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Conference kuala lumpur1

  1. 1. Information Architecture:An emerging 21st century profession<br />By :<br />Dr. A.K. Ramani<br />Prof. & Head SCSIT, DAVV, Indore(M.P.), India<br /><br />1<br />
  2. 2. AGENDA<br />Information<br />Notion of Design<br />Business and IT evolution<br /> Information Architecture<br /> IA vs. Design<br /> Need of IA<br /> Website Architecture<br /> Enterprise Architecture and its benefits<br /> Architecture team<br /> Types of IA<br /> Introduction to TOGAF<br /> Related subjects<br /> Wrap Up<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Information <br /><ul><li>The world isn’t run by weapons anymore…It is run by small bits of data…0’s and 1’s….
  4. 4. It’s not the one who has got the most bullets but one who controls the information…
  5. 5. What we SEE…What we HEAR…What we THINK…..</li></ul>IT”S ALL ABOUT INFORMATION.<br />3<br />
  6. 6. Information <br /><ul><li>More and more work depends upon effective use of Information
  7. 7. Novel ways of accessing information are seen in offices, home, society, etc.
  8. 8. More specialized, complex, more perplexing …
  9. 9. Thus, design and efficient communication are more challenging than ever, requiring great deal of time, practice and knowledge</li></ul>4<br />
  10. 10. Notion of Design<br /><ul><li>Separation of thinking and doing
  11. 11. Separation of manual and intellectual work
  12. 12. Separation of conceptual part of work from the labor process
  13. 13. Design-build process is more specialized
  14. 14. Can be clearly seen in building-architects and builders</li></ul>5<br />
  15. 15. Key Challenge: Towards a New Discipline<br />“Storage, retrieval and transmission of information has been a challenge since the evolution of human being”.<br />6<br />
  16. 16. Systems are complex<br />The purpose is to teach the machine as we think.<br />7<br />
  17. 17. Different perceptions<br />8<br />
  18. 18. Technology has progressed. It can do practically whatever people want it to do. <br />So why doesn’t everyone using a computer system have a large smile on their face?<br />9<br />
  19. 19. Yesterday’s Scenario<br />10<br />
  20. 20. Today’s Scenario<br />11<br />
  21. 21. Business Evolution<br /> Old System<br /> De-centralized<br /> Federation <br /> Retailer Push<br /> Large inventories<br /> Manual processes<br /> Buying/Selling<br /> Mass consumers<br />New System<br /> Group<br /> Cohesion<br /> Customer pull<br /> Just in time<br /> Automatic processes<br /> Category management<br /> Individual customers<br />12<br />
  22. 22. IT Evolution<br /> Old System<br /><ul><li>Mainframes
  23. 23. Novell
  24. 24. DOS
  25. 25. Own development
  26. 26. SNA, IPX, Paper
  27. 27. Unmanaged
  28. 28. Unresponsive
  29. 29. Cost</li></ul> New System<br /><ul><li>Unix
  30. 30. Windows NT
  31. 31. Windows ……
  32. 32. Application Packages
  33. 33. TCP/IP
  34. 34. Managed
  35. 35. Enabling change
  36. 36. Benefit</li></ul>13<br />
  37. 37. VerticalBusiness Processes<br />14<br />
  38. 38. Value Chains<br />15<br />
  39. 39. Technology/Business cycle times<br />16<br />
  40. 40. Why innovative system?<br />A rapidly changing technology and business landscape demands innovation and agility.<br />Innovation and agility provides value to the system.<br />17<br />
  41. 41. “Never innovate out of fear, but never fear to innovate”.<br />18<br />
  42. 42. Innovation lifecycle<br />19<br />
  43. 43. Big Question???? <br />How to evolve new innovative system from old system??<br />20<br />
  44. 44. Solution is…..<br />i.e. Architecture<br />21<br />
  45. 45. Architecture: A Thing of Harmony and Beauty<br /> Architecture -- the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings;<br /> Structure, Architecture -- the manner of construction of something and the disposition of its parts; ``artists must study the structure of the human body"; "the architecture of a computer's system software'' ) <br />Architecture – “It is a product of mind like a picture or a painting”.<br />22<br />
  46. 46. Architecture <br />+<br /> Information<br /> = <br />Information Architecture<br />23<br />
  47. 47. Mr. Wurman’s Definition<br />The individual who organizes patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear<br />A person who creates the structure or map of information which allows others to find their personal paths to knowledge<br />The emerging 21st century professional occupation addressing the needs of the age - focused on clarity, human understanding and the science of the organization of information<br />
  48. 48. Theses of Information Architecture<br /><ul><li>People need information.
  49. 49. More importantly, people need the right information at the right time. </li></ul>25<br />
  50. 50. Missing information<br />Lost sales -<br />Expensive support -<br />Duplicated effort -<br />Lost trust -<br />Lost lives?<br />26<br />
  51. 51. Why Information Architecture<br />Information Architecture helps make sure that business needs and user needs are met, leaving every one happy. <br />27<br />
  52. 52. Information Architecture includes<br />28<br />
  53. 53. IA vs. Design<br />Two sides of the same coin?<br />Each part of the other?<br />IA = one kind of design?<br />Design = one kind of IA? <br />29<br />
  54. 54. Is IA omnipresent??<br />Yes, it is..<br />30<br />
  55. 55. An enigma history of information architecture<br />Information architecture is as old as human communication.<br />Where there’s information, there’s architecture.<br />31<br />
  56. 56. What Does An Information Architecture Contain?<br />The information architecture contains information about a number of things of interest to the business. In its early stages of development, it contains information about:  <br />the current or planned organization structure,   <br />32<br />
  57. 57. What Does An Information Architecture Contain?<br />the goals of the organization,  <br />the business functions that must be carried on to achieve the goals, and  <br />the major categories of things (subjects) the organization needs information about in order to perform the functions.<br />33<br />
  58. 58. The most interesting architectures spring from problems of diversity:<br /><ul><li> Diversity of information
  59. 59. Diversity of audience
  60. 60. Diversity of modes of access
  61. 61. Diversity of use</li></ul>34<br />
  62. 62. Internet and IA<br /><ul><li>The Internet has changed how we live with information.
  63. 63. It has made ubiquitous the once rare entity: the shared information environment </li></ul>35<br />
  64. 64. The Architecture Team<br />36<br />
  65. 65. Information Architects do:<br />Research & understand user requirements<br />Find the patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear<br />An information architect manages IA process with appropriate tools.<br />Apply Experience<br />37<br />
  66. 66. Information Architect : Skills and experience needed<br />Strong customer focus<br />Product knowledge<br />Knowledge of information design principles<br />Three to five years of technical writing <br />agement and delivery<br />Good interpersonal skills<br />Knowledge of user needs and usability assessment techniques<br />Demonstrated ability to work in a team environment<br />Ability to perform needs analysis<br />38<br />
  67. 67. Approaches of IA<br /> Top Down <br /> Bottom Up<br />39<br />
  68. 68. “Top-down” IA<br />It involves developing a broad understanding of the business strategies and user needs, before defining the high level structure , <br />Finally the detailed relationships among contents.<br />40<br />
  69. 69. “Bottom-up” IA<br />It involves understanding the detailed relationships among contents, <br />Create walkthroughs (or storyboards) to show how the system could support specific user requirements and <br />Then consider the higher level structure that will be required to support these requirements. <br />41<br />
  70. 70. Top-Down OR Bottom-Up<br />Not mutually exclusive—every project includes both.<br />42<br />
  71. 71. What does an architectureprocess give us?<br />Sufficient reality in architectural design <br />Common services<br />Quality of service<br />Vendor co-operation<br />Centralisation of services vs. flexibility in choice of services<br />43<br />
  72. 72. The Challenge!!!!!!!<br />“Vorstellung”:<br />Imagining<br />Picturing<br />Conceptualizing<br />Visualizing<br />44<br />
  73. 73. Visualization<br />Visualization of product and its architecture.<br />Visualization of organization required to build it.<br />Visualization of the tools and techniques to achieve end objective.<br />45<br />
  74. 74. Developing system architecture is a tough way.<br />Don’t do it unless there is a need.<br />It is expensive.<br />It is a very difficult thing.<br />In fact, it is the most difficult of all.<br />46<br />- Szabolcs Michael De Gyurky<br />
  75. 75. TOGAF will help<br />47<br />
  76. 76. TOGAF provides an EASY and EFFICIENT approach towards defining an INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE<br />48<br />
  77. 77. Architecture Framework<br />TOGAF is an architecture framework - The Open Group Architecture Framework.<br />It enables you to design, evaluate, and build the right architecture for your organization.<br />49<br />
  78. 78. Real life definition of TOGAF<br />50<br />
  79. 79. TOGAF:Developing an architecture<br />51<br />
  80. 80. TOGAF: Information Architecture Process<br />TOGAF consists of three main parts:<br />The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM),<br />The Enterprise Continuum<br /><ul><li> The TOGAF Foundation Architecture
  81. 81. The TOGAF Standards Information Base (SIB),
  82. 82. The TOGAF Technical Reference Model (TRM)
  83. 83. The Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model</li></ul>The TOGAF Resource Base<br />52<br />
  84. 84. TOGAF Framework concepts<br />53<br />Ownership<br />
  85. 85. The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM)<br />Figure : Architecture Development Cycle<br />54<br />
  86. 86. Figure : Architecture Development Cycle - Expansion<br />55<br />
  87. 87. The architecture development process needs to be linked into the organization<br />56<br />
  88. 88. Why Architecture in Enterprise?<br /><ul><li> Be it a standalone site or an enterprise, the users need information, and they need it fast
  89. 89. It has to be secured and reliable
  90. 90. A typical enterprise has at least a few ERP systems and hundreds of other supporting systems
  91. 91. Information is duplicated, stale and retrieval is slow
  92. 92. Every extra minute spent on information gathering results in operational overhead</li></ul>57<br />
  93. 93. Why Architecture in Enterprise?.........<br /><ul><li>Information is mostly tied with Technology it resides on
  94. 94. Every enterprise has some master data which is core to its business
  95. 95. Sanctity and reliability of master data may determine success or failure for an organization
  96. 96. Master Data Management (MDM) is key</li></li></ul><li>A Financial Enterprise:<br /><ul><li> Global Presence</li></ul>Financial Centers at geographically dispersed locations (50+ countries)<br />Country/Local laws and regulations<br />30,000+ employees<br /><ul><li> Complex business processes</li></ul>Customer Financial Transactions<br />Banking Transactions<br />Corporate Processes<br />International Transactions<br />
  97. 97. A Financial Enterprise …<br /><ul><li>Master Data
  98. 98. Customer Data
  99. 99. Vendor/Supplier Data
  100. 100. Banking Data
  101. 101. Dozens of ERP systems
  102. 102. Hundreds of Master data systems (duplication of information – result of build as you go)
  103. 103. Thousands of applications and information systems (integration is a nightmare!)</li></ul>60<br />
  104. 104. A Financial Enterprise – Solution:<br /><ul><li>Driven by changing business (Bank holding company)
  105. 105. Overall Enterprise Architecture is being worked on by CTO organization
  106. 106. An architecture roadmap and reference architecture (RA) is being developed (TOGAF is being evaluated)
  107. 107. Individual technology teams are developing their own roadmaps (Remember it is a BIG organization)
  108. 108. Roadmaps are then used to prepare Information strategies (Disbursement, Financial strategy, Sub-ledger strategy etc.)
  109. 109. Consolidation of Master Data - development of “Source of Truth” data storages
  110. 110. SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) based integration architecture
  111. 111. A long-term strategy</li></ul>61<br />
  112. 112. An Ocean Transportation Company:<br /><ul><li> A mid-size company
  113. 113. 5000+ employees
  114. 114. Multiple locations within US
  115. 115. Children companies (in supporting businesses)
  116. 116. Medium complexity business processes (it is all relative )
  117. 117. International shipments, laws, regulations
  118. 118. Integration with Rail-roads, Inter-modal (Trucking, other carriers)
  119. 119. Online tracking - Ship & shipment locations
  120. 120. Backend financial processes
  121. 121. Disburse Master Data (duplication) – result of build as you go</li></ul>62<br />
  122. 122. An Ocean Transportation Company – <br />Solution:<br /><ul><li> Re-architecting of what is important for the enterprise (From legacy to multi-tier architecture)
  123. 123. Data-warehouse and Data-mart based architecture for information
  124. 124. Master data management – ETL based integration
  125. 125. Business Intelligence solution for easy retrieval
  126. 126. Services based integration at the business processes level
  127. 127. A work in progress</li></ul>63<br />
  128. 128. A Health Insurance Organization:<br /><ul><li>One of the top Insurance companies
  129. 129. Multiple locations
  130. 130. Millions of clients
  131. 131. Complex business processes
  132. 132. Privacy and Security is the key
  133. 133. Separation of data and access to it drives the architecture
  134. 134. Health industry regulations based processes
  135. 135. Master Data
  136. 136. Clients, Doctors, Hospitals
  137. 137. Out of Network Doctors/Hospitals,
  138. 138. Health regulations
  139. 139. But… still duplication of information (as a result of…?)
  140. 140. Complex business Rules and their application on data</li></li></ul><li>A Health Insurance Organization – <br />Solution:<br /><ul><li>Revamping of Business and Technology organizations (as a result of some business setbacks)
  141. 141. Work in progress on a Reference Architecture (RA) and an Enterprise Architecture
  142. 142. Master Data Management
  143. 143. Consolidation of master data,
  144. 144. Security based access
  145. 145. Mapping of Business processes to application services
  146. 146. Integration of Health industry standards and regulations into new Business processes rather than as an add-on</li></li></ul><li>Key Points To Remember:<br /><ul><li>In an Enterprise, architecture is driven by business (users, processes, adaptation to changes etc.)
  147. 147. Information Architecture is not a stand-alone entity, it is a part of Enterprise Architecture
  148. 148. Even in case of individual web-sites, it is driven by business architecture and user experience
  149. 149. Architecting is a continuous process (more of a circular process)
  150. 150. Technology and business innovations are taking place periodically – resulting in new strategies for Information Architecture</li></li></ul><li>Information architecture’s impact on business<br />1. Customers consistently request:<br />Better retrievability<br />Solution-oriented information<br />A seamless information experience <br /> across products<br />67<br />
  151. 151. Information architecture’s impact on the business<br />2. Good information architecture can fulfill those requests and: <br />Reduce total cost of ownership<br />Reduce customer support calls<br />Reduce number of non-defect <br /> customer support issues (NDOPs)<br />Increase customer satisfaction<br />68<br />
  152. 152. Information architecture’s impact on the business<br />3. All information developers can work toward these goals in their information deliverables and contribute to the overall information architecture.<br />69<br />
  153. 153. Conclusions<br />IA is a rapidly emerging field concerned with the art and science of applying many approaches to the design of IS<br />Several disciplines have to merge to architect the right systems<br />Inf. Architect to develop Information structures usable at multiple levels of interaction among humans, machine and environment<br />70<br />
  154. 154. Conclusions<br />Information architecture is first an act, then a practice, then a discipline. <br />Sharing the practice grows the discipline, and makes it stronger. <br />A 21st Century Profession; Information Architect<br />71<br />
  155. 155. Worth reading<br />72<br />
  156. 156. 73<br />
  157. 157. Related Subjects<br />• Usability / User experience/Interaction<br /> design<br />• Information design<br />• Graphic design<br />• Information technology / System Design<br />74<br />
  158. 158. Questions<br />75<br />
  159. 159. Wrap Up<br />Contact information:<br /> Dr. A.K Ramani<br /> Head SCSIT,DAVV(Indore)<br /> email:<br /> Thank you and Good Luck….<br />76<br />