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Some Impressionistic takes from the book of
Ms. Carol Dweck
“Mindset”- The new psychology of Success
by Ramki – ramaddster...
About the Author
Carol S. Dweck, Ph.D., is one of the world’s leading
researchers in the field of motivation and is the Le...
Prelude
This book has a simple premise: The world is divided between people who are open
to learning and those who are clo...
In this summary, you will learn:
 The differences between a fixed mindset and a
growth mindset;
 Why the growth mindset ...
1
The Mindsets
Political Leader
Winston Churchill
 REPEATED a grade
during elementary school
 He was placed in the
LOWEST division of t...
Composer
 Beethoven’s teacher
called him a
HOPELESS
composer
 If someone said that
about your child,
would you suggest
y...
Writer
Leo Tolstoy
 Dropped out of college
 He was described as
both “UNABLE and
unwilling to LEARN"
Business Leader
Warren Buffett (second
richest man in the world)
 Failed to get into
Harvard Business
School
 What if he...
Role models
 Einstein's teacher said that he was ‘academically
subnormal’
 Michael Jordan's coach said that he wasn’t mo...
‘People are made, not
born’
The Growth Mind-set
 Belief about ability
 Affects decisions related to learning
 Fixed mindset ––intelligence is a fixed trait
 Growth mi...
Two Mind-sets
Growth Mind-set
 Some people are more intelligent, more thoughtful or more
adventuresome than others.
 For years, expert...
Growth Mind-set
 They believe that the future offers opportunities to grow, even
during challenging times.
 To show the ...
 Each person starts with a unique genetic endorsement, but research says that experience, training &
personal effort take...
2
Inside the Mindsets
Two Mindsets- Understanding
 Learning & understanding about the two mindsets it
is crucial to remember that you have a ch...
Views of Success, Interest & Intelligence
 Everyone is born a learner—that is, with a growth mindset.
Babies push themsel...
The Mindsets & Failure
 The mindsets also affect how people view failure. When you have
a fixed mindset, failure defines ...
Inside the Mindsets
3
The Truth about the Ability
& Accomplishment
Truth – Ability & Accomplishment
 There are many myths about ability and
achievement. This chapter is about the real
ingr...
 The same is often true of praise and
positive/negative labels.
 When people are praised for their ability, they may
be ...
 Children with a Growth mindset don’t give up when they fail. They discover
learning strategies to overcome challenges (f...
“Ability is often over-rated. Even in exceptionally
able people, the grind they put themselves
through often goes un-notic...
4
The Sports- The Mindset of a Champion
Mindset of Sports Champion
 In the world of sports, the fixed mindset – the belief that
natural talent is the key to succ...
Mindset of Sports Champion
 They often prefer to think of themselves as the “star.”
 According to the author, however, t...
Mindset of Sports Champion
 Believe true success is found in learning & improving.
 In contrast, athletes with the fixed...
Several cases* where the mindset is often the difference between
champions and the ones that never made it
 Sachin Tendul...
 Michael Jordan, was dropped from his initial selection trials
at college and club level. Talented sportsman but arguably...
5
Business – Mindset &
Leadership
Mindset & Leadership
 Successful business leaders typically possess a growth
mindset. Rather than trying to prove they ar...
Mindset & Leadership
Fixed Mind Leaders
 Leo Iacocca:
 After basking in the favor of the Ford company’s head,
Henry Ford II, Iacocca was enra...
Fixed Mindset Leaders
 Jerry Levin and Steve Case:
 AOL’s Steve Case and Time Warner’s Jerry Levin
both led their compan...
Growth Mindset Leaders
 Jack Welch:
 As CEO of GE, Welch increased the company’s value
from $14 billion to $490 billion ...
Jim Collins (Good to Great) analyzed high performing
companies that created sustained value. The leaders that
came on top...
6
Relationships-Mindset in
Love (or not)
Relationship
7
Parents, Teachers &
Coaches- Where do
mindsets come from?
Parents, Teachers & Coaches- Where do mindsets come from ?
8
Changing Mindsets
 Mindsets frame the running account that constantly takes
place in people’s heads. These mindsets guide the whole
interpr...
 The more you challenge yourself, the more the brain grows.
When students learn this they end up feeling empowered to
kno...
Changing Mindsets
Nobody looks at a baby and says it is dumb. It hasn’t learnt yet!
Take-Away -1/2
 People have either a fixed or a growth mindset.
 People who believe their personal qualities are
unchang...
Take-Away -2/2
 Children who are praised for their intelligence tend to
adopt a fixed mindset and reject new challenges.
...
Mail your comments to ramaddster&gmail.com
Mindset
Mindset
Mindset
Mindset
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Mindset

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Most people believe personality traits are fixed characteristics that are present at birth and persist throughout an individual’s lifetime. Recent research, however, indicates these “fixed” traits are simply the symptoms of a person’s belief system. These beliefs can be so strong, in fact, that they positively or negatively influence every aspect of an individual’s life: sports, business, relationships, parenting, teaching, and coaching.

According to Carol S. Dweck, one of the world’s leading researchers in the field of motivation, there are two main belief systems, or mindsets, that people can possess. These mindsets strongly influence the way individuals respond to success and failure, and in Mindset, Dweck uses research, examples of well-known business and sports leaders, and specific scenarios to demonstrate how changing one’s mindset can profoundly affect the outcome of almost every situation. Dweck also explains how understanding the basics of mindsets can help in accepting and understanding relationships and the people who comprise them

Published in: Self Improvement

Mindset

  1. 1. Some Impressionistic takes from the book of Ms. Carol Dweck “Mindset”- The new psychology of Success by Ramki – ramaddster@gmail.com
  2. 2. About the Author Carol S. Dweck, Ph.D., is one of the world’s leading researchers in the field of motivation and is the Lewis and Virginia Eaton Professor of Psychology at Stanford University. Her research has focused on why people succeed and how to foster success. She has held professorships at Columbia and Harvard Universities, has lectured all over the world, and has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her scholarly book Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development was named Book of the Year by the World Education Federation. Her work has been featured in such publications as The New Yorker, Time, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Boston Globe, and she has appeared on Today and 20/20.
  3. 3. Prelude This book has a simple premise: The world is divided between people who are open to learning and those who are closed to it, and this trait affects everything from your worldview to your interpersonal relationships. Author and psychology professor Carol S. Dweck has scoured research papers and news clippings to extract anecdotes about the pros and cons of both mindsets. Thus, stories about Michael Jordan, Lee Iacocca, John McEnroe, Wilma Rudolph and Babe Ruth, among others, find a place in this book. Dweck addresses the ways that mindsets have an impact on people. She explains that you can have a closed mindset in regard to some traits and an open mindset in regard to others. The thought-provoking insight comes from learning when you need to adjust your mindset to move ahead. The author extends her basic point by viewing all areas of human relationships through the prism of mindset. This synopsis would be useful and illuminating even if it applied only to leadership and management.
  4. 4. In this summary, you will learn:  The differences between a fixed mindset and a growth mindset;  Why the growth mindset conveys more positive lifelong opportunities; and  How mindsets affect leadership styles
  5. 5. 1 The Mindsets
  6. 6. Political Leader Winston Churchill  REPEATED a grade during elementary school  He was placed in the LOWEST division of the LOWEST class  Do you think his parents were worried about his potential?
  7. 7. Composer  Beethoven’s teacher called him a HOPELESS composer  If someone said that about your child, would you suggest your child try a different activity?
  8. 8. Writer Leo Tolstoy  Dropped out of college  He was described as both “UNABLE and unwilling to LEARN"
  9. 9. Business Leader Warren Buffett (second richest man in the world)  Failed to get into Harvard Business School  What if he took that to mean he should not be in business?
  10. 10. Role models  Einstein's teacher said that he was ‘academically subnormal’  Michael Jordan's coach said that he wasn’t more talented than other people…  Walt Disney was told that he lacked ‘creative imagination’  J.K. Rowling was told her story would never sell
  11. 11. ‘People are made, not born’ The Growth Mind-set
  12. 12.  Belief about ability  Affects decisions related to learning  Fixed mindset ––intelligence is a fixed trait  Growth mindset ––intelligence can be trained; the brain is a ““growth organ”
  13. 13. Two Mind-sets
  14. 14. Growth Mind-set  Some people are more intelligent, more thoughtful or more adventuresome than others.  For years, experts attributed such differences to each individual's combination of environment, physiology and genetic makeup. But other factors help determine individual characteristics, including traits that stem from having a "fixed" or "growth" mindset.  Those who view their personality or intelligence as unshakable have a "fixed mindset."  They believe that neither personality nor intelligence is subject to change and they feel the need to prove themselves constantly in all situations.  People with a fixed mindset often develop this outlook at an early age, usually due to some influence from their teachers or parents. Alternately, people with a "growth mindset" believe that they can improve or change their personality characteristics over time.
  15. 15. Growth Mind-set  They believe that the future offers opportunities to grow, even during challenging times.  To show the differences between fixed and growth mindsets, an interviewer asked people what they would do if they got a C+ on a midterm exam and then got a parking ticket.  Faced with accumulated events, people with fixed mindsets said this situation would prove that "the world is out to get me" or that they were losers or idiots.  People with growth mindsets said they would work harder in school and park more carefully.
  16. 16.  Each person starts with a unique genetic endorsement, but research says that experience, training & personal effort take them rest of the way.  Major factor in whether people achieve expertise is not some fixed prior ability but purposeful engagement.  The view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the way you lead your life  Your mindset can fundamentally affect how you deal with situations and develop over time “You can change your mindset. It is not hard-wired Key Assertions
  17. 17. 2 Inside the Mindsets
  18. 18. Two Mindsets- Understanding  Learning & understanding about the two mindsets it is crucial to remember that you have a choice.  Even if your mindsets are fixed in some areas, they are beliefs and can be changed.  If you can change your mind you can change your mindsets.  This is important because mindsets affect many aspects of life—how you view success and failure, the effort you put into what you do, how you approach a challenge, how you communicate with your students, and more.
  19. 19. Views of Success, Interest & Intelligence  Everyone is born a learner—that is, with a growth mindset. Babies push themselves to do incredibly challenging tasks like learning to walk and talk, and they don’t give up but plow ahead.  So what changes when these same children later stop following their natural desire to learn?  Dweck maintains they become afraid of not being “smart” and develop a fixed mindset which hinders their ability to want to learn challenging things. They are afraid that struggling means they are not smart and stop doing things that are challenging.  This chapter gives numerous examples of studies and instances that illustrate how differing mindsets affected people’s interest, attentiveness, and ability to learn..
  20. 20. The Mindsets & Failure  The mindsets also affect how people view failure. When you have a fixed mindset, failure defines who you are. Failure gets transformed from an action (I failed) to an identity (I am a failure).  Of course failure can be painful if you have a growth mindset as well, but it doesn’t completely define you. It’s a problem or a setback to be faced and learned from.  Those with the growth mindset often use the failure to improve themselves. So, how do those with fixed mindsets respond to failure?  Dweck found that these responses were often negative (apathy, blaming others, making excuses, depression) because the people did not believe they were able to change their situation.  When people were taught the growth mindset, it changed the way they reacted when they got depressed. Mindsets are an important part of who you are, and they can be changed.
  21. 21. Inside the Mindsets
  22. 22. 3 The Truth about the Ability & Accomplishment
  23. 23. Truth – Ability & Accomplishment  There are many myths about ability and achievement. This chapter is about the real ingredients of achievement and what makes some people achieve less and some more.  Many people think achievement comes effortlessly to talented people, but that is not typical.  The fixed mindset limits achievement, fills people’s minds with interfering thoughts, and turns other people into judges instead of allies.
  24. 24.  The same is often true of praise and positive/negative labels.  When people are praised for their ability, they may be afraid of damaging that perception if they struggle and stop challenging themselves.  Conversely, when people are praised for their hard work, they often embrace future challenges.  Overall, a growth mindset encourages people to develop their minds fully by embracing challenges and avoiding limiting thoughts which might hold them back. Truth – Ability & Accomplishment
  25. 25.  Children with a Growth mindset don’t give up when they fail. They discover learning strategies to overcome challenges (find patterns in mistakes, develop better coping strategies etc.).  They turn the external world into allies to help them with the learning (instead of looking at others as judges)  Several greats started out as average  Mozart produced average work for 10 years before belting out his classics  Thomas Edison was an average school kid who was persistent and had the growth orientation  Charles Darwin was collecting samples from when he was a kid; Many people don’t know his persistence and determination through the years  What any person in the world can learn, almost all others can learn (except for 2-5% of the people who have a severe handicap) if provided with the appropriate conditions for learning  Artistic ability – long considered as a “gift” can be taught. It is more about “seeing” better. (Read “Drawing on the right size of the brain” for context) Truth – Ability & Accomplishment
  26. 26. “Ability is often over-rated. Even in exceptionally able people, the grind they put themselves through often goes un-noticed”
  27. 27. 4 The Sports- The Mindset of a Champion
  28. 28. Mindset of Sports Champion  In the world of sports, the fixed mindset – the belief that natural talent is the key to success – is dominant. It is common for coaches, scouts, fans, and athletes to believe that to be the best, you must be “a natural.”  However, modern sports history shows this is not true. Muhammad Ali, Michael Jordan, Babe Ruth, Wilma Rudolph,  Jackie Joyner-Kersee, and Maury Wills all demonstrate that superior athletic achievement is not due to natural talent alone – it is also heavily linked to effort and practice.  In fact, athletes for whom skill comes easily with little work often never learn to connect performance with hard work. In addition, they may find it much more difficult to see themselves as a member of a team of other athletes or with assisting coaches and staff.
  29. 29. Mindset of Sports Champion  They often prefer to think of themselves as the “star.”  According to the author, however, the best athletes display some common qualities in competition: when they experience setbacks or challenges and become vulnerable, they refuse to blame others or outside circumstances for their problems. Instead, they find enough resolve within themselves to come back and triumph. It is this mental toughness that allows these athletes to succeed when other, possibly more talented athletes, cannot.  In studies conducted by sports researcher Stuart Biddle and his colleagues, athletes with the growth mindset were found to be more likely to display the mental toughness needed to succeed than athletes with the fixed mindset. The growth mindset athletes shared three common attitudes toward success, failure, and effort.
  30. 30. Mindset of Sports Champion  Believe true success is found in learning & improving.  In contrast, athletes with the fixed mindset see success as an establishment of their superiority in their sport. They cannot be content with personal growth over winning.  See setbacks as powerful motivators.  With the growth mindset, athletes are able to see even the most embarrassing failures as learning experiences.  Fixed mindset athletes, however, see failures as shameful and labeling.  Are active in their progressive improvement.  These athletes strive to continually hone their skills and stay on top of their game. Since fixed mindset athletes see  their successes more as a manifestation of their natural abilities, they are less likely to take an active role in improving themselves.
  31. 31. Several cases* where the mindset is often the difference between champions and the ones that never made it  Sachin Tendulkar vs Vinod Kambli (video – Final Speech of Sachin Tendulkar after his last test match – Illustrates his growth mindset) – He talks about analyzing how he got out so that he could improve if he came back to bat.  Vinod Kambli, who was often considered more talented than Sachin, had a good start but stumbled when he had a rough patch. He had a higher Test Batting average than Sachin.  Roger Federer, when asked about the secret behind his successful run in 2014 after people had written him off in 2013, spoke about the hard work he did in the off-season (in the winter of 2013). We think he is the most gifted player ever but we miss out on all the hard work that goes on in the background Mindset of Sports Champion
  32. 32.  Michael Jordan, was dropped from his initial selection trials at college and club level. Talented sportsman but arguably the hardest working of all  Some themes  Sportspeople with a growth mindset found the training as much fun as the accomplishment.  Fixed mindset people thought working hard casts doubts over your talent  Growth mindset people acknowledge the role of a team (even in a solo sport like Tennis, Swimming, Golf, Chess etc.). They are able to get the most out of the resources at their disposal Mindset of Sports Champion
  33. 33. 5 Business – Mindset & Leadership
  34. 34. Mindset & Leadership  Successful business leaders typically possess a growth mindset. Rather than trying to prove they are better than others, they focus on trying to improve.  Leaders with a fixed mindset believe that some people are superior and others are inferior and their companies are a reflection of their own superiority. These leaders don’t bother building strong, collaborative teams because they may see themselves as geniuses who only need helpers to implement their ideas.  A danger this type of business leader faces is the development of “group speak” within the organization which can discourage creativity and limit improvement.  Business leaders who have a growth mindset are more likely to encourage similar mindsets among employees, thereby encouraging innovation, hard work, and productivity.
  35. 35. Mindset & Leadership
  36. 36. Fixed Mind Leaders  Leo Iacocca:  After basking in the favor of the Ford company’s head, Henry Ford II, Iacocca was enraged when he was forced out of the company.  He rehabilitated Chrysler largely to prove himself to Henry Ford.  Though he was successful, he became obsessed with his public image and worried that lower employees might receive more praise than him. As a result, Chrysler suffered.  Albert Dunlap:  Albert Dunlap focused exclusively on business profits as a means to improve his self-image.  He did not invest in long-term strategies, instead putting his energies into short-term strategies that would increase stock prices.  When Dunlap stayed to head Sunbeam, his short-term outlook did not work: the company collapsed and Dunlap was forced out.
  37. 37. Fixed Mindset Leaders  Jerry Levin and Steve Case:  AOL’s Steve Case and Time Warner’s Jerry Levin both led their companies with the fixed mindset.  The two were convinced of their superiority and remained intolerant to criticism.  When their companies merged, their power struggle gave AOL Time Warner the biggest yearly financial loss in American history in 2002  Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling:  Both Lay and Skilling saw themselves as profoundly more intelligent than the rest of their employees, and they acted with a harshness and condescension that matched that belief.  The two were so confident in their infallible business sense they began to record Enron profits for business ventures that had not yet generated any revenue.
  38. 38. Growth Mindset Leaders  Jack Welch:  As CEO of GE, Welch increased the company’s value from $14 billion to $490 billion in 20 years.  Welch emphasized teamwork & stayed in constant contact with employees right down to the front-line factory workers.  Welch learned from early business mistakes to be open to change and constant improvement, to act as a supportive guide – not a judge – to his workers, and to reward kindness and cooperation in managers and supervisors.  Lou Gerstner:  When he became the CEO of IBM in 1993, Gerstner fostered a culture of teamwork by taking power away from upper-level management and preventing separate sales divisions from working against one another. Before Gerstner, IBM had become a company deaf to its customers’ needs; Gerstner restored quality customer service as the organization’s main focus.
  39. 39. Jim Collins (Good to Great) analyzed high performing companies that created sustained value. The leaders that came on top were more of the self-effacing types (not the charismatic types) who could confront brutal answers. They had a Kaizen mindset and asked more questions than had answers. If you praise the smartest idea, then it leads to Fixed Mindset. If you praise effort and right behavior you are trying to cultivate Mindset & Leadership
  40. 40. 6 Relationships-Mindset in Love (or not)
  41. 41. Relationship
  42. 42. 7 Parents, Teachers & Coaches- Where do mindsets come from?
  43. 43. Parents, Teachers & Coaches- Where do mindsets come from ?
  44. 44. 8 Changing Mindsets
  45. 45.  Mindsets frame the running account that constantly takes place in people’s heads. These mindsets guide the whole interpretation process.  A fixed mindset creates beliefs focused on judgment.  A growth mindset creates beliefs focused on change.  It is possible to help people/students replace the judging going on in their heads with a growth mindset in which they ask, “What can I learn from this? How can I improve?” Simply teaching about the mindsets helps people to shift their thinking about intelligence and talent.  The brain does not have a fixed amount of intelligence. Instead, it is more like a muscle in that it changes and gets stronger when used. Changing Mindsets
  46. 46.  The more you challenge yourself, the more the brain grows. When students learn this they end up feeling empowered to know they can be in charge of the growth of their own brains.  Changing your mindset doesn’t occur by learning a few tricks, however.  The goal is for students to change from a judge-and-be- judged framework to a learn-and-help-learn framework.  Students benefit when adults model this mindset, make comments that reflect a growth mindset, and who reward student behavior that aligns with a growth mindset. Changing Mindsets
  47. 47. Changing Mindsets Nobody looks at a baby and says it is dumb. It hasn’t learnt yet!
  48. 48. Take-Away -1/2  People have either a fixed or a growth mindset.  People who believe their personal qualities are unchangeable have a "fixed mindset."  People who believe they can improve or change their personality traits over time have a "growth mindset."  People with a growth mindset believe that the future presents an opportunity to grow, even during challenging times.  Mindsets produce definite worldviews, but they can be changed.
  49. 49. Take-Away -2/2  Children who are praised for their intelligence tend to adopt a fixed mindset and reject new challenges.  Jack Welch, who had a growth mindset, took over GE in 1980 when the company was valued at $14 billion; 20 years later, it had a $490-billion valuation.  Athletes with a growth mindset build strong characters by challenging themselves.  Historically company executives who hold fixed mindsets and regard themselves as geniuses or visionaries do not build great teams.  Coaching and teaching about mindset are the best ways to boost kids' self-esteem.
  50. 50. Mail your comments to ramaddster&gmail.com

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