONAL MODEL
  15. 15. <ul><li>Object Oriented Modeling </li></ul>DATABASE MODELS Program Class STD DORM STAFF Course Faculty Employee
  16. 16. OBJECT MODEL Student Name,DOB,GPA take Course ------ ------ Faculty Name,Rank Salary Advice Research ------ Course Title,Credit Pre requisite Class Time Assign Lab is advised by Take Teach
  17. 17. Object oriented model <ul><li>For complex Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>UML (Unified Modeling Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to maintain & Change </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Productivity </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce different concepts of DBMS, in context of Information System development. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define database & related terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand DBMS components , role & DBMS architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations of Conventional File System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce DB approach , ER concept , Categories of DB applications & issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage of DB approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of DBMS </li></ul></ul>INTRODUCTION TO DBMS
  19. 19. <ul><li>Database is a data bank, where data can be stored manipulated and retrieved in a speedy manner, efficiently and error free. </li></ul><ul><li>A database is a model of structures of reality </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a database reflect processes of reality </li></ul><ul><li>A database system is a software system which supports the definition and use of a database </li></ul><ul><li>DDL: Data Definition Language </li></ul><ul><li>DML: Data Manipulation Language </li></ul>WHAT IS A DATABASE <ul><li>REALITY </li></ul><ul><li>structures </li></ul><ul><li>processes </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM DATABASE DML DDL
  20. 20. <ul><li>Database is a representation of a part of real world in terms of computable objects. </li></ul><ul><li>E = {Object,Attributes,Data}, where E is an Entity. </li></ul><ul><li>D = {E 1 ,E 2 ,………E n }, where D is database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to implant changes in database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By using a set of software modules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS = Database + S/W modules </li></ul></ul>S/W DB Applications Tools Applications DB S/W Data Data Base Data base WHAT IS A DATABASE
  21. 21. <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a known (valued) fact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a value to an attribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be recorded on computer media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : This house has four rooms . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database = Object + data + attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can comprise of facts,which may include numeric,text, images, sound & multimedia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database is an organized collection of logically related data where data can be stored easily, manipulated,retrieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data becomes information when processed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta Data are data that describe the properties of data, include data definitions, data sizes, rules, constraints etc. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data - Stores facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information – Extracted & derived data for a specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBMS Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiently and reliably manages data storage, retrieval, data update (Insert, Modify, Delete) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automated Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For design,query and application development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Analysts & Application Programmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DB designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBA </li></ul></ul>DATABASE COMPONENTS
  23. 23. <ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a set of bytes to represent some values,lowest level of database ( or logical structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of logically related fields,records accessed via S/W </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of identical records,accessible via system software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of related files , accessed via system software. </li></ul></ul>DEFINITION
  24. 24. Insert Picture of slide 5
  25. 25. <ul><li>Use a DBMS when this is important </li></ul><ul><li>persistent storage of data </li></ul><ul><li>centralized control of data </li></ul><ul><li>control of redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>control of consistency and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>multiple user support </li></ul><ul><li>sharing of data </li></ul><ul><li>data documentation </li></ul><ul><li>data independence </li></ul><ul><li>control of access and security </li></ul><ul><li>backup and recovery </li></ul>WHEN TO USE DBMS
  26. 26. Do not use a DBMS when <ul><li>the initial investment in hardware, software, and training is too high </li></ul><ul><li>the generality a DBMS provides is not needed </li></ul><ul><li>the overhead for security, concurrency control, and recovery is too high </li></ul><ul><li>data and applications are simple and stable </li></ul><ul><li>real-time requirements cannot be met by it </li></ul><ul><li>multiple user access is not needed </li></ul>WHEN NOT TO USE DBMS
  27. 27. DBMS ARCHITECTURE Applications programs / Queries Software for queries / Programs Software to access data base Meta Data DB Transactions Database System Software Modules
  28. 28. <ul><li>The purpose of database design is to create a database which </li></ul><ul><li>is a model of structures of reality </li></ul><ul><li>supports queries and updates modeling processes of reality </li></ul><ul><li>runs efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>DB approach is total integration and sharing of data throughout the organization </li></ul>DATABASE DESIGN
  29. 29. <ul><li>Goal : Business Strategies supported upon IT 3 Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify strategic planning factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals : Growth Rate…….. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Success Factors : Quality,On-time….. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Areas : Competition…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Set priorities of needs of IS & DB </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify Corporate Planning objects </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Units – Various depts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locations – business places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Functions – business processes like product development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Entity Types : Categories of data about people,places & </li></ul><ul><li>things managed by company </li></ul><ul><li>5. Information System : Application S/W & supporting </li></ul><ul><li>procedures. </li></ul>IS PLANNING
  30. 30. <ul><li>Develop list of Entities that support the business activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An entity is an object/concept that is important to business, e,g, CUSTOMER,PRODUCT,EMPLOYEE,ORDER etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification & definition of Entities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Enterprise Data Model to show association among entities. Also called as E-R models. </li></ul>Customer Order Product Order Line Places is Placed by has is for Contains is contained in IS PLANNING
  31. 31. <ul><li>Entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer : People / Companies / potential customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order : Purchase of 1 or more items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product : Items produced for selling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order Line : Details of each product (quantity price ) sold on a particular customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply Business Rules For Relation Ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Customer places >= 1 Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each order is placed by one Customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each order contains >=1 L (ask slide 10) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each L is contained in One Customer Order (O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each product has >=1 L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each order line is for one product </li></ul></ul>IS PLANNING
  32. 32. <ul><li>ER Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells how organization functions and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes on data & process by considering data, relationships & business rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relational Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is viewed in form of tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tables are based upon entities of ER model and contains attributes of an entity and its instances (value) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few attributes are common among tables e.g. ID nos., Employee number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical and summarized information (ask it) data base is called Data Ware House ( D-Mgt ask it) to assist DSS. </li></ul><ul><li>Data base application program can perform actions like Create, Read, Update, Delete etc. </li></ul>IS PLANNING
  33. 33. <ul><li>Area of Application </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Work-Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for Work-Processes in the development of the application </li></ul>DATABASE DEVELOPMENT
  34. 34. <ul><li>Development of medium to large size data intensive applications </li></ul><ul><li>Data intensive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lots of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insertions, deletions, updates, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>queries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is medium to large? </li></ul><ul><li>Small is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>well-defined project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short development time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no long-term maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>few people; little turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no critical resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small risk of failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small cost of failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why only medium to large? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the methodology is an insurance policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost of using methodology is high </li></ul></ul>AREA OF APPLICATION
  35. 35. <ul><li>Business process is well-designed </li></ul><ul><li>Documents are known </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks are known </li></ul><ul><li>System boundary is known </li></ul><ul><li>One database schema unifying all views can be designed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult: interests, goals, power, politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with the methodology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with the organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or - gan - i - za - tion: “an entity created to pursue a shared set of goals” </li></ul></ul>PERSPECTIVE
  36. 36. <ul><li>Business process (re-)design </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>WORK PROCESSES Management
  37. 37. <ul><li>Purpose: what we do? </li></ul><ul><li>Input: what we start with? </li></ul><ul><li>Output: what we end with? </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: what we use? </li></ul><ul><li>Technique: how we use it? </li></ul><ul><li>Organization: who does what? </li></ul>GUIDELINES FOR WORK-PROCESSESE
  38. 38. <ul><li>waterfall model; this is not prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>iteration necessary </li></ul><ul><li>work vs. time vs. people </li></ul><ul><li>estimating resources is very difficult </li></ul>TIME AND MANAGEMENT work-process time analysis specification design implementation test
  39. 39. <ul><li>Type User Architecture Size </li></ul><ul><li>PC 1 Desktop Megabytes </li></ul><ul><li>WorkGroup 5-25 Client/Server (2 Tier) M-G bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Department 25-100 Client/Server (3 Tier) G bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise > 100 Client/server (Distributed) G-Terabytes </li></ul>CATEGORIES OF DB APPLICATION
  40. 40. <ul><li>Optimized Database Design </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity of Database </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy & Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Database Designs </li></ul>DATABASE ISSUE
  41. 41. <ul><li>Program-Data Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata & programmes are independent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimal Redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single logical structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each value stored on one place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To form report from more than 1 table </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Productivity in Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves cost/time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved Data Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Management approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplicity in Data Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select * from product where Product_name =“Computer” ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is a SQL command </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Y2k Problem </li></ul></ul>ADVANTAGES OF DB APPROACH
  42. 42. <ul><ul><li>Expensive New H/W , Operating Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Development/Implement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery more difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Conflicts strong top management support must. </li></ul></ul>DISADVANTAGES
  43. 43. <ul><li>Future Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object – Relational Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed to multiple locations,transparent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Addressable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface other technologies like AI, TV, Natural Language Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database & related terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DB approach,Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories,Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Trends </li></ul></ul>FUTURE TREND AND SUMMARY