● Integumentary simply means “covering” or “enclosing.”
● The epidermis can absorb fat-soluble substances. ● Only substances that are soluble in both lipids and water can penetrate both the epidermis and dermis. ● Common chemicals that meet this criterion include organic (i.e., carbon-containing) solvents such as paint thinner; benzene, a carcinogenic component of gasoline; mercury, which is no longer permitted in nonprescription thermometers; and nicotine, a culprit in many throat, mouth, and tongue cancers.
● A dermal-epidermal junction helps glue these two regions together.
● How do skin cells die naturally? The formation of new layers of cells pushes existing cells of the epidermis upward. As the cells move further away from their source of nutrition, they starve and die.
● What is the dual purpose of the waterproofing properties of the keratinocytes? Their purpose is to keep water in and to keep water out.
● Vitiligo can be genetic or the result of trauma, such as a burn or scar, that has damaged the melanocytes. Vitiligo is the disease that Michael Jackson is said to have. ● The hair that grows in areas affected by vitiligo usually turns white also.
● What is another name for the layers of the epidermis? The layers of the epidermis are also known as strata. ● The cells of the stratum corneum become rehydrated and swell when immersed in water for long periods, resulting in wrinkled “prune” skin. Warm, soapy water enhances this effect by stripping the cells of their natural oils. This effect does not appear as dramatically in salt water.
● How do collagen and elastin change as we age? As we age, we lose collagen and elastin under the skin, which gives rise to wrinkles and flabby skin. UV exposure, poor nutrition, dehydration, and poor skin care accelerate this process.
● What is cyanosis? Cyanosis results from excessive amounts of deoxygenated blood. Too much bilirubin-Jaundice
● What causes white hair? Gray hair? White hair is often the result of air in the hair follicle. Gray hair occurs when the amount of melanin deposited in the hair decreases or is absent. Both of these processes are part of natural aging. ● Alopecia areata, an autoimmune disorder of unknown cause, can also make hair appear gray in a short time. In the early stages of alopecia, the darker, thicker hairs stop growing. Later, round bald patches may appear.
● There are two types of sudoriferous glands.
● How can the nails help the massage therapist understand the health of his or her client? According to the American Academy of Dermatology, nails are a barometer of health: White nails can indicate liver disease. Half-pink, half-white nails can indicate kidney disease. Red nail beds can accompany heart conditions. Thick, yellow nails and slow growth rate can be signs of lung disease. Pale nail beds might indicate anemia. People with diabetes might have yellowish nails with a pink or red tinge at the base.
● Fingernails grow three to four times faster than toenails, and the nails on a person’s dominant hand grow faster than those on the other hand.
● In which layer(s) of skin are each of these receptors located? Meissner corpuscles are located in the dermis, just below the epidermis. Ruffini’s corpuscles are located in the dermis. Pacinian corpuscles are located deep in the dermis, primarily in the hands and feet and in many joint capsules.
● In which layer(s) of skin are each of these receptors located? Krause end bulbs are found in mucous membranes. Merkel disks are located in the epidermis. Hair-follicle receptors are located in the dermis.
● Observing and reporting changes in moles is an added service of the massage therapist. ● Using the ABCDEF method will help you detect changing moles as they occur.
● Have students discuss the massage implications for each of the pathologies listed on these slides. ● Remind students to use standard precautions to clean up any body fluids or substances, such as from a boil (furuncle).
● What is a herpes simplex lesion commonly called when it appears near the mouth? Cold sore or fever blister ● Usually, herpes simplex type I is the virus responsible for oral and facial herpetic lesions, and herpes simplex type II causes genital herpes lesions, but either type can affect any location.