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Wireless sensor-networks


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Wireless sensor-networks

  1. 1. PRESENTED BYS.RAMANATHANI B.C.AWireless Sensor Networks: ADetailed Survey
  2. 2. CONTENTS2IntroductionApplications of sensor networksFactors influencing sensor network designCommunication architecture of sensor networksConclusion
  3. 3. Introduction3A sensor network is composed of a large numberof sensor nodes, which are densely deployedeither inside the phenomenon or very close to it.Random deploymentCooperative capabilities
  4. 4. Applications of sensor networks4TemperatureHumidityVehicular movementLightning conditionPressureSoil makeupNoise levelsThe presence or absence of certain kinds of objectsMechanical stress levels on attached objectsThe current characteristics such as speed, direction, andsize of an object
  6. 6. Applications of sensor networks6Military applicationsMonitoring friendly forces, equipment andammunitionBattlefield surveillanceReconnaissance of opposing forces and terrainBattle damage assessmentNuclear, biological and chemical attack detectionand reconnaissance
  7. 7. Applications of sensor networks7Environmental applicationsForest fire detectionFlood detectionPrecision agriculture
  8. 8. Applications of sensor networks8Health applicationsTele monitoring of human physiological dataTracking and monitoring patients and doctors insidea hospitalDrug administration in hospitalsHome applicationsHome automationSamrt environment
  9. 9. Factors influencing sensor network design9Fault tolerance Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensornetwork functionalities without any interruptiondue to sensor node failures. The fault tolerance level depends on theapplication of the sensor networksScalability Scalability measures the density of the sensornodes.
  10. 10. Factors influencing sensor network design10Production costsThe cost of a single node is very important tojustify the overall cost of the networks.The cost of a sensor node is a very challengingissue given the amount of functionalities with aprice of much less than a dollar.
  11. 11. Factors influencing sensor network design11Hardware constraints
  12. 12. Factors influencing sensor network design12Sensor network topologyPre-deployment and deployment phasePost-deployment phaseRe-deployment of additional nodes phase
  13. 13. Factors influencing sensor network design13Transmission mediaIn a sensor network, communicating nodes arelinked by a wireless medium. To enable globaloperation, the chosen transmission mediummust be available worldwide. Radio infrared optical media
  14. 14. Factors influencing sensor network design14Power consumptionSensingCommunicationData processing
  15. 15. Communication architecture of sensor networks15
  16. 16. Communication architecture of sensor networks16
  17. 17. Communication architecture of sensor networks17Application layerThe three possible application layer protocols are -Sensor management protocol (SMP)Task assignment and data advertisement protocol(TADAP)Sensor query and data dissemination protocol(SQDDP)
  18. 18. Communication architecture of sensor networks18Transport layerThis layer is especially needed when the system isplanned to be accessed through Internet or otherexternal networks.No attempt thus far to propose a scheme or todiscuss the issues related to the transport layer of asensor network in literature.
  19. 19. Communication architecture of sensor networks19Network layerPower efficiency is always an importantconsideration.Data aggregation is useful only when it does nothinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes.An ideal sensor network has attribute-basedaddressing and location awareness.
  20. 20. Communication architecture of sensor networks20Data aggregation
  21. 21. Communication architecture of sensor networks21Data link layerThe data link layer is responsible for the mediumaccess and error control. It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in acommunication network.Medium access controlCreation of the network infrastructureFairly and efficiently share communication resourcesbetween sensor nodes
  22. 22. Communication architecture of sensor networks22Power saving modes of operationOperation in a power saving mode is energy efficientonly if the time spent in that mode is greater than acertain threshold.Error controlForward Error Correction (FEC)Automatic Repeat Request (ARR)Simple error control codes with low-complexityencoding and decoding might present the bestsolutions for sensor networks.
  23. 23. Communication architecture of sensor networks23Physical layerThe physical layer is responsible for frequency selection,frequency generation, signal detection, modulation anddata encryption.CONCULSIONFlexibility and fault tolerance create exciting newapplications for remote sensingIn future the wide range of applications will make sensornetworks an integral part of our livesTHANK YOU
  24. 24. 24ANYQUERYS?